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Introduction to Differentiated Instruction Keansburg School District Thomas W. Tramaglini, Ed.D. 1
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Page 1: Introduction to Differentiated Instruction · Differentiated Instruction! Objectives! • Provide an overview of differentiated instruction! – Explore how curriculum and instruction

Introduction to ���Differentiated Instruction

Keansburg School District Thomas W. Tramaglini, Ed.D.

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Differentiated Instruction

Objectives •  Provide an overview of differentiated

instruction – Explore how curriculum and instruction are

differentiated and not differentiated

•  Utilize strategies for differentiating instruction for all types of classroom settings

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What is differentiated instruction? •  An Instructional model that:

•  Recognizes students varying background knowledge, readiness, language, preferences in learning, interests, and to react responsively.

•  Serves as a process to approach teaching and learning for students of differing abilities in the same class.

•  Maximizes each student’s growth and individual success by meeting each student where he or she is, and assisting in the learning process.

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• a recipe or formula

Differentiated Instruction

is not…

• a new idea in education

• incompatible with some subject areas or with standards

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“Differen-a-on  is  making  sure  that  the  right  students  get  the  right  learning  tasks  

at  the  right  -me.        

Assessment as Learning: Using Classroom Assessment to Maximize Student Learning Lorna M. Earl

Corwin Press, Inc. – 2003 – pp. 86-87 5  

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Differen'ated  Instruc'on  •  There are about six ways

to differentiate an activity:

•  Process •  Product •  Content •  Readiness •  Interest •  Learning Modality

What do you know on the

topic about any of the six ways

to differentiate? Be ready to

share

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Differentiated Instruction  

•  Process: How you teach the content and/or how students experience it. Read a story vs listen to a story on tape

•  Product: What you expect students to produce. Paragraph, Speech, Graphic Organizer

•  Content: Different skills or CPI’s

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Differentiated Instruction  

•  Readiness: Everyone works on same skill but the complexity and level of support differs

•  Interest: Students choose from various options

•  Learning Modality: Auditory, Visual, Hands-on

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Differentiated Instruction

•  There are about six ways to differentiate an

activity:

•  Process •  Product •  Content •  Readiness •  Interest •  Learning Modality

Look at your lesson plans

from one week

*did you plan for DI?

*In what way?

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Instructional Strategies that Support

Differentiated Instruction

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Universal Design for Learning

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Universal  Design  for  Learning  

•  Is  a  set  of  principles  for  curriculum  development  that  give  all  individuals  equal  opportuni-es  to  learn.  

•  UDL  provides  a  blueprint  for  crea-ng  instruc-onal  goals,  methods,  materials,  and  assessments  that  work  for  everyone-­‐-­‐not  a  single,  one-­‐size-­‐fits-­‐all  solu-on  but  rather  flexible  approaches  that  can  be  customized  and  adjusted  for  individual  needs.  

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Legal  Defini-on  

•  The  term  “universal  design”  means  a  concept  or  philosophy  for  designing  and  delivering  products  and  services  that  are  usable  by  people  with  the  widest  possible  range  of  func8onal  capabili8es,  which  include  products  and  services  that  are  directly  usable  (without  requiring  assis8ve  technologies)  and  products  and  services  that  are  made  usable  with  assis8ve  technologies.  (U.S.C.  §  3002)  

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One  Simple  UD  Example  

Automated Door

•  People carrying things •  People in wheelchairs •  People with service animals •  Everyone!

Can be used by:

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UDL  Curriculum  

•  Provide  for  mul-ple  points  of  entry  •  Iden-fy  and  deal  with  barriers  and  poten-al  piZalls  •  Focus  on  the  true  purpose  and  essen8al  learnings  (or  big  

ideas)  –  Example  (Ohio  4th  Grade  Science  Indicator):!

•  Record  local  weather  informa-on  on  a  calendar  or  map  and  describe  changes  over  a  period  of  -me  (e.g.,  barometric  pressure,  temperature,  precipita-on  symbols  and  cloud  condi-ons).  

•  Use  local  weather  data  to  indicate  changes  over  a  period  of  4me. !

Flexibility in design (design broadly)  

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Universal Design for Learning

Lesson Goals, Objectives, etc. What are the Barriers?

Multiple Means

Representation

Expression

Engagement

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Neuroscience  to  the  Classroom  UDL  is  built  on  three  research-­‐based  principles:  

§  Provide multiple means of representation to give learners various ways of acquiring information and knowledge

§  Provide multiple means of expression to provide

learners alternatives for demonstrating what they know §  Provide multiple means of engagement to tap into

learners' interests, challenge them appropriately, and motivate them to learn

(Basham,  Edyburn,  Lowrey,  &  Wissick,  2007)  18  

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CAST  

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Differen-a-on  with  Choice  Boards  and  Menus  

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Think  Tac  Toe  From  Daretodifferen-ate  

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Adapted  from  Fulfilling  the  Promise  of  the  Differen-ated  Classroom,  Carol  Ann  Tomlinson,  ASCD  2003  

 

•  As  with  related  strategies,  it  is  important  that  no  mafer  which  choices  students  make,  they  must  grapple  with  the  key  ideas  and  use  the  keys  skills  central  to  the  topic  or  area  of  study.  

•  In  other  words,  whichever  choices  the  student  makes,  he/she  should  be  addressing  the  same  KUDs  as  the  others  

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Knowledge

Comprehension

Application

Analysis

Synthesis

Evaluation

Comprehension or

Evaluation

Application or

Evaluation

Knowledge or

Analysis

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Adapted  from  Fulfilling  the  Promise  of  the  Differen-ated  Classroom,  Carol  Ann  Tomlinson,  ASCD  2003  

 

•  Think-­‐Tac-­‐Toe  plays  off  the  familiar  childhood  game.  It  is  a  simple  way  to  give  students  alterna-ve  ways  of  exploring  and  expressing  key  ideas  and  using  key  skills.  

•  Typically,  the  Think-­‐Tac-­‐Toe  grid  has  nine  cells  in  it  like  a  Tic-­‐Tac-­‐Toe  game.  The  number  of  rows  and  cells  can,  of  course,  be  adjusted.  

