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Introduction to Oracle9i

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    Introduction to Oracle9i : SQLRavi Tejaswi Dhulipalla

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    Agenda of the Todays session

    SQL Intro

    SQL Select

    SQL Where

    SQL Insert

    SQL Update

    SQL Delete SQL Order By

    SQL AND & OR

    SQL IN

    SQL Between

    SQL Alias

    SQL Join

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    SQL Introduction

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    Objectives

    SDLC

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    Strategy and Analysis

    Study and analyze the business requirements. Interview users and managers toidentify the information requirements. Incorporate the enterprise and application

    mission statements as well as any future system specifications. Build models of the system. Transfer the business narrative into a graphical

    representation of business information needs and rules. Confirm and refine themodel with the analysts and experts.

    Design

    Design the database based on the model developed in the strategy and analysisphase.

    Build and Document

    Build the prototype system. Write and execute the commands to create the tables andsupporting objects for the database.

    Develop user documentation, Help text, and operations manuals to support the use

    and operation of the system.

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    Transition

    Refine the prototype. Move an application into production with useracceptance testing, conversion of existing data, and parallel operations. Make anymodifications required.

    Production

    Roll out the system to the users. Operate the production system. Monitor itsperformance, and enhance and refine the system.

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    Data: Pieces of information are called data.

    Data Base : A database is an organized collection of information.

    DBMS: To manage databases, you need database management systems

    (DBMS). A DBMS is a program that stores, retrieves, and modifies data in

    the database on request.

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    Data Models:

    Models are a cornerstone of design. Engineers build a model of a car to workout anydetails before putting it into production. In the same manner, system designersdevelop models to explore ideas and improve the understanding of the databasedesign.

    Purpose of Models

    Models help communicate the concepts in peoples minds. They can be usedto do the following:

    Communicate

    Categorize

    Describe

    Specify

    Investigate Evolve

    Analyze

    Imitate

    The objective is to produce a model that fits a multitude of these uses, can beunderstood by an end user, and contains sufficient detail for a developer to build adatabase system.

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    Entity: A thing of significance about which information needs to be known.Examples are departments, employees, and orders.

    Attribute: Something that describes or qualifies an entity. For example, for

    the employee entity, the attributes would be the employee number, name,

    job title, hire date, department number, and so on. Each of the attributes is

    either required or optional. This state is called optionality.

    Relationship: A named association between entities showing optionality and

    degree. Examples

    are employees and departments, and orders and items.

    E

    R Model :An Entity Relationship (ER) model is an illustration of variousentities in a business and the relationships between them. An ER model is

    derived from business specifications or narratives and built during the

    analysis phase of the system development life cycle

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    Benefits ofER Modeling:

    Documents information for the organization in a clear, precise format

    Provides a clear picture of the scope of the information requirement

    Provides an easily understood pictorial map for the database design

    Offers an effective framework for integrating multiple applications

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    Guidelines for Primary Keys and Foreign Keys

    You cannot use duplicate values in a primary key. Primary keys generally cannot be changed.

    Foreign keys are based on data values and are purely logical, not physical,

    pointers.

    A foreign key value must match an existing primary key value or else be

    null.

    A foreign key must reference either a primary key column.

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    Objective

    Select

    Where

    Insert Update

    Delete

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    Describe Table Structure

    Describe ;

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    Manipulating Data

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    SQL JOINS

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    Using the SQL: 1999 syntax, you can obtain the same results as were shown inthe prior pages.

    In the syntax:

    table1.column - Denotes the table and column from which data is retrieved

    CROSS JOIN - Returns a Cartesian product from the two tables

    NATU

    RAL JOIN - Joins two tables based on the same column name JOIN table

    USING column_name - Performs an equijoin based on the column name

    JOIN table ON

    table1.column_name -Performs an equijoin based on the condition in theON clause

    = table2.column_nameLEFT/RIGHT/FULL OUTER

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    Thank you

    Reach me at [email protected]

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