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Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public

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A case study of Mysore city
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Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

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I

Introduction

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

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Advertising is as old as mankind. It is embedded in our lives as is food,

sleep and speech. We all communicate, persuade, influence and lead to some

action every day in our lives.

In fact, Padamsee, the ex-CEO of Lintas says when a man wears trouser-

shirt ensemble instead of a dhoti, he is advertising he is westernized. When a

woman wears lipstick, she is advertising that she wants to look beautiful. When

a neta delivers a speech, he is advertising that he wants to be noticed. Ads are

parts of human nature to be noticed. Advertising is Truth well told,

according to McCann Ericsson, the first ad agency for Coca-Cola.

Advertising is a form of persuasive communication with the public. The

American Marketing Association, Chicago, defines advertising as any, paid

form of non-personal presentation of ideas, goods and services by an

identified sponsor. Ad may be any form of presentation, an illustration in a

newspaper or magazine, a television commercial, or a bill board. It is not on a

person-to-person basis, but targeted to the general public. The advertisement

can be for any product, service or idea. It may vary from toothpaste to life

insurance, to even public service ads which sell ideas like road safety, eye

donation, etc

Advertising is the communication link between the buyer and the seller. It

goes further from providing information; it persuades the consumers to accept

the idea or buy the product or service, with the help of reasoning and emotional

appeals.

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

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Source: www.tdiindia.com

Ad is a potent tool of marketing and a component of overall promotion

activities. The marketing operation of any business is guided by its market plan

which has the best possible mix of four variables, namely, the nature of the

product, the price if the product, the channels of distribution which take the

product to the consumer and the promotional activities.

With the help of marketing research, the advertiser is the knowledge and

data about the consumer, the product, and the market. These data are about the

consumers, who they are, what are their needs, what is their buying behavior,

what are the product qualities desired by them, who are the competitors and the

extent of competition, and a great deal more information. These are useful in

planning advertising programmes, and in selecting the type of media to be

employed.

In advertising terms, medium is a channel of communication, some

examples of advertising media are newspapers, magazines, TV, radio, and

internet. A medium is a vehicle through which an ad is carried to the consumer.

It is the mediator between the creator of the ad at one end and the consumer at

the other.

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As a matter of fact, media too have a market o their own and work hard to

sell their media related services. Newspapers try to increase their circulation

while electronic media try to get more viewership and listenership.

Once a medium has been established with a significant audience, it is in a

stronger position to attract advertisers to their medium. Advertisers are

constantly on the lookout for such audiences to put across their promotional

messages.

Types of media

Effective advertising refers to informing the public about the right

product at the right time through the right medium. Conveying the right

message at the wrong time or through the wrong medium would be a waste of

resources. Therefore, the right media selection is the crux of the success of the

entire ad campaign. However, the right message, time and place are also equally

important.

Media selection decision refers to only the selection of a specific medium

of advertising, such as newspaper, or magazine or radio or TV, or outdoor

advertising. On the other hand media planning is a general term encompassing

decisions involving the time and place of advertising in addition to the selection

of the medium. A media plan outlines how advertising time and space in various

Media

Print

Newspapers Magazines Direct Mail

Electronic

TV Radio Cinema

Outdoor

Billboards/Banners

Digital Hoardings

Transit advertising

Other media

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

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media will be used to achieve the marketing objectives of the company through

advertising.

One advertiser confesses half of my advertising is wasted. The problem

is, I dont know which half.

Media planning is significant due to the constant reports that advertising

is wasteful. With the right methodology in media planning, an advertiser can

achieve elimination of wasteful advertising up to a great extent. The

effectiveness of an advertisement depends on when and where it is released.

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

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Outdoor advertising

Outdoor advertising is actually the oldest form of advertising. It can be

traced back to the wall graphics of the Stone Age. The use of signs in

advertising dates back to the days of ancient Rome and Greece. During this era,

signs were used to mark the location of mercantile establishments. Traders in

those days used signs outside buildings and along the routes as a means of mass

communication. Todays outdoor media of advertising are nothing but a

refinement of the ancient method of delivering a message to a large group of

people.

It is believed that a human being spends a third of his life outdoors. There

are millions of commuters travelling by cars, bikes, buses, trains and taxis.

Outdoor advertising makes the travelling of these millions of people

entertaining on the road. The potential of outdoor advertising in India was

recognized by the founder for Selvel ad agency, S K Nicholson. In 1941, he set

up the first hoarding at Grant Road on Sattar Building, Mumbai.

Aaren, another leading ad agency of the era started making using this

medium of advertising from 1962, with a modest 8x12 hoarding in Mubai

(then Bombay) at Rs.175 per month. Even though the cost of outdoor ad space

may have increased with the cost of living, it still remains one of the least

expensive advertising media.