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Knowledge list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, quote, name, who, when, where

Comprehension summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish,

estimate, discuss, extend

Application apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment,

Analysis analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, explain, infer

Synthesis combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, what if?, compose, formulate, prepare, generalize, rewrite

Evaluation assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare

Comprehension or Evaluation

Application or Evaluation

Knowledge or Analysis

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Learning  Contract-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐Think  Tac  Toe  Ancient  Civiliza'ons  –    

As an ancient mapmaker, you are commissioned to create a map of your land including all natural land forms, a compass rose and a scale. Also find examples of each land form in a modern civilization.

Imagine that you are an ancient citizen who awakens to discover that all water has evaporated. Explain in detail how this would alter your way of life. Also, do this for the town where you live.

Assume you are persuading others to visit your ancient civilization. Design a descriptive, accurate travel brochure. Include both natural and man-made elements that would attract tourists.

You are an ancient scribe. Write and illustrate a thorough description of a famous character from each time period being studied. Profile yourself also.

Assume the identity of a famous person from the given time period. Create a journal entry reflecting the ideas, values, and components of daily life for that person & you.

You are a famous sculptor. Create a 3D representation of a well-known leader, god, goddess, or common citizen. Include a museum exhibit card.

Written language is an essential part of everyday life. Your task is to create an alphabet. Include a translation into modern English, a written description of the language development a & a 3D artifact of the new language.

Recreate in 3D form a famous work of architecture from your time period. Compare and contrast this piece to one piece of modern day architecture. Find one example of this architecture’s presence in modern day society.

Find a way to explain and show the importance of music and the arts to your culture. Also show at least 2 examples with roots in our time.

CONTR

IBUTIONS  

IMPO

RTAN

T  PE

OPLE  

GEO

GRA

PHY  

Charles  Kyle  &  Kathy  Reed  *  Illinois   34  

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Novel  Think  Tac-­‐Toe  Direc-ons:    Select  and  complete  one  ac-vity  from  each  horizontal  row  to  help  you  and  others  think  about  your  novel.    Remember  to  make  your  work  thoughZul,  original,  rich  with  detail,  and  accurate.  

Create a pair of collages that compares you and a character in the book. Compare and contrast physical and personality traits. Label your collages so viewers understand your thinking.

Write a bio-poem about yourself and another about a main character in the book so your readers see how you and the character are alike and different. Be sure to include the most important traits in each poem.

Write a recipe or set of directions for how you would solve a problem and another for how a main character in the book would solve a problem. Your list should help us know you and the character.

Draw/paint and write a greeting card that invites us into the scenery and mood of an important part of the book. Be sure the verse helps us understand what is important in the scene and why.

Make a model or a map of a key place in your life, and an important one in the novel. Find a way to help viewers understand both what the places are like and why they are important in your life and the characters’.

Make 2 timelines. The first should illustrate and describe a least 6-8 shifts in settings in the book. The second should explain and illustrate how the mood changes with the change in setting.

Using books of proverbs and/on quotations, find at least 6-8 that you feel reflect what’s important about the novel’s theme. Find at least 6-8 that do the same for your life. Display them and explain your choices.

Interview a key character from the book to find out what lessons he/she thinks we should learn from events in the book. Use a Parade magazine for material. Be sure the interview is thorough.

Find several songs you think reflect an important message from the book. Prepare an audio collage. Write an exhibit card that helps your listener understand how you think these songs express the book’s meaning.

Novel Title: ____________________ Author:_______________________ Activities Selected: _______, _____, _____ Student: ______________________

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Novel  Think  Tac-­‐Toe  Direc-ons:    Select  and  complete  one  ac-vity  from  each  horizontal  row  to  help  you  and  others  think  about  your  novel.    Remember  to  make  your  work  thoughZul,  original,  rich  with  detail,  and  accurate.  

Write a bio-poem about yourself and another about a main character in the book so your readers see how you and the character are alike and different. Be sure to include the m most important traits in each poem.

A character in the book is being written up in the paper 20 years after the novel ends. Write the piece. Where has life taken him/her? Why? Now, do the same for yourself 20 years from now. Make sure both pieces are interesting feature articles.

You’re a “profiler.” Write and illustrate a full and useful profile of an interesting character from the book with emphasis on personality traits and mode of operating. While you’re at it, profile yourself, too.

Research a town/place you feel is equivalent to the one in which the novel is set. Use maps, sketches, population and other demographic data to help you make comparisons and contrasts.

Make a model or a map of a key place in your life, and an important one in the novel. Find a way to help viewers understand both what the places are like and why they are important in your life and the characters’.

The time and place in which people find themselves and when events happen shape those people and events in important ways. Find a way to convincingly prove that idea using this book.

Find out about famous people in history or current events whose experiences and lives reflect the essential themes of this novel. Show us what you’ve learned.

Create a multi-media presentation that fully explores a key theme from the novel. Use at least 3 media (for example, painting, music, poetry, photography, drama, sculpture, calligraphy, etc.) in your exploration.

Find several songs you think reflect an important message from the book. Prepare an audio collage. Write an exhibit card that helps your listener understand how you think these songs express the book’s meaning.

Novel Title: ____________________ Author:_______________________ Activities Selected: _______, _____, _____ Student: ______________________

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Varia'on  on  the  Theme:  A  Planet  “Show  &  Tell”  (Each  student  must  pick  one  square  from  each  horizontal  row  and  use  the  two  together)  

Use the computer to make a drawing that shows how the rotation and revolution of the Earth works to create day and night and seasons.

Paint a picture that shows how the rotation and revolution of the Earth works to create day and night and seasons.

Construct a model that shows how the rotation and revolution of the Earth works to create day and night and seasons.

Create a book or puppet show that shows how the rotation and revolution of the Earth works.

Make labels for the sun, Earth, day, night, orbit to attach to or use with your creation. Be ready to explain orally.

Write sentences* that identity and explain each part of your drawing or model and how each part works.

Write a story that explains the Earth’s rotation, revolution, day and night, and seasons.

