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Internet of Things (IoT) - sis.pitt.edu · Index Introduction Ubiquitous Computing Definition,...

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  • Internet of Things (IoT):A vision, architectural elements, and future directions

    Jayavardhana Gubbi, Rajkumar Buyya, Slaven Marusic, Marimuthu Palaniswami

    Maryam [email protected]


  • General View

    Ubiquitous Sensing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Internet of Things: sensors and actuators blend seamlessly with the environment

    Information is shared across platform to develop a common operating picture(cop)

    RFID tags, embedded sensors and actuator nodes

    Intuitive query

    This paper: cloud centric vision for worldwide implementation of internet of things

    technologies/ applications/ cloud implementation using Aneka2

  • IndexIntroduction

    Ubiquitous Computing

    Definition, Trends, Elements


    Cloud Centric Internet of Things

    IoT sensor data analytics SaaS using Aneka and Microsoft Azure

    Open Challenges and Future Directions


  • IntroductionIn IoT, many objects are in a network

    Radio Frequency Identification and Sensor Networks

    Information and communication systems are embedded in environment

    Generate enormous amount of data

    Cloud computing provide the virtual infrastructure

    Smart connectivity and context aware computation

    Evolve every day existing objects and embedding intelligence into our environment


  • Smart connectivity

    Technology should disappear from the consciousness of the user:

    A shared understanding of the situation of its users and their appliances

    Software architecture and pervasive communication networks

    Analytic tools

    Lead to smart connectivity and context-aware computation


  • Internet of Things

    The term IoT Kevin Ashton 1999 in supply chain management

    Main goal: sense information without human aid

    Harvest information from the environment and interact with physical world

    Use internet standards to provide services for information transfer, analytics, applications and communications

    Bluetooth, RFID, WiFi, telephonic data services

    Interconnection between objects to create smart environment


  • Number of interconnection of objects

    In 2011: overtakes the number of people

    Currently: 9 billion devices

    Expected: 24 billion by 2020


  • End users and

    application areas based

    on data


  • Ubiquitous computing in the next decade

    1980: human to human interface result in ubiquitous computing discipline

    Mark Weiser the forefather of ubiquitous computing (ubicomp):

    “The physical world that is richly and invisibly interwoven with sensors, actuators, displays, and computational elements, embedded seamlessly in the everyday objects of our lives, and connected through a continuous network” ubiquitous computing and storage owned by various owners


  • Ubiquitous computing in the next decade (cont.)In contrast to Weiser, Roger propose a human centric ubicomp

    “In terms of who should benefit, it is useful to think of how ubicomp technologies can be developed not for the Sal’s of the world, but for particular domains that can be set up and customized by an individual firm or organization, such as for agricultural production, environmental restoration or retailing”

    Caceres and Friday:

    Discuss building blocks of ubicomp and characteristics of the system

    Two critical technology: Cloud computing and Internet of Things10

  • Ubiquitous computing in the next decade (cont.)

    Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)+ Wireless communication+ Digital electronics

    =Sensors, miniature devices able to sense, compute and communicate

    Ubiquitous sensing is critical in realizing overall vision of ubicomp

    Cloud computingPromises reliable services Act as a receiver of data Analyze and interpret the dataDynamic resource discovery


  • Ubiquitous computing in the next decade (cont.)

    Sensing actuating internet framework form the core technology for smart environment

    Information generated will be shared to develop common operating picture

    Available IoT:Large scalePlatform independentWSN infrastructureData management and processingActuatingAnalysis


  • Definition

    Internet oriented (middleware)

    Interconnect objects with standard communication protocols

    Things oriented (sensors)

    Able to interact and communicate Exchange data and information sensedReacting autonomously

    Semantic oriented (knowledge)

    Use information and communication technology to make services more aware, interactive and efficient


  • Definition

    Interconnection of sensing and actuating devices providing the ability to share information across platforms through a unified framework, developing a common operating picture for enabling innovative applications. This is achieved by seamless ubiquitous sensing, data analytics and information representation with Cloud computing as the unifying framework


  • TrendsGoogle search trends:

    IoT increase

    WSN decrease


  • IoT elements

    Hardware: sensors, actuators, embedded communication hardware

    Middleware: demand storage computing tools for data analytics



  • IoT elements: RFID

    Enable design of microchips for wireless data communication

    Passive RFID:

    No battery, use the power of the reader's interrogation

    Application: Supply chain management, transportation, bank cards

    Active RFID:

    Have battery supply and can initiate the communication

    Application: Port containers for monitoring cargo17

  • IoT elements:WSNLow cost, low power miniature devices use in remote sensing applications

    Large number of intelligent sensors enable collection, processing analysis and dissemination of information

    Sensor data are shared among sensor nodes and sent to a distributed or centralized system for analytics

    Hardware: sensor interfaces, processing units, transceiver units and power supply

    Communication stack: ad-hoc, transmit data to the base station

    Platform independent Middleware: provide access to heterogeneous sensor resources

    Secure data aggregation to extend network lifetime: self healing nodes, security18

  • IoT elements: addressing schemeUniquely identify things and remote control

    Problems:IPV4: provide geographically group identificationIPV6: heterogeneous nodes, variable data types, concurrent operation and confluence of data from devices

    Routing with TCP/IP

    Uniform Resource Name (URN): creates replicas of resources that can be accessed through the URL

