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IPCC methodologies and reporting principles Kristin Rypdal, CICERO & IPCC author

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IPCC methodologies and reporting principles Kristin Rypdal, CICERO & IPCC author Slide 2 2 Outline IPCC process and role Reporting principles Methods to estimate emissions from aviation and shipping Slide 3 3 IPCC work on inventory guidelines Guidance on how to compile an inventory Methods Emission factors Decision trees for selecting a method Allocation principles Reporting tables On invitation from UNFCCC Adopted by UNFCCC Formal reporting guidelines and tables Slide 4 4 IPCC UNFCCC 1996 Guidelines Good practice Guidance (2004) 2006 Guidelines Annex I Kyoto Protocol ? Non-Annex I Slide 5 5 IPCC Guidelines Authors nominated by the countries Three rounds of expert and government review and revision Accepted by IPCC plenary in 2006 Adoption of overview chapter Available for use at http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/ Slide 6 6 IPCC 2006 Guidelines The series consists of five volumes: Volume 1 General Guidance and Reporting Volume 2 Energy Volume 3 Industrial Processes and Product Use Volume 4 Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Volume 5 Waste Slide 7 7 Aviation and maritime transport Shipping Ocean shipping Inland shipping Fishing Military Small craft Aviation Charter and scheduled aviation Military General aviation Slide 8 8 IPCC reporting principles National inventories should include greenhouse gas emissions and removals taking place within national territory and offshore areas over which the country has jurisdiction A list of special considerations Slide 9 9 Reporting of aviation and shipping Emissions from fuel for use in ships or aircraft engaged in international transport should not be included in national total, these emissions should be reported separately Emissions from bunkers is reported as a so- called memo item by the country selling the fuel Domestic/international split based on departure and arrival, not nationality of the airline Slide 10 10 Domestic vs. international International Domestic International Oslo Frankfurt Munich Slide 11 11 Domestic vs. international (2) Simplification in the 2006 Guidelines of technical stops E.g. a ship going from Troms in Norway to Rotterdam, but stops outside Bergen (Norway) to fuel Troms- Bergen segment would be national under 2006 Guidelines International under Good practice guidance An open question if fuel statistics matches the IPCC definition In most countries makes not much difference in practice Seeking general consistency between aviation and shipping Slide 12 12 Reporting of fishing Reported separately from shipping Separate category in 2006 Guidelines Fishing includes emissions from fuel used in inland, coastal and deep sea fishing. Emissions resulting from fuel used in coastal and deep sea fishing should be allocated to the country delivering the fuel No bunkers Quality of statistics? Slide 13 13 Reporting of military Is reported as non-specified Emissions from multilateral operations are reported as a memo item excluded from national total Countries may report military bunkers as for shipping/aviation provided that they can apply the definition consistently 2006 Guidelines Slide 14 14 Methods (general) Tier 1 Simplest method Activity data available to all countries Tier 2 Technology-specific emission factor Tier 3 More detailed or country-specific methods Slide 15 15 Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Feasibility Accuracy Slide 16 16 What method is appropiate to use? Using the key category concept Step 1 Identify those sources that matter Level (largest sources) Trend (changing sources) Step 2 Use a decision trees to select a method based on country-specific circumstances Data availability Importance For non-key sources a Tier 1 method is appropriate For key sources - use a higher tier method Slide 17 17 Methods: aviation Tier 1: Fuel consumed * Emission factor Landing-takeoff (LTO) and cruise estimated jointly Tier 2: LTO: No LTOs * emission factor Cruise: Fuel (Total- LTO) * emission factor By aircraft type Requires fuel data with a domestic- international split! Slide 18 18 Methods: aviation (2) Tier 3: Aircraft movement data Origin and destination Reference to EMEP/Corinair Guidebook Full flight trajectory Computer models Guidance to activity data collection Emission factors Emission factor database EMEP/Corinair Slide 19 19 Methods: shipping Tier 1: Fuel consumed * Emission factor National level Tier 2: Fuel split by type and vehicle Tier 1 and Tier 2 requires fuel data with domestic international split! Tier 3: Not specified Makes reference to EMEP/Corinair Guidebook Slide 20 20 Methods: Fishing As the shipping method Tier 1 adequate Tier 3 will differ and is not specified Activity data Fuel consumption data Slide 21 21 Methods: Military aviation and shipping Same method as civil aviation at Tier 1 level Tier 3 will differ Fuel flow (kg/hour) Slide 22 22 What method is appropriate to use? IPCC focuses on the Kyoto-gases CO 2, CH 4, N 2 O NO x and SO 2 are included, but not described in detail Reference to EMEP/Corinair emission inventory guidebook Choice of method does not matter much CH 4 and N 2 O of minor importance Not much information CO 2 fuel dependent only Only Tier 3 can provide independent activity data from fuel statistics Slide 23 23 EMEP/Corinair emission inventory Guidebook Developed under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution Hosted by EEA Methods and emission factors for air pollutant inventories (NO x etc.) Currently undergoing a major update and restructuring funded by the EC Consistency with IPCC Guidelines Complementary to the IPCC Guidelines Review and finalization spring 2008 Not main focus on Tier 3 methods Slide 24 24 EMEP/Corinair emission inventory Guidebook (2) Shipping Sailing routes Vessel categories Tabulated fuel and emission factors Aviation LTO data and average cruise distances per aircraft type Generic aircrafts Tabulated fuel consumption and emission factors Tables generated from more sophisticated models Slide 25 25 EMEP/Corinair emission inventory Guidebook (3) For both aviation and shipping method and fuel/emission factors need refinement Can generate inventories independent of fuel data Estimates for reporting Verification Can be compiled by countries without using sophisticated data and models Slide 26 26 Personal views of needs for improvements Easy Tier 3 methods that can be applied to estimate fuel consumption Need to match available statistics Fuel consumption factors Can build on sophisticated models NO x emission factors Aviation LTO Cruise Shipping Fishing Activity data and emission factors Military Slide 27 27 Conclusions Methods and definitions have developed from 1996 Guidelines to 2006 Guidelines Practical consequences are small Simpler methods all rely on fuel statistics Tier 3 methods to estimate fuel consumption need development Definitions and methods are in general more challenging to apply to shipping compared to aviation

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