Outdoor advertising is one of the major advertising media used in the

present day. it also happens to be one of the first forms of display advertisement

in the history of advertising. Today it has evolved into several types depending

on the creativity of the artist designing it. Outdoor media include bill boards,

hoardings, digital hoardings, mobile hoardings, banners, posters, buntings,

translites and much more; the list grows with innovation in the graphic

designing industry. Even though other media like print, radio and television

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

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generate high revenue with advertising, out of home ads like banners and bill

boards can be much more effective than ads in print and electronic media.

This is due to many factors which favour outdoor media as a form of

marketing communication. Most people today spend more time outside home

than indoors. Due to this, most people are involuntarily exposed to

advertisement outdoors. Also, unlike television or radio ads which are aired for

only a few seconds, outdoor advertisement like bill boards and hoardings are

available for consumers round the clock. It is also a very cost-effective medium.

A running a full-page newspaper advertisement for a single day in any major

newspaper will cost the same amount as putting up ten bill boards for a month -

and it (newspaper) is not nearly as effective. Messages are delivered

continuously and frequently. (Tendick, 2007)

Outdoor advertising is literally out-of-door. It is out of the home or place

of business. Whatever may be the slight difference in the interpretation; all

outdoor ads have no editorial vehicle to carry the messages. The viewer has to

incur no expenditure, not has to make an effort to see an outdoor advertisement.

It is not so with the other media. An ad message is not brought to the audience;

it is the audience who go to the ad message, though they view it in course of

other activities. Outdoor ads on the other hand offer repeat opportunities to view

the message.

In the USA, there is an Outdoor Advertising Association of America

(OAAA), which has established certain standards on size, is qualified as

outdoor media. Roadside and on premises devices, which are not of standard

sizes and/or designs, are not classified strictly as outdoor ads. They are referred

to as signs.

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

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Outdoor media can also instill strong brand recognition in the consumers.

Since they make use of colours, graphics, motion clips (in digital hoardings),

celebrities endorsing the message, catchy slogans and typography, outdoor

advertisement tends to grab the attention of commuters at any point of time. It

can also be targeted towards specific audiences in certain areas.

Outdoor advertising offers long life. Moreover, an advertiser can

incorporate names and addresses of the local dealers or agents at the bottom of

an outdoor advertisement. These dealer imprints are called snipes.

Textbook authors and academic researchers have identified a variety of

distinctive characteristics of billboards and outdoor advertising (e.g., Kelley and

Jugenheimer 2004; Sissors and Baron 2002; Taylor 1997; Vanden Bergh and

Katz 1999; Woodside 1990). The advantages of using billboards include, among

other things- potential placement of the advertisement close to the point of sale,

high frequency of exposure to regular commuters, high reach, 24-hour presence,

geographic flexibility for local advertisers, economic efficiency in terms of low

production costs and low cost per thousand exposures, visual impact from

advertisement size and message creativity, and brand awareness. Disadvantages

include the need to limit the number of words in the message, short exposure to

the advertisement, low demographic selectivity, and measurement problems.

Relatively few studies have attempted to examine execution factors associated

with the effectiveness of billboard advertising. However, a few have provided

very specific advice for outdoor advertisers. In examining the outcomes of

outdoor advertising, some studies found that a novel or very creative execution

could improve recall or attention to billboards (Fitts and Hewett 1977; Hewett

1975). Thus, use of a clever creative execution is one factor that has been

hypothesized to correlate with effective outdoor advertising.

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

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Outdoor media has the area-specific quality, which is an important factor

contributing to the success of this medium. This is especially so in India, since

the consumer population here is very much heterogeneous. The taste and

preferences of consumers differs in every state, every district and town.

This study attempts to find the level of success of outdoor advertisement

as a medium of communication in Mysore city. This study encompasses the

study of consumers attitude towards outdoor media, the impact this media

bears on the consumers and its level of success in changing attitudes/buying

habits of people residing in Mysore city.

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

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III

Review of Related Literature

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

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The topic Influence of Outdoor Ads On Public-A Case Study of Mysore

City has not been taken anywhere else and this study is the first of its kind.