Write a poem that explains the Earth’s rotation, revolution, day and night and seasons.

Pick  a  W

ay  to

 Explain  

Create  One

 

This  differen'ated  review/synthesis  task  is  based  on  Va.  SOLS  for  science:                                                                            

1.6  The  student  will  inves-gate  &  understand  the  basic  rela-onships  between  the  Earth  and  sun,    Including      *the  sun  is  the  source  of  heat  &  light          *night  &  day  are  caused  by  the  rota-on  of  the  Earth.    1.7  The  student  will  inves-gate  and  understand  the  rela-onship  of  

seasonal  change  (light  and  temperature)  to  the  ac-vi-es  &  life  processes  of  plants  and  animals.    Based  on  Unit  by  Befe  Wood,  Charlofesville,  Virginia  City  Schools.  

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Making  Inferences  

Infer  the  theme  of  the  novel.    Draw  a  picture  that  represents  that  theme.    Write  a  caption  for  your  picture  to  explain  the  theme.      

View  the  novel’s  photograph  slideshow.    Based  on  the  photographs,  infer  the  theme  of  the  novel.    Write  a  paragraph  that  explains  the  theme  of  the  novel  and  support  it  with  information  from  the  photographs.      

Select  ten  words  from  the  novel  that  you  are  unfamiliar  with.    Infer  the    word  meanings  and  create  a  miniature  dictionary.  

Main  Idea   Create  a  literature  license  plate  in  which  you  use  8  characters  (letters,  numbers,  or  symbols)  to  convey  the  main  idea  of  scene  from  the  book.  

Create  a  shape  poem  that  uses  words  to  convey  the  main  idea.    The  shape  of  your  poem  should  also  connect  to  the  main  idea.      

Create  a  memory  game  based  on  the  main  idea,  events,  and  characters.  

Making  Connections  

Find  several  songs  that  you  think  reIlect  an  important  message  from  the  book.    Write  an  exhibit  card  that  helps  you  listen  or  understand  how  you  think  these  songs  express  the  book’s  meaning.      

Find  out  about  famous  people  in  history  or  current  events  whose  experiences  and  lives  reIlect  the  essential  themes  in  this  novel.      

Research  a  town  or  place  you  feel  is  equivalent  to  the  one  in  which  the  novel  is  set.    Use  maps,  sketches,  population,  and  other  demographic  data  to  help  you  make  comparisons  and  contrast.    Create  a  matrix  that  shows  what  you’ve  found.      

Point  of  View   Write  a  diary  entry  about  the  main  character  from  the  point  of  view  of  another  character.  

Write  a  bio-­‐poem  about  yourself  and  another  about  a  main  character  in  the  book  so  your  readers  can  see  how  you  and  the  character  are  alike  and  different.    Be  sure  to  include  the  most  important  information  in  each  poem.      

Draw  a  picture  of  the  main  conIlict  from  2  opposing  points  of  view.    Write  an  explanation  of  your  drawings.      

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1-­‐3-­‐5  Ac-vity  

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Closure  

•  Tell  yourself  one  specific  way  you  will  use  choice  boards  and/or  menus  in  your  class  AND  what  type/s  you  think  you  will  start  with.  

•  Post  your  answer  on  the  Dry  Erase  Board  

•  Share  your  specific  idea  with  a  neighbor  and  be  ready  to  design  your  own-­‐  

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Your  Turn  to  Explore  

•  Develop  at  least  one  differen'ated  choice  board  or  menu  to  use  with  an  upcoming  unit.    

•  Work  with  a  partner  but  each  develop  your  own.  This  way  you  will  have  poten'ally  two  menus  and  Think-­‐Tac  ac'vi'es  to  draw  from.    

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Tiered Lessons

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THE TEACHER’S CHALLENGE

Developing - “Respectful

Activities”

•  Interesting •  Engaging •  Challenging

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Tiered Assignments

In a heterogeneous classroom, a teacher uses varied levels of activities to ensure that students explore ideas at a readiness level and complexity that builds on their prior knowledge.

Tiered assignments related to complexity and prior

knowledge 50  

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What is Tiered Instruction?

Teachers use tiered activities so that all students focus on essential understandings and skills but at different levels of complexity, abstractness, and open-endedness.

By keeping the focus of the activity the same, but providing routes of access at varying degrees of difficulty, the teacher maximizes the likelihood that: 1) each student comes away with pivotal skills & understandings 2) each student is appropriately challenged.

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WHAT CAN BE TIERED? •  ASSIGNMENTS •  ACTIVITIES •  CENTERS & STATIONS •  LEARNING CONTRACTS •  ASSESSMENTS •  MATERIALS •  EXPERIMENTS •  WRITING PROMPTS •  HOMEWORK

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IDENTIFY OUTCOMES WHAT SHOULD THE STUDENTS KNOW, UNDERSTAND, OR BE ABLE

TO DO?

THINK ABOUT YOUR STUDENTS PRE-ASSESS READINESS, INTEREST, OR LEARNING PROFILE

INITIATING ACTIVITIES USE AS COMMON EXPERIENCE FOR WHOLE CLASS

 GROUP  1  TASK  

GROUP  2  TASK  

GROUP  3  TASK  

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Planning Tiered Assignments Concept to be Understood

OR Skill to be Mastered

Scaffolding Up Task

Less Complex

Grade -Level Task

“Next” Level Task

More Complex

Create on-level task first then adjust complexity.

“Adjusting the Task”

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Why TIER?? What Zone Am I In?