    WSN which run on a different stack compared to the internet, need a subnet gateway having a URN to process IPV6 stack


  • IoT elements: Data storage and analytics

    Storage, Ownership and Expiry of the data

    5% of total energy

    Energy efficiency and reliability

    For smart monitoring and actuation using artificial intelligence techniques

    Centralized infrastructure to support storage and analytics like cloud computing


  • IoT elements: visualisation

    Interaction of users with the environment using smart phone or tablet

    Moving from 2D to 3D

    More information in more meaningful way

    Help policy makers to convert data to knowledge to decide


  • Applications: personal and home

    Individuals own network, wifi, high bandwidth

    Ubiquitous healthcare

    Home monitoring for elderly care

    Controle home equipment and social networking


  • Application: Enterprize

    Information used by owners and data may be released

    Environmental monitoring, smart environment


  • Application: Enterprize


  • Application: Utilities

    Service optimization, resource management (cost and profit)

    Backbone network: cellular, WiFi and Satellite communication

    Smart grid and smart metering: Efficient energy consumption

    Video based IoT

    Water network monitoring and quality assurance of drinking water


  • Application: Mobile

    Smart transportationUrban trafficSupply chain managementProductivityFreight delay

    Bluetooth technologyNavigation systemCar handsfree set

    Logistic managementMonitoring items in transportation


  • Cloud Centric IoT

    Vision of IoT:

    Internet centric: Internet service is the main focus & data is contributed by objectsThings centric: smart objects take the center stage

    A combined framework with cloud at center

    Sesing services→ storage cloudAnalytic tool developers→ software toolsArtificial intelligence experts→ data mining and machine learning tools

    Clouds provide storage, computation and visualizationCombine cloudsThread and mapreduce are complex→ map the framework to cloud API→ Aneka→ read, analyze, interpret


  • IoT framework with cloud in center


  • End to end interaction between stakeholders


  • Aneka and Azure

    Aneka is a platform for deploying Clouds developing applications on top of it. It provides a runtime environment and a set of APIs that allow developers to build .NET applications that leverage their computation on either public or private clouds.

    Azure is a cloud computing platform and infrastructure created by Microsoft for building, deploying, and managing applications and services through a global network of Microsoft-managed data centers.

    It provides both PaaS and IaaS services and supports many different programming languages, tools and frameworks, including both Microsoft-specific and third-party software and systems.



  • Aneka cloud computing platform

    Management servicesAccounting, Monitoring, Profiling,Scheduling, Dynamic provisioning


  • Application scheduler & resource provisioning in Aneka

    Assign resources to task

    According to computation and data requirement

    Instantiate or terminate storage, computational or network resources

    Keep tasks scheduled

    With dynamic negotiation with cloud IaaS providers


  • IoT Sensor data analytics SaaS using Aneka and Microsoft Azure

    Aneka launch instances on Azure to run applications

    Hardness:Interaction between clouds → Aneka combine resources of public and private cloudsData analytic and artificial intelligence tools are computationally demanding

    Aneka worker containers are deployed as instances of Azure worker role

    when a user submits an application to the Aneka Master, the job units will be scheduled by the Aneka Master by leveraging on-premises Aneka Workers, if they exist, and Aneka Worker instances on Microsoft Azure simultaneously. When Aneka Workers finish the execution of Aneka work units, they will send the results back to Aneka Master, and then Aneka Master will send the result back to the user application

    Update Saas by Management Extensibility Framework (loosely-coupled plugin) 33

  • Aneka/ Azure interaction for data analytics application


  • Key technological development


  • Open Challenges and Future Directions


    European Union Project of SENSI and IoT architecture

    Address the challenges

    Successfully define architecture for different applications in WSN

    In this paper

    based on cloud computing


  • Open Challenges and Future Directions

    Energy Efficient Sensing

    effectively exploits spatial and temporal characteristics of the data

    Compressive wireless sensing (CWS) utilizes synchronous communication to reduce the transmission power of each sensor transmitting noisy projections of data samples to a central location for aggregation


  • Open Challenges and Future Directions

    Secure programmable network and privacy

    Disabling pushing erroneous data

    Access personal information

    RFID allows person tracking→ cryptographic solutions

    Outside attacks→ encryption

    Insider attack

    Secure programming protocol→ prevent malicious installation

    Security in cloud

    Privacy issue of collected data 38

  • Open Challenges and Future Directions

    Different QoS requirements→ dynamic scheduling and resource allocation

    New protocols → no standard mac protocol, must be self adaptive and allow multipath routing

    Participatory sensing→ people centric, localized sensing, relying on users volunteering data and inconsistent gathering lead to missing samples

    Data mining→ predefined events and data anomalies> inferring local activities>detect complex events


  • Open Challenges and Future Directions

    GIS based visualization→ Data need preprocessing before display, new visualization schemes for the representation of heterogeneous sensors in a 3D landscape that varies temporally have to be developed

    Cloud Computing

    Combine services from multiple stakeholders, scaleSupport: rapid creation of applications, seamless execution of applications

    harness capabilitiesResource management Cloud application scheduling

    International activities40

  • Summary and Conclusions

    Proliferation of devices with sensing and actuation functions is getting close to the vision of IoT

    In this paper

    a user centric cloud based model

    Flexibility to meet diverse needs


    Associated challenges


  • Thank you



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