INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION HAPPY TO BE ME! HAPPY TO BE ME!
WHAT IS HAPPY TO BE ME ALL ABOUT? Its about telling a story It is told from a particular point of view It is filled with precise detail It uses plot, including setting and characters; a climax; and an ending It uses dialogue to bring characters to life It uses conflict and sequence as does any story It shows how the character(s) resolves the conflict and what happens next It leaves the reader with strong emotion and an important lesson
THE FIVE ELEMENTS OF A STORY 1)Introduction 2)Rising action 3)Climax 4)Falling action 5)Resolution
WHY DO WE READ STORIES TO OUR CHILDREN? Because it is something children can understand!
SOMETHING A CHILD CAN UNDERSTAND Bibliotherapy and its Potential Applications in the Foster Care Environment A project developed by Todd Fries, Dan Velton & Eric Despotes
WHAT IS BIBLIOTHERAPY? Bibliotherapy Literally involves treatment through books - Pardeck & Pardeck, 1998 Guided reading of written materials to help the reader grow in self awareness - Harris & Hodges, 1995 Process of dynamic interaction between the personality of the reader and literature under the guidance of a trained helper - Shrodes, 1950
WHAT ARE THE BENFITS OF BIBLIOTHERAPY? Increases awareness of and empathetic understanding for other cultures, lifestyles & lived experiences Provides a Mirror: increases appreciation of, pride in & identification with ones own identity, culture, ethnitcity Promotes coping skills with lifes challenges and relieve emotional or mental pressure Provides information and alternatives solutions to a problem Stimulates discussion of feelings and ideas Increases enjoyment of literature and reading
TYPES OF BIBLIOTHERAPY 1)Developmental: The use of literature and facilitative processes by skilled helpers to assist individuals in dealing with life transitional and normal developmental issues 2)Clinical: The use of literature and facilitative processes by skilled mental health or medical clinicians in meeting a deliberate therapeutic goal for the purpose of assisting individuals in dealing with severe disorders and traumatic life experiences
ROOTS OF BIBLIOTHERAPY Bibliotherapy can be traced as far back as the ancient days of Greece, when libraries were first formed. Although bibliotherapy has been around for centuries, it may have been referred to by different terms depending on the time period, such as: Bilbio-counseling Biblio-guidance Biblio-psychology Book matching Literatherapy Library Therapeutics Literapeutics Reading Therapy
ROOTS OF BIBLIOTHERAPY In the early part of the nineteenth century, scholarly articles began to appear that promoted the use of reading as a therapeutic measure; specifically, reading was viewed as one of the best ways to treat mental patients By the mid-nineteenth century, every major mental institution in the country had a patients library with carefully selected books, for use by the patients Although the concept and knowledge of bibliotherapy has been known since ancient times, it wasnt until 1916 that bibliotherapy was given the specific term to imply the use of books as a therapeutic means to help people In addition, bibliotherapy was not applied to children until almost half a century later in 1946
HOW CAN BIBLIOTHERAPY HELP CHILDREN? Adoption and foster care Bullying Death and dying Disabilities and handicaps Divorce, separation and step-families Alcoholism and abuse Nutrition and healthy eating Anger management
WHO SHOULD CONDUCT BIBLIOTHERAPY? Mental health professionals Teachers Librarians Social workers Parents CAUTION: Bibliotherapy must be handled with great delicacy, and not every practitioner possesses the personal qualifications to be a facilitator in the process. Those who are interested, however, should possess personal stability; a genuine interest in working with others; and the ability to empathize with others without moralizing, threatening, or commanding
WHO SHOULD CONDUCT BIBLIOTHERAPY? Although traditional bibliotherapy may be carried out by a therapist, using fiction to help children isn't limited to that setting As children read fiction and observe the behavior of the characters, they learn how to solve problems or at least that problems can be solved A parent, a teacher, a librarian or a counselor who knows a particular child need not shy away from finding an appropriate fiction book for that child Reserving bibliotherapy to specialists means foregoing a valuable tool to help kids with resources available to all of us NOTE: Bibliotherapy is an adjunct, NOT a substitute, for therapy