Too Easy •  I get it right away… •  I already know how… •  This is a cinch… •  I’m sure to make an

A… •  I’m coasting… •  I feel relaxed… •  I’m bored… •  No big effort

necessary…

On Target •  I know some things… •  I have to think… •  I have to work… •  I have to persist… •  I hit some walls… •  I’m on my toes… •  I have to re-group… •  I feel challenged… •  Effort leads to

success…

Too Hard •  I don’t know where to

start… •  I can’t figure it out… •  I’m spinning my

wheels… •  I’m missing key skills… •  I feel frustrated… •  I feel angry •  This makes no sense… •  Effort doesn’t pay off…

THIS is the place to be… THIS is the achievement zone… 55

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Tiered Assignments

Rationale for Use •  Allows students to begin learning where they are

•  Allows for reinforcement or extension of concepts [Stretch or Support]

•  Allows for differentiation based on process, product, content, readiness, interest, or learning preference

•  Avoids work that is anxiety-production (too hard) or boredom-producing (too easy)

•  Can blend assessment and instruction

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Creating Multiple Paths For Learning

Key Concept or

Understanding

Struggling With The Concept

Some Prior Knowledge

Understand The

Concept

READINESS LEVELS Reaching Back Reaching Ahead 57  

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When Tiering: Adjust---

•  Level of Complexity •  Amount of Structure •  Materials •  Time/Pace •  Number of Steps •  Form of Expression •  Level of Dependence

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Different  Work,  Not  More  or  Less  Work    

ALWAYS  COMPLEXITY      

Just  More  Work    

Basic  task:    Read  two  American  short  stories  set  in  the  20th  century  and  compare  and  contrast  them  on  a  Venn  Diagram.  

 Advanced  Task:    Read  four  American  

short  stories  set  in  the  20th  century    and  compare  and  contrast  them  on  a  chart.  

 Differen'ated  Work  

 

Basic  task:    Read  two  American  short  stories  set  in  the  20th  century  and  compare  and  contrast  the  plots  on  a  pre-­‐made  labeled  Venn  Diagram  with  one  descriptor  already  filled  in  for  each  contrast.  

 Advanced  Task:  Read  two  American  short  

stories  set  in  the  20th  century  and  determine  plot.  Create  a  plot  chart  for  each  to  demonstrate    the  similari'es  and  differences.  

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Guidelines for Tiered Instruction •  1. Ensure that group membership is flexible.���

The word tiered is not a euphemism for stagnant low-middle-high groups that label who can learn and who is not learning. Tiered assignments denote all children as able to learn the same essential skills in different ways. The make-up of students working at each tier varies with the content, assignment, and quantity of tiers.

•  2. Plan the number of levels most appropriate for instruction.���Different quantities of tiers are needed for different curricula areas, concepts, and skills in relation to different learners' needs. Sometimes, two tiers are sufficient; at other times, three to five or more work better to match the wide range of learners. Changing the number of tiers is also a way to vitalize flexible groupings and ensure that students are not always in the same group.

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Guidelines for Tiered Instruction •  3. Recognize that complexity is relative.���

The complexity of a tiered assignment is relative because it is determined by the specific needs of the students and because learners' readiness levels vary in different curricula areas. In classes with below grade-level learners, the lowest tier would respond to those students. In classes in which all students are at or above grade level, the lowest tier would respond to grade-level or even above grade-level readiness.

•  4. Promote high-level thinking in each tier.���Avoid always allocating simple thinking tasks for students with the fewest skills. All students need opportunities to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information.

•  5. Provide teacher support at every tier.���Every tier requires teacher modeling and support for the students working at that tier. All learners benefit from a teacher's instruction, interaction, guidance, and feedback--even gifted children whom some educators perceive as always making it on their own.

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Tiering  Ac'vity  

•  It’s  all  about  complexity  related  to  readiness!      

•  More  complexity-­‐  step  it  up  

•  Less  complexity  

•  Try  to  determine  how  the  following  example  was  'ered  by  readiness  through  complexity  

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Subject:  Social  Studies  Grade:    Middle  School  –Cons'tu'on  Key  Concept:  Understanding  that  for  governments  to  be  successful  and  humane  aaer  revolu'ons  there  must  be  an  agreement  between  the  people  and  the  government.      Understanding:  Cons'tu'ons  and  Bills  of  Rights  help  to  define  roles  and  responsibili'es  of  governments  and  people.    Background:  Studied  the  Am.  Revolu'on  and  the  crea'on  of  the  Cons'tu'on,  Ar'cles  of  Confedera'on,  and    Bill  of  Rights.  Must  demonstrate  understanding  and  transfer  that  understanding  to  a  new  situa'on  through  a  project-­‐based  exercise.      This  lesson  is  'ered  in  content  according  to  readiness.    Tier  I:  Grade  Level  Readiness  Groups  of  three  are  given  informa'on  about  3  modern  day  revolu'ons.  Choose  one  and  iden'fy  the  main  issues  that  drove  the  revolu'on.  They  are  given  a  student  version  of  the  Bill  of  Rights.  They  must  develop  a  bill  of  rights  (5  rights)  for  the  new  government  of  their  choice  and  explain  why  they  chose  the  5  rights.    Each  group  will  be  given  a  project  starter  with  one  right  already  chosen  and  a  ra'onale  for  that  reason  as  an  example.    The  group  must  be  prepared  to  present  and  defend  their  rights.      Tier  II:  Advanced  Readiness    Students  in  pairs  will  research  a  modern  day  revolu'on  and  iden'fy  the  main  issues.  They  must  develop  a  bill  of  rights  for  the  new  government  of  their  choice  and  explain  why  they  chose  the  five  rights  and  the  strengths  and  weaknesses  of  their  rights.  The  group  must  be  prepared  to  present  and  defend  their  rights.      

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Tiering  Ac'vity  •  It’s  all  about  complexity  related  to  readiness!      

•  More  complexity  

•  Less  complexity  

•  All  the  students  dealt  with  the  SAME  objec've.  This  was  NOT  modified  content.  It  was  varied  complexity.  They  all  achieve  the  same  mandated  objec've  

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In  Reality…  

•  You  really  only  need  two  levels  –  depends  on  when  you  do  the  ac-vity  

•  If  it  is  used  as  an  intro    

•  or  as  a  mastery  

Struggling With The Concept  

Understanding

Understand &

Beyond Understanding

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The Voices in my Head…

Potential benefits of tiering…

I need more help or

information…

Potential drawbacks of

tiering…

My head hurts. Is it time to go?