However, studies related advertising, outdoor advertising and

influence of outdoor ads have been done all over the world. Though they have

not been done as case studies of cities or states in India, they are aplenty in

other parts of the world like USA. Some of studies which are closest related to

the study Influence Of Outdoor Ads On Public-A Case Study Of Mysore City

are

Use And Effectiveness Of Billboards: Perspectives From Selective-

perception Theory And Retail-gravity Models

Charles R. Taylor, George R. Franke, And Hae-kyong Bang

The Effects Of Outdoor Advertisements On Consumers: A Case Study

Gulmez Mustafa, Karaca Sukran, Kitapci Olgun

Exploring The Relationship Between Celebrity Endorser Effects And

Advertising Effectiveness A Quantitative Synthesis Of Effect Size

Clinton Amos (Augusta State University), Gary Holmes (Drury University),

David Strutton (University Of North Texas)

Research Paper On Billboard Advertisement: Title: The Impact Of Zain

Billboard Advertisements On Students, A Study Of The Ghana Institute Of

Journalism

Maxwell Akalaare Adombila (Ghana Institute of Journalism (GIJ))

Assessing The Effects Of Animation In Online Banner Advertising:

Hierarchy Of Effects Model

Chan Yun Yoo, Kihan Kim, And Patricia A. Stout

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

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Environmental Harmony and Evaluation of Advertisement Billboards with

Digital Photogrammetry Technique and GIS Capabilities: A Case Study in

the City of Ankar

Cevdet C. Aydn , and Recep Nisanc

Advertising attitudes and advertising effectiveness

Abhilasha Mehta (Gallup and Robinson,inc)

According to Abhilasha Mehta, individual attitudinal factors related to

advertising in general do influence how a respondent reacts to any particular

advertisement, reinforcing expectations by other researchers previously. To be

effective, advertising is something people should like to look at, believe and

find utility with keeping them up-to-date about products and services.

In a content analysis of billboards, Blasko (1985) examined whether

advertisers were following accepted creative principles associated with outdoor

advertising. Drawing on Burtons Advertising Copywriting (1983) and the

Traffic Audit Bureaus Planning for Out-of-Home Media (1977), Blasko listed

five main principles of effective billboard advertising: short copy (eight or

fewer words in copy), simple background, product identification (billboard

clearly identifies product or advertiser), simple message (single message

communicated), and creative (use of clever phrases and/or illustrations). Studies

conducted by Donthu, Cherian, and Bhargava (1993) and Bhargava, Donthu,

and Caron (1994) found recall of billboards to be positively related to a variety

of factors, including brand differentiation, emphasis on product performance,

inclusion of price, use of a photograph, use of humor, use of color, and a good

location for the billboard. The 1993 study emphasized that advertising recall can

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

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be enhanced by using fewer words or unusual executions. As with the key

advantages of outdoor advertising, there have been many discussions of

strategic and execution factors related to the success of billboards, but little

systematic investigation of the underlying factors that drive successful billboard

advertising. Below, we offer some insight on these factors by providing two

theoretical perspectives on the promotional role of billboards.

Previous survey research has presented evidence on companies

experience with billboards, their perceptions of billboards versus other media,

and their estimate of the impact of a billboard ban on sales (Taylor and Franke

2003). This study focuses on companies reasons for using billboards and their

views on factors that are critical to billboards success. Future research could

add to the approaches of these studies in several ways. Expanded surveys of

nonusers or former users of billboards would provide a useful comparison to the

perspectives of current billboard users and give additional insights on the

strengths and weaknesses of this form of outdoor advertising.

Advertising is regarded as a positive effort, which generally contributes

to the economy by developing media facilities and enabling the highest

standards of life for people, which helps cultural development and which has an

immeasurable educational structure (Marketing Magazine, 1979, p.56).

Outdoor advertisements, which were first used by advertisers in the United

States during the 1850s, were applied in Turkey in 1985 (Civelek, 2003, p.46).

The most frequently used instruments of outdoor advertisement are as follows

(Assael, 1993, p.606; Marketing Turkey 2004, p.48); Billboards composed of

panels and posters that are immobile and separate, Street furniture such as

racquet billboards, stations and cylindrical towers, Transit panels placed in

airports, railways, subways, buses and taxis. Billboards are the most common

and widely used forms among the outdoor advertisement media listed above

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

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(Berkovitz, et al, 1994, p.541; Lichtenthal, et al., 2006, p.237). When compared

to other media tools, the share of outdoor advertisements as a proportion of total

advertising expenditure is increasing albeit slowly.

In literature, it is possible to find some researches and studies about

outdoor advertising even though it is not so much. One of the researches of

those is that of Karmen and Azhari. Azhari and Kamen point out that brands

and slogans used in outdoor advertising are more memorable than other

advertising medias. While the rate of recall of products and brands used in

outdoor advertising is 79 %, it is 67 % in printed media (1984: 11). In 1975 and

1982, in researches guided by open air institution, it is concluded that the

importance of outdoor advertising on the subject of recognition and recollection

of brands is gradually increasing (Whitehall, Tinkham and Tinkham 1990: 50).

The purpose of outdoor advertisement as a mass communication tool is to

convey the desired massage to the target group in an effective and lasting way.