HOW DOES BIBLIOTHERAPY WORK? All models expand from initial Psychodynamic Model developed by Carolyn Shrodes (1949) Four stages or steps: 1.Identification (projection) 2.Catharsis (abreaction) 3.Insight (self-awareness) 4.Universalization
THE FOUR STAGES AS APPLIED TO CHILDREN Identification - the youngster identifies with a book character and events in the story, either real or fictitious. Sometimes it is best to have a character of similar age to the youngster who faces similar events. At other times, cartoon characters and stories are best Catharsis - the youngster becomes emotionally involved in the story and is able to release pent-up emotions under safe conditions (often through discussion or art work) Insight - the youngster, after catharsis (with the help of the teacher/parent), becomes aware that his/her problems might also be addressed or solved. Possible solutions to the book character's and one's own personal problems are identified Universalization the youngster understands that their problems are not theirs alone and realize that they are not isolated in either circumstances or feelings
HOW SHOULD BIBLIOTHERAPY BE CONDUCTED? The basic procedures in conducting bibliotherapy are: (1)motivate the individual or individuals with introductory activities; (2)provide time for reading the material; (3)allow incubation time; (4)provide follow-up discussion time, using questions that will lead persons from literal recall of information through interpretation, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of that information; and (5)conduct evaluation and direct the individual or individuals toward closure--this involves both evaluation by the practitioner and self-evaluation by the individual
WHEN CONDUCTING BIBLIOTHERAPY, FACILITATORS SHOULD 1. PRE-READ THE BOOK Pre-reading to decide which text and/or illustrations to emphasize, or edit out, helps maximize focus on what is causing the child concern. 2. INTRODUCE WHY YOU ARE READING TO THE CHILD Use a simple opening script to avoid getting tongue tied. For example, explain We are reading this book because (..youre being placed in a foster home with a new family..) and, you may have some questions, or feelings, about this. This book can help us sort these out. 3. MAXIMIZE SUCESSUL LISTENING AND TALKING Read in a quiet, calm and uninterrupted environment to avoid having to strain when you talk to or listen to the child. TVs, computers and music systems should be turned off. 4. OPEN & GUIDE DISCUSSSION BY OPEN ENDED QUESTIONS Avoid asking questions that can be answered by only yes or no and instead use open ended questions to better understand the childs thoughts, concerns and feelings. 5. BALANCE HEAVY AND LIGHT Reading therapeutic books can be a difficult and heavy experience for the child, so help them transition back into their routine life by a light. For example, saying: OK, before we end todays reading lets both share one thing weve seen this week that was funny.
TAKE A LOOK, ITS IN A BOOK! A NEW HOME FOR FINALOO WRITTEN BY TODD FRIES, DAN VELTON & ERIC DESPOTES ILLUSTRATED BY TODD FRIES
FINALOO A BRIEF DISCUSSION What problem(s) does this book address? What was the overall mood of the book? How did the book make you feel? What metaphors were used in the book? Who does Bobby represent? Who does Finaloo represent? Who does Bobbys mother represent? What does the second hand store represent? Did anyone notice the play on words w/ second hand store? Who does Thomas represent?
FINALOO - A BRIEF DISCUSSION Who does Bobby represent?
FINALOO - A BRIEF DISCUSSION Who does Finaloo represent?
FINALOO - A BRIEF DISCUSSION Who does Bobbys mother represent?
FINALOO - A BRIEF DISCUSSION What does the second- hand store represent?
FINALOO - A BRIEF DISCUSSION Who does Thomas represent?
WHY USE BIBLIOTHERAPY IN FOSTER CARE? Reading stories such as A New Home for Finaloo can provide a much needed sense of community for foster parents and children and can be used more purposefully as a starting point for discussion between case workers and foster parents, between case workers and foster children and between foster parents and their children The millions of children in foster care benefit from the opportunity to learn about themselves through the characters and to lear