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Tiered  Addi'on  Subject:  Mathema'cs  –addi'on  Key  concepts  –  addi'on  is  related  to  “coun'ng  up”  Background-­‐  1st    lesson  in  the  Grade  1  unit  on  adding  to  10  

•  Tier  I  –  Scaffold  Level  Students  given  manipula'ves  and  a  sheet  of  paper  with  an  

example  of  how  to  add  two  numbers  that  =  10  or  less    Tier  II  –  Students  given  manipula'ves  and  a  sheet  of  paper  with  

five  problems    (Both  'ers  deal  with  exact  same  content  –  this  is  not  about  modifying  content  

(although  it  could  be).  This  is  about  having  students  all  deal  with  the  same  objec've  with  varied  complexi'es)  

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Subject:  Mathema'cs                                    Grade:  Seventh            4.1.7.A.4            Topic:  Real-­‐Number  Sense  Key  Concept:  Students  develop  a  sense  about  numbers  which  allows  them  to  manipulate  them  appropriately  in  any  given  form  or  structure.  Generaliza'on:  Students  compare  and  order  numbers  of  all  types.    Background:  A  few  ac'vi'es  have  been  completed  which  emphasize  number-­‐sense  and  in  par'cular,  the  reasonableness  of  values  in  situa'ons.  The  teacher  prepares  sets  of  “real-­‐number”  cards  consis'ng  of  at  least  15  cards.  Each  card  has  either  a  frac'on,  decimal,  mixed  number,  integer,  or  whole  number.  You  may  make  all  the  sets  the  same  or  by  varying  the  number  of  cards  and/or  difficulty  level  of  the  numbers,  you  would  be  4ering  also  by  content.    This  lesson  is  'ered  in  product  according  to  readiness.  Tier  I:  Less  Readiness(CPI  Meets  Standards  for  Grade  Level)  Pairs  of  students  are  given  a  set  of  “real-­‐number”  cards  consis'ng  of  frac'ons,  decimals  and  whole  numbers  and  a  blank  Venn  diagram  which  has  three  overlapping  circles  labeled  as  follows:  numbers  greater  then  1½,  numbers  less  than  3.5,  and  numbers  between  0  and  15.  Students  write  each  number  in  the  appropriate  circle.    Tier  II:  Grade  Level  Readiness  Pairs  of  students  are  given  a  set  of  “real-­‐number”  cards  and  a  blank  number  line.  Students  must  sort  their  cards  and  decide  where  to  place  each  on  the  number  line.  Students  complete  the  lesson  by  wri'ng  each  number  on  the  number  line.    Tier  III:  Advanced  Level    Readiness  Pairs  of  students  are  given  a  set  of  “real-­‐number”  cards  and  a  blank  Venn  diagram  which  has  three  overlapping  circles  which  are  not  labeled.  Students  must  sort  their  cards  and  decide  on  labels  for  each  of  the  circles.  Then  students  write  each  number  in  the  appropriate  circle.  Assessment:  Grade  the  products  for  correctness  and  any  other  criteria  you  have  iden'fied  on  rubric.      

SAMPLES  OF  TIERED  INSTRUCTION  

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Tiered  Reading  •  Subject:  Language  Arts  •  Understanding:  Iden'fy  words  with  the  short  a  sound  •  Background:  3rd  lesson  on  the  topic    TIER  1:  Scaffold:  Teacher  reads  and  shows  various  words.  Students  raise  hands  when  they  hear  a  word  that  has  short  a  (teacher  is  part  of  the  8er  in  this  one)  

TIER  2:  On  level:  students  given  stack  of  word  cards.  Separate  words  with  short  a  from  other  words  in  the  stack  

TIER  3:  “Next”  level:    students  read  groups  of  sentences  and  make  a  list  of  words  with  short  a  sound  

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Tiered  Math  •  Subject:  Math  •  Understanding:  mul'-­‐step  problems  •  Background:  1st  lesson  on  the  topic    TIER  1:  Scaffold:  Students  are  given  a  set  of  mul--­‐step  problems  (2,3  etc)  ,  as  set  of  direc-ons,  and  an  example  problem  solved  

TIER  2:  On  level:  Students  given  a  set  of  mul--­‐step  problems  with  a  set  of  direc-ons  

TIER  3:  “Next”  level:    students  given  set  of  mul--­‐step  problems  

   

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Tiered  Science  •  Subject:  Science  •  Understanding:  life  cycle  of  bumerfly  •  Background:  last  lesson  on  the  topic    TIER  1:  On  level:  Students  given  a  flow  chart  and  asked  to  complete  with  the  life  cycle  of  a  buferfly  

 TIER  2:  “Next”  level:    students  told  to  draw  and  label  the  life  cycle  of  a  buferfly  

 

(This  can  be  use  with  any  “cycle”  topic)      

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Tiered  Art  •  Subject:  Grade  4  Art  •  Understanding:  How  to  draw  a  realis'c  figure  focusing  on  the  details  of  propor'on  

•  Background:  mid-­‐lesson  on  the  topic    TIER  1:  Scaffold:  Students  draw  s-ck  figures  drawn  from  mannequin  models  –  in  propor-on    

 TIER  2:  on  level:    students  draw  sausage/bubble  style  shapes  for  limbs    and  body  in  propor-on  

 Tier  3  :  “Next”  level  model  realis-c  characteris-cs  from  live  models  

     

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Tiered  Math  •  Subject:  Grade  1  Math  -­‐  Money  •  Understanding:  Coin  values  •  Background:  1st  –  2nd  lesson  on  the  topic    TIER  1:  Scaffold:  Play  “money  trade  up”  game  with  dice  and  coins.  A  money  “trade  up”  table/picture  provided  with  two  examples  (trade  2  nickels  for  a  dime)  

 TIER  2:  on  level:  Play  “money  trade  up”  game  with  dice  and  coins.  No  examples,  etc  provided  

 

Tier  3  :  Give  students  a  list  of  items  and  costs  and  have  them  show  at  least  two  different  coin  combos  for  each  

     

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In  Reality  

•  The  important  thing  to  understand  is  that  the  Tiered  Ac'vity  is  flexible  and  you  can  use  it  to  meet  the  needs  of  various  types  of  learners:  Scaffolding,  Mastery,  Enrichment  Challenge  