According to Mustafa, Sukran and Olgun (2009) the most effective outdoor

advertisement tool is billboards and the most high profile sector is the clothing

sector. According to the respondents, we can see that television ranks first

among the most effective tools

In purchasing a good or service, People generally have positive opinions

about outdoor advertisements. They think that outdoor advertisements are more

eye-catching and creative when compared to other advertisement types and,

their physical size lends them an effective visual impact. People regard the

outdoor advertisements, which they regularly encounter, as a part of the city and

they do not notice that these advertisements are outdoor advertisements. This

situation has been changing as people become more conscious of outdoor

advertisements. In their studies, Shao and Herbig (1995, p.71) stated that tools

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

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of outdoor advertising such as billboards (bulletin board-poster panels) are often

used in China and that as Chinese use mass communications and bicycles in

transport, they are exposed to outdoor advertisements every day. They reported

that the reason behind this exposure is that the charges for outdoor

advertisements are relatively cheap and these advertisements have a long-term

usage when compared to the other advertisement tools. Woodside claim that in

his research outdoor advertising not only increase the rate of buying ,in order to

increase sales ,the outdoor advertising should be presented in areas where

pedestrian traffic are heavy (Woodside 1990: 229). In his research of sterman,

he express that fictional approach and research design in outdoor advertising

arouse consumers interest about brand, initiate and accelerate buying process.

(2009: 108). In a research oriented university students, the rate of ones who buy

products by influencing outdoor advertising is increased by 33%. In the same

research, the rate of ones who tend towards attitude of buying is increased by 54

% (Sezer 2009: 185). According to Lopez and Bassell, outdoor advertising will

continue to grow and diversify over the next decades, not only because of its

cost-effectiveness, but also because it seems to be the only unavoidable realm

from which to reach progressively elusive consumers, and the ideal anchor of

integrated marketing communication.

According to Amos, Holmes and Strutton, celebrities add value through

the process of meaning transfer (McCracken 1986, 1989). The meaning transfer

model posits that celebrities develop a persona through the types of roles they

play in society as well as how they are portrayed in the media. Collectively, the

culturally constituted society then assigns meaning to celebrities. When

celebrities endorse a product, the meaning developed around a particular

celebrity will or at least it is hoped for by advertisers transfer to a company,

brand, or product (Erdogan & Baker 2000). Thus, when a consumer identifies

with a celebrity (identification occurs when a person is willing to accept

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

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influence from another person) (Kelman 2006, p. 3), he/she purchases the

product in the hope of claiming some of these transferred meanings for their

own lives (McCracken 1989). However, no guarantee exists that any celebrity

can continuously produce popular music, act in financially successful movies,

or win sports championships. In fact, depending on their level of performance,

celebrities do rise and fall in popularity throughout their entire career (Agrawal

& Kamakura 1995). When a celebrity fails to perform acceptably, as defined by

consumers, a celebrity endorsers effectiveness tends to decline (Agrawal &

Kamakura 1995). The dominant role played by negative celebrity information

suggests that highly publicized negative events/information associated with a

celebrity will likely prove detrimental to advertising campaigns. An intriguing

low risk solution might entail using still popular, but conveniently deceased,

celebrities in product promotion (Till & Shimp 1998).

Several technological developments including plug-ins, JAVA script,

Flash, and streaming media have contributed to improving the design and

interactivity of digital advertising. Motion is often considered to be a critical

component of animated banner ads (Reiber 1991), because most animated ads

are a series of static images superimposed on one another to create an illusion of

motion (Kalyanaraman and Oliver 2001). But according to Yun Yoo, Kim and

Stout, the effect of product involvement on attention is independent from

animation effects. As an individuals product involvement increases, the level of

attention to banner advertising will also rise, regardless of the level of animation

in banner ads. At some point, too much animation or motion may reduce the

advertising effectiveness due to the individual's limited cognitive capacities or

some negative affective responses (such as irritation or annoyance), even though

those banner ads are eye-catching.

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

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A recent study of billboard users found that compared with other media,

billboards were rated higher in terms of ability to communicate information

affordably, attract new customers, and increase sales (Taylor and Franke 2003).

While many advantages of billboards have been identified anecdotally, from

experience, or through academic study, there is a need to investigate whether

frequently listed advantages overlap with each other, and to examine whether

they truly are advantages that are important to billboard users (2009: 38). Small

companies and local merchants are estimated to purchase almost 80 percent of

the media (Belch and Belch, 1998). Products such as entertainment, packaged

goods, and media now provide a significant portion of outdoor advertising

revenues (Outdoor Advertising Association of America, 1998).

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II

Methodology

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

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Statement of the problem

Every research begins with a question or a problem. Identifying the

problem correctly is crucial to the research because it gives the focus needed on

the study, and makes it easy for the researcher to find answers. This research is

based on the effect of advertising on the people, the effectiveness of the medium

used to advertise, and the response to advertisements.

