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INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL AND MINERAL ADMIXTURES ON as chemical admixture and palm oil fuel ash as...

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  • INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL AND MINERAL ADMIXTURES

    ON SHRINKAGE AND CREEP OF PREPACKED AGGREGATE CONCRETE

    HOSSEIN ASLANI

    A project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the

    requirements for the award of the degree of

    Master of Engineering (Civil - Structure)

    Faculty of Civil Engineering

    Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

    JUNE 2013

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    I would like to dedicate this project report

    to my beloved family

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    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    The author would wish to express his gratitude to Assoc. Prof. Dr. A.S.M.

    Abdul Awal as the supervisor for his great guidance and cooperation throughout this

    project. His technical and moral support during this project was admirable. Special

    thanks to the esteemed staff of the Laboratory of Structures and Materials of

    Universiti Teknologi Malaysia for their kind cooperation and technical assistance.

    Finally, I wish to thank my beloved wife and two lovely daughters for their

    cooperation and understanding during the course of this project of which would have

    not been completed on time without them.

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    ABSTRACT

    Prepacked aggregate concrete is a special kind of concrete which is produced

    by first placing the coarse aggregates inside the molds followed by injection of grout

    from underneath using pump or gravity method. The grout consists of sand, cement

    and water plus chemical and mineral admixtures. Two separate stages are included

    in this study: The first stage consists of manufacturing of grouts with superplastizer

    as chemical admixture and palm oil fuel ash as mineral admixture. Tests were

    conducted on grouts to examine bleeding, density, compressive strength,

    consistency, volume change properties. In the second stage, prepacked aggregate

    concrete samples were made following grouting by two methods: pump and gravity.

    Once the specimens were made, shrinkage and creep tests were performed following

    ASTM C512/C512 M-10. It has been found that the shrinkage and creep of

    prepacked aggregate concrete was lower than that of normal concrete in both gravity

    and pump specimens using chemical and mineral admixtures.

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    ABSTRAK

    Agregat konkrit Prepacked adalah sejenis khas konkrit yang dihasilkan

    dengan terlebih dahulu meletakkan agregat kasar dalam acuan diikuti dengan

    suntikan grout dari bawah dengan menggunakan pam atau kaedah graviti. Grout ini

    terdiri daripada pasir, simen dan air serta bahan tambah kimia dan mineral . Dua

    peringkat yang berasingan termasuk dalam kajian ini : Peringkat pertama terdiri

    daripada pembuatan grouts dengan superplastizer sebagai campuran bahan kimia

    dan abu bahan bakar minyak sawit sebagai bahan tambah mineral. Ujian dijalankan

    ke atas grouts untuk memeriksa pendarahan, ketumpatan, kekuatan mampatan,

    konsisten , harta perubahan kelantangan. Dalam peringkat kedua, prepacked sampel

    agregat konkrit telah dibuat berikutan grouting dengan dua kaedah : pam dan graviti.

    Setelah spesimen yang telah dibuat, pengecutan dan rayapan ujian telah dijalankan

    berikutan ASTM C512/C512 M- 10. Ia telah mendapati bahawa pengecutan dan

    rayapan konkrit agregat prepacked lebih rendah berbanding konkrit biasa dalam

    kedua-dua graviti dan spesimen pam menggunakan bahan tambah kimia dan

    mineral.

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    CHAPTER TITLE

    PAGE

    AUTHOR’S DECLARATION

    DEDICATION

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    ABSTRACT

    ABSTRAK

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    LIST OF TABLES

    LIST OF FIGURES

    LIST OF SYMBOLS

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    1 INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background to the research

    1.2 Problem Statement

    1.3 Objectives of Study

    1.4 Scope of Study

    1.5 Significance of Study

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    2 LITERATURE REVIEW

    2.1 Components of PAC

    2.1.1 Coarse Aggregate

    2.1.2 Fine Aggregate

    2.1.3 Cement

    2.2 Grouting Admixture

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    2.2.1 Superplasticiser

    2.2.2 Palm Oil Fuel Ash

    2.2.3 Chemical Composition of Palm Oil Fuel Ash

    2.2.4 Advantages of Palm Oil Fuel Ash

    2.2.5 Classification of Palm Oil Fuel Ash

    2.2.6 Preparation of Palm Oil Fuel Ash

    2.2.7 Effect of Palm Oil Fuel Ash on Mechanical

    Properties of Concrete

    2.2.8 Effect of Class C and Class F ash on

    Shrinkage

    2.2.9 Effect of Class C and Class F ash on Creep

    2.3 Mix Proportioning and Grouting Method

    2.3.1 Grout Mix Proportions

    2.3.2 Grouting of Mortar

    2.4 Physical Properties

    2.4.1 Creep in Normal Concrete and PAC

    2.4.2 Shrinkage in Normal Concrete and PAC

    2.5 Creep Related Factors

    2.5.1 Aggregate

    2.5.2 Water/Cement Ratio

    2.5.3 Relative Humidity

    2.5.4 Strength/Stress Ratio

    2.5.5 Age of loading

    2.5.6 Size of Specimen

    2.6 Factors Affecting Shrinkage

    2.6.1 Aggregate

    2.6.2 Water/Cement Ratio

    2.6.3 Curing Condition

    2.6.4 Relative Humidity (RH)

    2.6.5 Size of Specimen

    2.7 Bond Properties

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    3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Grout Mix Proportioning

    3.3 Mix Design for Normal Concrete

    3.4 Test Series

    3.4.1 Preparation of Normal Concrete

    3.4.2 Preparation of PAC Specimens (Gravity

    Method)

    3.4.3 Preparation of PAC Specimens (Pumping

    Method)

    3.5 Grouting

    3.5.1 Manufacture of Grout

    3.5.1.1 Grout Consistency

    3.5.1.2 Calibration of the Devive

    3.5.1.3 Procedure

    3.5.2 Bleeding and Volume Change Properties

    3.5.3 Density

    3.5.4 Compressive Strength

    3.6 Two Possible Pumping Procedures

    3.6.1 Grouting Equipment and Pumping

    Recommended by ASTM C943-10

    3.6.2 Grouting Equipment and Pumping Procedure

    Used in this Study

    3.7 Preparation of Test Specimens

    3.7.1 Normal Concrete Specimens

    3.8 Determination of Creep

    3.8.1 Apparatus

    3.8.2 Curing of the Specimens

    3.8.3 Procedure

    3.9 Determination of Shrinkage

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    4 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    4.1 Investigation of Grout

    4.1.1 Grout Consistency

    4.1.2 Bleeding Characteristics

    4.1.3 Volume Change Properties

    4.1.4 Density of Grout

    4.1.5 Compressive Strength of Grout

    4.2 Investigation of Compressive Strength

    4.3 Investigation of Shrinkage and Creep

    4.3.1 Investigation of Shrinkage

    4.3.1.1 Test Series I

    4.3.1.2 Test Series II

    4.3.1.3 Test Series III

    4.3.1.4 Test Series IV

    4.3.1.5 Test Series V

    4.3.1.6 Test Series VI

    4.3.1.7 Overall Comparison between PAC

    (pump) and PAC ( gravity)

    4.3.2 Investigation of Creep

    4.3.2.1 Test Series IV

    4.3.2.2 Test Series VI

    4.3.3 Total Creep

    4.3.3.1 Test Series IV

    4.3.3.2 Test Series VI

    4.3.3 Specific Creep

    4.3.4.1 Test Series IV

    4.3.4.2 Test Series VI

    4.3.5 Effect of Chemical (SP) and Mineral (POFA)

    Admixtures on Creep Behavior of PAC

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