•  It  can  be  wrimen  into  the  curriculum  to  save  you  'me  or  provide  you  with  ideas  for  other  ac'vi'es    

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Let’s  Try  It  –  Be  ready  to  share  •  Subject  •  Key  Understanding  (Objec've)  •  Background  

•  Make  two  'ers:  Decide  if  you  are  going  to  scaffold  ('er  1)  to  grade  level  ('er  2)    or  'er  from  grade  level  ('er  1)  to  the  “next”  level  ('er  2)  

•  Beginning  of  unit  –  maybe  start  at  scaffold  –  middle  or  end  of  lesson,  'er  up  to  “next  level”  

 

•  Remember  –  change  the  level  of  complexity  –  support  (do  in  groups  of  4-­‐5)  

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Tiered  Lesson  Design  Rubric  • Tiered  Levels  meet  the  objec-ve  of  the  lesson  and  the  NJCCCS  

• Are  all  levels:  

•   Interes-ng  

•   Engaging  

•   Challenging  

•   Paced  Properly  for  all  readiness  

•   RespecZul  Ac-vi-es  

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RAFTS

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DI  Strategy:    RAFTS  •  Strategy  designed  to  help  students  focus  on  

wri-ng    and  reasoning  while  coming  to  understand  essen-al  concepts  

•  High  interest  strategy  that  encourages  differen-ated  wri'ng  across  the  curriculum  

•  Gives  students  choice,  appealing  to  their  interests  and  learning  preference,  and  adap-ng  to  their  readiness  levels  

•  Can  be  used  as  “hooks”  into  new  units,  applica-on  within  a  unit,  or  extension  ac-vi-es  

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RAFT  

RAFT  is  an  acronym  that  stands  for  

Role  of  the  writer.    What  is  the  writer’s  role:    reporter,  observer,  ar-st,  historian,  eyewitness?  

Audience.    Who  will  be  reading  this  wri-ng:    the  teacher,  other  students,  a  parent,  people  in  the  community,  an  editor?  

Format.    What  is  the  best  way  to  present  this  wri-ng:    in  a  lefer,  an  ar-cle,  a  report,  a  poem?  

Topic.    Who  or  what  is  the  subject  of  this  wri-ng:    a  famous  mathema-cian,  a  dinosaur  who  ruled  the  earth,  a  reac-on  to  a  specific  event,  a  poli-cal  situa-on?  

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A RAFT is….

A way to encourage students to… • Assume a ROLE • Consider their AUDIENCE, while

•  Examining a topic from their chosen perspective, and

• Writing in a particular FORMAT

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Feudal System Raft ��Role� Audience� Format � Topic�

King � The Subjects� Proclamation � Read My Lips, New Taxes�

Knight � Squire� Job Description � Chivalry, Is it for You? �

Lord � King � Contract � Let’s Make a Deal�

Serf� Animals� Lament Poem� My So Called Life�

Monk � Masses� Illuminated Manuscript �

Do As I Say, Not As I Do�

Following the RAFT activity, students will share their research and perspectives in mixed role groups of approximately five. Groups will have a “discussion agenda” to guide their conversation. -Kathryn Seaman 81  

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Feudal System Raft ��Role� Audience� Format � Topic�

King � The Subjects� Proclamation � Read My Lips, New Taxes�

Knight � Squire� Job Description � Chivalry, Is it for You? �

Lord � King � Contract � Let’s Make a Deal�

Serf� Animals� Lament Poem� My So Called Life�

Monk � Masses� Illuminated Manuscript �

Do As I Say, Not As I Do�

Following the RAFT activity, students will share their research and perspectives in mixed role groups of approximately five. Groups will have a “discussion agenda” to guide their conversation. -Kathryn Seaman 82  

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Feudal System Raft ��Role� Audience� Format � Topic�

King � The Subjects� Proclamation � Read My Lips, New Taxes�

Knight � Squire� Job Description Bulleted List �

Chivalry, Is it for You? �

Lord � King � Contract � Let’s Make a Deal�

Serf� Animals� Lament Poem� My So Called Life�

Monk � Masses� Illuminated Manuscript �

Do As I Say, Not As I Do�

Following the RAFT activity, students will share their research and perspectives in mixed role groups of approximately five. Groups will have a “discussion agenda” to guide their conversation. -Kathryn Seaman 83  

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�Social Studies RAFT�

Students will�Know: �" "Names and roles of groups in the feudal class system.�

Understand: �" "Roles in the feudal system were interdependent. A person’s role in the feudal system will shape his/her perspective on events.�

Be Able to Do: �" "Research�" "See events through varied perspectives�" "Share research & perspectives with peers�

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Sample RAFT Strips�Role� Audience� Format � Topic�

Semicolon Middle School Diary Entry I Wish You Really Understood Where I Belong

N.Y. Times Public Op Ed piece How our Language Defines Who We Are

Huck Finn Tom Sawyer Note hidden in a tree knot

A Few Things You Should Know

Rain Drop Future Droplets Advice Column The Beauty of Cycles

Lung Owner Owner’s Guide To Maximize Product Life

Rain Forest John Q. Citizen Paste Up “Ransom” Note

Before It’s Too Late

Reporter Public Obituary Hitler is Dead

Martin Luther King TV audience of 2010

Speech The Dream Revisited

Thomas Jefferson Current Residents of Virginia

Full page newspaper ad

If I could Talk to You Now

Fractions Whole numbers Petition To Be Considered A Part of the Family

A word problem Students in your class

Set of directions How to Get to Know Me

Lang

uage

Arts

Scie

nce

Hist

ory

Mat

h

Format based on the work of Doug Buehl cited in Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me Then Who?, Billmeyer and Martin, 1998 85  

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Sample RAFT Strips�Role� Audience� Format � Topic�

Semicolon Middle School Diary Entry I Wish You Really Understood Where I Belong

N.Y. Times Public Op Ed piece How our Language Defines Who We Are

Huck Finn Tom Sawyer Note hidden in a tree knot

A Few Things You Should Know

Rain Drop Future Droplets Advice Column The Beauty of Cycles Lung Owner Owner’s Guide To Maximize Product Life