Before commencing the study titled Influence of Outdoor Advertising on

Public- A case Study of Mysore City, the following questions are constructed.

Up to what extent are the people of Mysore City exposed to outdoor

advertising?

How many of them have applied the advertising message in their lives and

experienced change of attitude?

How many of them purchase products/services promoted in outdoor

advertising?

What can be done to improve outdoor advertising in Mysore city?

Objectives

To analyze the variety of outdoor ads in Mysore city

To see the popularity of outdoor ads on public in Mysore city

To examine the influence and impact of outdoor ads on public in Mysore city

To study the role of outdoor ads in the purchasing habits of the public in

Mysore city

To suggest remedies to improve quality of outdoor ads in Mysore city

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

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Scope of study

This study has a significant scope in the advertising industry in Mysore

city. The analysis of data collected by this study will provide a document for the

references of advertisers all over Mysore. It gives an account of the

effectiveness of different types of outdoor media, namely- billboards, banners,

mobile hoardings, digital hoardings and transit- in the opinion of the residents

of mysore city.

This can be a document for reference of advertisers and media planners of

mysore to choose the medium of advertising, or more precisely, the type of

outdoor advertisement to make it more effective.

Area of study

Since this is a case study of Mysore city, the area of study is Mysore. The

respondents are randomly taken from different areas, residing in different

neighborhoods and working or studying in different places in Mysore city.

Limitation of study

This study was conducted for duration of 3 months, from march to may

2012. Due to the time constraint, the sample size taken is 50 respondents. Also

due to the same limitation, the study focuses on outdoor advertising only and no

other media.

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

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Research Methodology

The study titled Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public- A case

Study of Mysore City is a quantitative analysis. The method of study used for

this research is survey method.

Survey research is a method where the researcher selects a population of

study, and then selects a smaller sample which represents the population. The

researcher then uses tools of data collection such as questionnaires or interviews

to collect responses regarding the study. This data is then represented in the

form of statistics, and in a graphical form. Based in these statistics, the results of

the survey are interpreted and a conclusion is drawn on the subject.

Sample: the population of this study is the entire population of Mysore

city. The sample size taken for the study is 50. A method of convenience

sampling is used to select the sample size, again due to several limitations like

time and resources. The respondents are almost equally divided into strata based

on age groups, professions etc.

The tool of data collection used in this study is questionnaire. Each

questionnaire contains 15 questions including the socio-demographic variables,

media habits and other open ended questions.

The data collected is first represented in percentages and in the form of

bar graphs. This is then analyzed to make interpretations and draw the right

conclusions.

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IV

Data analysis and

Interpretation

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Part A:

1. Gender and 2. Age:

Group-1: 18-23 Group-2: 24-39 Group-3: 40 and above 17 21 12 M F M F M F 6 11 4 17 6 6

Graph 1: Represents the percentage of male and female respondents, belonging to different age groups.

In the sample size of 50, the respondents are equally distributed among the three age groups. Group 1 consists of respondents between 18 and 23, who are mostly students. Group 2 (24-39) consists of working men and women, who have a regular income and spend a fair amount of time outdoors, and also home makers. Group 3 (40 and above) consists of middle aged and senior citizens, who are residents of the city for a long time and may have an exposure to the outdoor advertising in the city. Group 1 takes up 34% of the population (12% male and 22% female), Group 2 takes up 60% (8% male and 54% female) and Group 3 is 24% (12% male and 12% female). The sample consists of a majority of female respondents, as they were more co-operative in answering the questionnaires.

0.00%

10.00%

20.00%

30.00%

40.00%

50.00%

60.00%

70.00%

18-23 24-39

40 and above

Female

Male

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

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3. Education:

10th PUC Degree Post Graduation 3 3 22 22

Graph 2: Represents the education level of respondents.

As indicated by the graph, most respondents are educated up to the level of Bachelor degree and Master degree. Only 12%, who are home makers, have education up to class 10 and PUC. 44% of the respondents are graduates and 44% are post graduates.

0%

5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

30%

35%

40%

45%

10th PUC

Degree PG

Series 1

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

26

4. Employment:

Working Not working 22 28

Graph 3: Shows the employment of the respondents.

The respondents are almost equally divided among those who are working and those who are not. 44% of them are working in different sectors ranging from software to agriculture, while 56% are not working. A majority of them are students at degree and post graduation level.

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

Working

Not working

Employment

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

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5. Income:

10000 or less 10000-50000 50000-I lakh Above 1lakh 33 11 4 2

Graph 4: Represents the income of respondents.

As nearly half of the sample consists of those who are not working, a huge majority (66%) of them earn less than Rs.10000 per month. However, in the group of working individuals, 22% earns between Rs.10000 to Rs.50000. however, only 8% of the respondents earn up to 1 lakh, and only 4% earn more than 1 lakh.

0% 10% 20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

within 10000 10000-50000

50000-1 lakh Above 1 lakh

income

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

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Part B:

6. Do you read/watch/observe advertisements?

All the time Sometimes Occasionally Never 8 34 8 0

Graph 5: Shows the percentage of people who observe advertisements.

All respondents have exposure to advertisements. While only 16% of them observe the ads and think about them much, a majority of 68% them just notice ads. Another 16% occasionally see them and do not observe much of its content. Basically all the people of Mysore are exposed to advertising.

0.00%

10.00%

20.00%

30.00%

40.00%

50.00%

60.00%

70.00%

All the time Sometimes

Occasionally Never

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

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7. Which of the following media do you prefer to see/hear advertisement?

Graph 6: Represents the peoples preference of medium to see/hear

advertisements

Most of the respondents (52%) prefer TV, the audio visual medium to see

advertisements. While some prefer both print and TV, only a small minority of

2% prefer as a medium of advertising. 12% of the people prefer newspaper,

30% prefer both newspapers and TV and only 2% prefer radio.

0.00%

10.00%

20.00%

30.00%

40.00%

50.00%

60.00%

Series 1

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

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8. Are you aware of the medium called outdoor advertising?

Graph 7: Represents the level of awareness of outdoor advertising.

14% of the people are highly aware of outdoor media, 10% are unaware.

A majority of 76% are just aware of outdoor advertising.

0.00%

10.00%

20.00%

30.00%

40.00%

50.00%

60.00%

70.00%

80.00%

highly aware aware unaware

Aware of outdoor ads

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

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9. Are you aware of the following outdoor ads?

Billboards, Digital hoarding, Mobile hoardings, Banners, Transit(ads on

public vehicles)

Graph 8: Represents the exposure to individual types of outdoor

advertising, namely Billboards, Digital hoarding, Mobile hoardings,

Banners, Transit.

30% of the population is highly aware of billboards, 52% aware and 18%

unaware. 22% of the population is highly aware of digital hoardings, 55% aware

and 24% unaware. 14% of the population is highly aware of mobile hoardings,

70% aware and 16% unaware. 34% of the population is highly aware of

banners, 62% aware and 4% unaware. 14% of the population is highly aware of

billboards, 50% aware and 34% unaware.

0.00%

10.00%

20.00%

30.00%

40.00%

50.00%

60.00%

70.00%

80.00%

Billboards Digital Hoardings Mobile

Hoardings Banners Transit

highly aware

aware

unaware

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

32

10. Rate the effectiveness of these advertisements in descending order (1 for

most effective and 5 for least effective:Billboards, Digital hoarding, Mobile

hoardings, Banners, Transit(ads on public vehicles)

Graph 9: Represents the ratings given by people of Mysore to each type of

outdoor advertising, namely Billboards, Digital hoarding, Mobile

hoardings, Banners, Transit.

This question asks the respondent to indicate the level of effectiveness of

the outdoor medium by rating it. According to the graph, banners have been

rated 1 by majority of people, while billboards, mobile hoardings and digital

hoardings follow closely. However transit has been rated 5, that is least

effective by a huge majority. It is also the least rated as 1 in effectiveness. This

may mean that people fail to notice transit as a medium of advertising, or do not

appreciate the idea of public vehicles covered with ads.

0.00%

5.00%

10.00%

15.00%

20.00%

25.00%

30.00%

35.00%

40.00%

1 2 3 4 5

Billboard

Digital hoarding

Mobile hoarding

Banner

Transit

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

33

11. What kind of outdoor advertisement do you usually observe in Mysore

city?

Graph 10: represents the kinds of ads seen in Mysore, as observed by the

respondents.

36% of the respondents think that cinema ads are more in the city, a

whopping 54% have observed a majority of commercial precuts ads and 12%

have said that political ads are seen in large numbers. Whereas only 8% of the

respondents have observed social message ads and only 6% of them have seen

ads for services.

0.00%

10.00%

20.00%

30.00%

40.00%

50.00%

60.00%

Cinema Social ad

Commercial Service

Political

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

34

Part C:

12. Do you think the advertisements result in change of attitude?

Graph 11: Represents the extent to which outdoor advertising results in change of attitude.

Most of the respondents (52%) are non-committal about the effect of advertisements on their attitudes. They have responded that outdoor ads may be responsible for change in their attitudes. However, 36% of the respondents think that outdoor advertisements do change attitudes, but 10% of them think that they do not result in change of attitude.