Rain Forest John Q. Citizen Paste Up “Ransom” Note

Before It’s Too Late

Reporter Public Obituary Hitler is Dead Martin Luther King TV audience of

2010 Speech The Dream Revisited

Thomas Jefferson Current Residents of Virginia

Full page newspaper ad

If I could Talk to You Now

Fractions Whole numbers Petition To Be Considered A Part of the Family

A word problem Students in your class

Set of directions How to Get to Know Me

Lang

uage

Arts

Scie

nce

Hist

ory

Mat

h

Format based on the work of Doug Buehl cited in Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me Then Who?, Billmeyer and Martin, 1998 86  

Page 87: Introduction to Differentiated Instruction · Differentiated Instruction! Objectives! • Provide an overview of differentiated instruction! – Explore how curriculum and instruction

Sample RAFT Strips�Role� Audience� Format � Topic�

Semicolon Middle School Diary Entry I Wish You Really Understood Where I Belong

N.Y. Times Public Op Ed piece How our Language Defines Who We Are

Huck Finn Tom Sawyer Note hidden in a tree knot

A Few Things You Should Know

Rain Drop Future Droplets Advice Column The Beauty of Cycles

Lung Owner Owner’s Guide To Maximize Product Life

Rain Forest John Q. Citizen Paste Up “Ransom” Note

Before It’s Too Late

Reporter Public Obituary Hitler is Dead

Martin Luther King TV audience of 2010

Speech The Dream Revisited

Thomas Jefferson Current Residents of Virginia

Full page newspaper ad

If I could Talk to You Now

Fractions Whole numbers Petition To Be Considered A Part of the Family

A word problem Students in your class

Set of directions How to Get to Know Me

Lang

uage

Arts

Scie

nce

Hist

ory

Mat

h

Format based on the work of Doug Buehl cited in Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me Then Who?, Billmeyer and Martin, 1998 87  

Page 88: Introduction to Differentiated Instruction · Differentiated Instruction! Objectives! • Provide an overview of differentiated instruction! – Explore how curriculum and instruction

Sample RAFT Strips�Role� Audience� Format � Topic�

Semicolon Middle School Diary Entry I Wish You Really Understood Where I Belong

N.Y. Times Public Op Ed piece How our Language Defines Who We Are

Huck Finn Tom Sawyer Note hidden in a tree knot

A Few Things You Should Know

Rain Drop Future Droplets Advice Column The Beauty of Cycles

Lung Owner Owner’s Guide To Maximize Product Life

Rain Forest John Q. Citizen Paste Up “Ransom” Note

Before It’s Too Late

Reporter Public Obituary Hitler is Dead

Martin Luther King TV audience of 2010

Speech The Dream Revisited

Thomas Jefferson Current Residents of Virginia

Full page newspaper ad

If I could Talk to You Now

Fractions Decimals Petition To Be Considered A Part of the Family

A word problem Students in your class

Set of directions How to Get to Know Me

Lang

uage

Arts

Scie

nce

Hist

ory

Mat

h

Format based on the work of Doug Buehl cited in Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me Then Who?, Billmeyer and Martin, 1998 88  

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MUSIC RAFT �Role� Audience� Format � Topic�

Eighth Note � Quarter Note��

Directions� How you get here from

there�Beat � Self� Diary Entry� I wish rhythm

knew how we were related�

Music Professor�

Student � Essay� Note versus Rote. What do

you think?��

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Science RAFT�Role� Audience� Format � Topic�

Conductor� Insulator� Persuasive Letter�

Why I need to go through�

Insulator� Conductor� Friendly Letter� How my job is different from

yours �Light Bulb � Switch� Song and

Powerpoint�You light up my life? How do you do it?�

�Simple Circuit � Electric

Current �Labeled Diagram�

Follow this path to the

light! �90  

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Physics  Role� Audience� Format � Topic�Mass � Acceleration �

�Instructions for

finding F posted on a social networking site: Including the

formula�

Think about the possibilities if we

get together. �

Boxer’s Fist� Opponent’s Face � Email message � Momentum: I hit your face, you hit the floor – what

does it take?�

Friend� Friend� Friendly letter that tells the

friend the density of his/her brain �

Dude – you’re dense. I feel like I am talking to a

brick wall.��

Teacher  would  have  stats/details/  etc  for  each  topic:  i.e.  mass  and  volume  of  the  friend’s  brain…   91  

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Novel  RAFT:  Tuck  Everlas'ng  

 Role  

 Audience  

 Format  

 Topic  

!May Tuck  

!Funeral Attendees  

!Eulogy  

You made the right choice Winnie!  

!Winnie Foster  

!Jessie Tuck  

!Letter  

Sorry I couldn’t honor your request.  

The Man in the Yellow Suit  

!Investors  

!Business Proposal  

There’s lots of money to be made.  

!The Toad  

!Winnie  

Oral presentation/  Dramatization  

As I see it -You have changed!  

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Generic  Book  Plot    

Role    

Audience    

Format    

Topic  

!(1) Protagonist  

!Antagonist  

!Email  

Yo, here’s the problem?  

!(2) Antagonist  

!Protagonist  

!Letter  

Hey, this is the solution.  

! (3) Author  

!Book Publisher  

!Plot Chart  

!Here’s my idea…  

!(4) Main Character  

!You  

!Story Chart  

This is the way my story goes….  

!(5) You!

!Friend!

!Four-block Comic

Strip!

!Let me show and tell you about this book….!

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Generic  RAFT  for  Making  Reading  Connec'ons  

94  

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Generic  RAFT  for  Comprehension:  Summarizing  

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RAFT  Possibili-es  

Role Audience Format Topic Writer Artist Character Scientist Adventurer Inventer Juror Judge Historian Reporter Rebel Therapist Journalist Teacher

Self Peer group Younger students Government Parents Fictional character Committee Jury Judge Animals Objects

Journal Editorial Brochure/booklet Interview Video Song Cartoon Game Primary documents Critique Biographical sketch Newspaper article Poem Paragraph Others??