While most of them believe that ads give information about the product or service, they would buy only the product but not the idea. Some of them have opined that the people, who are exposed to these ads and have the level of understanding to perceive its message, also are intelligent enough to make their own firm decisions. They are not influenced by advertising. They have also said that in the busy life of today not many people have the time to sit and analyze outdoor advertising to have a change of attitude. However, a large number of them believe that advertisements provide consumers with lot of information, and influence in purchasing habits. It communicates from the manufacturer to the consumer and helps the consumers decide which product to buy. But it can do no more than that.

0.00%

10.00%

20.00%

30.00%

40.00%

50.00%

60.00%

Yes No

Maybe

Yes

No

Maybe

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

35

13. Do you think the outdoor ads make you want to buy the product/service

advertised?

Graph 12: Represents the influence of outdoor ads on the purchasing

habits of the people

Again, a majority of 58% of the respondents is not sure and think outdoor ads may or may not be responsible for their purchase decisions, depending on the product quality etc. whereas 26% of them are influenced by the ads and buy the product, and 16% are not influenced at all.

0.00%

10.00%

20.00%

30.00%

40.00%

50.00%

60.00%

Yes No

Maybe

Series 1

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

36

14. Do you agree with the statement that celebrities being brand

ambassadors have influence on your purchasing habits?

Graph 13: Represents the peoples opinion on celebrities endorsing

products and services, and their influence on peoples buying.

This question got mixed reactions from the respondents. 38% of them

disagreed that a celebrity as brand ambassadors has influence on consumers,

32% of them agree on the same. 245 of them gave a neutral opinion. Among

those who agree, most respondents are from group 1 and 2 (16% and 16%

respectively), that is between ages 18 to 23, and 24 to 40. Among those who

disagree, a majority are from group 3 (14%), that is above the age of 40.

0.00%

5.00%

10.00%

15.00%

20.00%

25.00%

30.00%

35.00%

40.00%

Agree Disagree

Can't say

Group-3

Group-2

Group-1

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

37

15. Do you agree that outdoor advertising in Mysore can be improved?

Yes/No

Graph 14: Represents the peoples opinion to whether outdoor ads in

mysore can be improved or not.

Some of the opinions given are:

By attractive, simple slogans.

Ad can be segregated, must be more pleasant, should not hamper free flow of traffic, and

must not be vulgar.

By using innovative ideas

Billboards in prominent places will improve visibility.

Ads should be original.

Government should support advertising in all places.

Through attractive sentences and pictures.

It can inspire people in buying the products as well as it helps to provide knowledge about

newly introduced products and helps in creating awareness among people.

Digital hoardings are very less in Mysore city. New method of marketing improves sales.

Through creative ideas.

By improving the presentation of goods and products in a catchy way.

With the strategies like targeting the people who are confined to the product being advertised.

Through mobile hoardings.

0.00%

10.00%

20.00%

30.00%

40.00%

50.00%

60.00%

Yes No

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

38

Go for more options like billboards, wherever you can find more population. Engage the

residents from Mysore for the purpose rather than commercializing the product with brand

ambassadors.

Using present modern technology

By advertising in attractive manner, more and more on busy streets and traffic signal spots.

By putting more ad flex in and around the city

Taking away bill boards from heritage sites would be appreciated. Also, sponsoring a clean

road or a green park would help.

A majority of the response is favorable towards more outdoor ads and

their placing in heavy traffic areas and at more visible viewpoints. The results

have also shown that people prefer to see advertisements with creative but

simple copy, slogans and punch lines rather that celebrities and long copy with

illustration. This shows that what attracts the viewers more than the illustration

or the celebrity in the ad, is the copy.

Few of the respondents have also implied to the use of more advanced

technology to attract the viewers. This may refer to digital and animated

hoardings. With enough resources on the budget, digital hoardings can also

make a very effective advertising medium

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

39

V

Conclusion and

recommendation

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

40

As represented by the graphs 7 and 8, more than 90% of the residents of

Mysore City have exposure to outdoor advertising. Among those who are

highly aware of outdoor advertising, most are students of the media and

regularly exposed to various advertising media. Among those unaware of the

medium are home makers who are less likely to be exposed to outdoor ads.

However, youth and working professionals who spend much time outdoors are

all aware of outdoor advertising.

The results of this study show that outdoor advertising is effective to

some extent in changing peoples decisions and making them buy the product.

But they have not been successful in changing their attitude in general. They are

viewed as mere tools providing information about the product and services to

the consumers.

According to the observations of Mysoreans, the roads of Mysore city are

dominated by commercial advertisements of products and services, and cinema

ads. While political banners are also seen in places, only negligible numbers of

social messages are advertised. Advertisers can include some social messages

and make them stronger so that it results in change of attitude of the people. It

may also help to promote the commercial products and services with a social

message to bear a stronger impact on people of Mysore.

The people have rated transit advertising as the least effective medium. It

is also worth noticing that a majority of people are unaware of transit

advertising. It is possible that they are aware of the type of advertising but not

the name transit. However, transit is less in Mysore compared to other metro

cities and can be used more often to put across an advertising message.

The results of this study also reveal that banners are rated the most

effective type of outdoor advertising. The next effective is billboards, closely

followed by mobile and digital hoardings. But the study also reveals that a

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

41

majority of people prefer to see ads in an audio-visual medium. Hence,

improving on the digital hoardings could make and effective medium of

advertising in Mysore.

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

42

Bibliography:

Foundations of advertising theory and practice- S A Chunawalla and K C Sethia

Use And Effectiveness Of Billboards: Perspectives From Selective-perception Theory

And Retail-gravity Models

Charles R. Taylor, George R. Franke, And Hae-kyong Bang

The Effects Of Outdoor Advertisements On Consumers: A Case Study

Gulmez Mustafa, Karaca Sukran, Kitapci Olgun

Exploring The Relationship Between Celebrity Endorser Effects And Advertising

Effectiveness A Quantitative Synthesis Of Effect Size

Clinton Amos (Augusta State University), Gary Holmes (Drury University), David Strutton

(University Of North Texas)

Research Paper On Billboard Advertisement: Title: The Impact Of Zain Billboard

Advertisements On Students, A Study Of The Ghana Institute Of Journalism

Maxwell Akalaare Adombila (Ghana Institute of Journalism (GIJ))

Assessing The Effects Of Animation In Online Banner Advertising: Hierarchy Of

Effects Model

Chan Yun Yoo, Kihan Kim, And Patricia A. Stout

Environmental Harmony and Evaluation of Advertisement Billboards with Digital

Photogrammetric Technique and GIS Capabilities: A Case Study in the City of Ankar

Cevdet C. Aydn , and Recep Nisanc

Advertising attitudes and advertising effectiveness

Abhilasha Mehta (Gallup and Robinson, Inc.)

www.EzineArticles.com

The Many Benefits of Billboard Advertising- Robert Tendick

Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA), USA, official website

www.oaaa.org

www.tdindia.com

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

43

Appendix: I

Questionnaire for data collection:

University of Mysore DOS in Communication and Journalism

Project work

I am the student of Manasagangotri, Mysore, Department of Communication and Journalism,

and presently doing a project on Influence of Outdoor Advertisement on the Public-a

Case Study of Mysore city. I request you to kindly fill the questionnaire below and assure

you that the data generated shall be kept confidential.

Part A:

1. Gender: M / F 2. Age:

3. Education: 4. Employment:

5. Income:

Part B:

6. Do you read/watch/observe advertisements?

All the time Sometimes Occasionally Never

7. Which of the following media do you prefer to see/hear advertisement?

Newspaper/magazine TV Radio

8. Are you aware of the medium called outdoor advertising?

Highly aware Aware Unaware

9. Are you aware of the following outdoor ads?

Billboards: Highly aware Aware Unaware

Digital hoardings: Highly aware Aware Unaware

Mobile hoardings: Highly aware Aware Unaware

Banners: Highly aware Aware Unaware

Transit: Highly aware Aware Unaware

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

44

10. Rate the effectiveness of these advertisements in descending order (1 for most effective

and 5 for least effective

Billboards:

Digital hoardings:

Mobile hoardings:

Banners:

Transit(ads on public vehicles):

11. What kind of outdoor advertisement do you usually observe in Mysore city?

Cinema Public service Commercial/Product ads Services

Political ad

Part C:

12. Do you think the advertisements result in change of attitude?

Yes No Maybe

If Yes, how?

_________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

__

If No, how?

__________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___

13. Do you think the outdoor ads make you want to buy the product/service advertised?

Yes No Maybe

14. Do you agree with the statement that celebrities being brand ambassadors have influence

on your purchasing habits?

Agree Disagree Cant say.

15. Do you agree that outdoor advertising in Mysore can be improved?

Yes/No

If Yes, how?

___________________________________________________________________________

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

45

Appendix: II

Photographs of Outdoor Advertising around Mysore city

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

46

Outdoor advertising on and around Devraj Urs road, Mysore

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

47

Outdoor advertising on and around Devraj Urs road, Mysore

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

48

From top: Public service, Political and social message ads

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

49

From top: billboard, cinema ads and Transit on city buses in Mysore

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

50

More transit advertising in the city

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

51

Middle: advertising on bus shelters

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

52

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

53

Veta: digital hoarding on Saraswathipuram, Mysore

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

54

Digital TV: digital hoarding on Saraswathipuram, Mysore

Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012

55

Ads at a traffic signal near K G Koppal, Mysore

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