Issues relevant to the text or time period Topic of personal interest or concern for role or audience Topic related to essential question(s) and KUDs

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Designing  a  RAFT:    Keep  Your  GOALS  in  Mind:  Set  the  Objec've  

 KNOW:  What  do  you  

want  students  to  know?  

UNDERSTAND:  What  do  they  need  to  understand  

DO:  What  will  they  do?  

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Designing  a  RAFT  

1.  Determine  what  you  want  students  to  know,  understand,  and  do  (K.U.D.)  

2.      Analyze  the  important  concepts  you  want  students  to  learn,  and  think  about  how  wri-ng  or  drawing  can  enhance  this  learning  

3.      Brainstorm  possible  roles  students  could  be  in  their  wri-ng  and  a  format  to  demonstrate  their  understanding  

4.      Decide  who  the  audience  will  be  and  determine  the  format  and  topic  

5.      Students  can  all  be  assigned  the  same  role  or  you  could  offer  different  roles   98  

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Feudal System Raft �Role� Audience� Format � Topic�King � The Subjects� Proclamation � Read My Lips,

New Taxes�Knight � Squire� Job Description � Chivalry, Is it

for You? �Lord � King � Contract � Let’s Make a

Deal�Serf� Animals� Lament Poem� My So Called

Life�Monk � Masses� Illuminated

Manuscript �Do As I Say, Not As I Do�

Lady � Pages� Song� What I Need from You �

Following the RAFT activity, students will share their research and perspectives in mixed role groups of approximately five. Groups will have a “discussion agenda” to guide their conversation. -Kathryn Seaman 99  

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A  RAFT  Ac'vity  For  You  

1.  Think  about  a  unit  in  a  subject  area.  2.  Using  the  RAFT  template,  create  at  least  three  

strips  on  the  RAFT.  3.  Remember  –  FIRST:  Develop  the  K.U.D.  for  the  

RAFT  4.  Keep  in  mind  that  your  strips  topics  must  relate  to  

the  K.U.D.    5.  Be  prepared  to  share  your  RAFTs  and  comment  on  

your  peers’  RAFTs.  

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COACH IT UP •  Does the RAFT:

•  Iden-fy  what  students  should  know,  understand,  and  do  (K.U.D.)  

 •   Have  students  analyze  the  important  

concepts  you  want  them  to  learn.      •   Provide  for  various  roles  students  

could  be  in  their  wri-ng  and  a  format  to  demonstrate  their  understanding  

 •   Inden-fy  the  audience    •   Meet  or  exceeds  the  NJCCCS

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My Community Raft��Role� Audience� Format � Topic�

Fireman � A Friend� Letter� This is what I do for a job�

Fireman � A Friend� Picture � This is what I do for a job�

Fireman � A Friend� List of the things Police

do �

This is what I do for a job�

You  can  control  all  other  aspects  except  the  one  you  want  to  differen-ate.  Format  is  the  PRODUCT  aspect  of  DI.  You  would  DI  this  by  wri-ng  readiness.    You  could  use  this  same  RAFT  to  DI  by  interest  (Choice).    We  can  change  it  to  DI  by  CONTENT.    But  Wait:  It  is  s-ll  not  a  differen-ated  ac-vity  yet….    

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My Community Raft��Role� Audience� Format � Topic�

Fireman � A Friend� Letter� This is what I do for a job�

Fireman � A Friend� Picture � This is what I do for a job�

Fireman � A Friend� List of the things Police

do �

This is what I do for a job�

It  becomes  differen-ated  when  you  have  specific  students    complete  specific  strips  based  on  the  goal  of  you  differen-a-on.  In  this  case,  we  differen-ated  by  product.    In  this  case,  the  product  was  also  differen-ated  by  wri-ng  readiness.  Let’s  disucss.      

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My Community Raft��Role� Audience� Format � Topic�

Fireman � Policeman � Letter� This is what I do for a job�

Fireman � Postal Worker� Letter� How my job different from

yours?�

DI  by  CONTENT  (Topic  por-on  of  the  RAFT).    It  depends  on  your  objec-ve.      The  first  strip  is  a  lifle  less  complex  content  –  the  2nd  one  is  compare  and  contrast  -­‐    

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Revise  Your  RAFT  

•  Take  15  minutes  to  revise  your  RAFT.  Make  sure  you  differen-ate  by  one  of  the  following_  

•  Readiness  (Topic)  •  Product  &  Readiness  (Format)  •  Interest  (Choice  –  you  will  have  different  R,A,F,  &  T)  

•  Be  ready  to  share  –  What  did  you  DI  and  why?  

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RAFTs can… •  Be differentiated in a variety

of ways: readiness level, learning profile, and/or student interest

•  Be created by the students or Incorporate a blank row for that option

•  Be used as introductory “hooks” into a unit of study

•  Keep one column consistent while varying the other columns in the RAFT grid

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Analyzing a RAFT Lesson •  What are the learning goals for this lesson and are

they built into every choice? •  How is this RAFT being differentiated?

–  Does it appeal to different learning styles? –  Is there a range of difficulty in the:

•  Roles? •  Formats? •  Readiness levels?

–  Do the roles, formats or topics appeal to a variety of interests?

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Structured Academic Controversy ���

•  Controversy can fuel some great discussions and cultivate rich thinking and language. Structured academic controversies (SAC) emphasize communication, perspective-taking, and problem-solving (Johnson & Johnson, 1995).

•  Unlike debates, students work together to collaborate

on a resolution to the controversy after they have taken both sides of the issue. They are less competitive—there is no “winner” or “loser.”

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Closure 1. Tell yourself the components of a RAFT assignment.

2. Write the components of a RAFT assignment and a tip you would give to a new teacher as he/she begins to develop a RAFT.

3. Share your tip with a neighbor. 4. Be ready to share out.

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Some resources

•  www.cast.org •  http://daretodifferentiate.wikispaces.com/

Professional+Development+Tools •  Google search INCLUDE grant UDL •  PD 360

•  http://www.xtranormal.com/

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