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IRW Chapter 14

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In Concert: An Integrated Reading and Writing Approach by Kathleen T. McWhorter

Part Four:Critical Thinking, Reading, and Writing

Chapter 14:Critical Thinking: Evaluating the Authors Techniques

PowerPoint by Sarah Gilliam, Instructor of EnglishMountain Empire Community College

Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.In Concert:

An Integrated Reading and Writing Approach

by Kathleen T. McWhorterChapter 14: Critical Thinking: Evaluating the Authors TechniquesIn this chapter, you will learn how to:Goal 1Goal 2Goal 3Goal 5Goal 4Evaluate the authors techniquesUnderstand connotative and figurative languageAnalyze assumptionsEvaluate generalizationsIdentify biasWrite effectively and fairlyGoal 6Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.2Critical thinking, reading, and writing involve examining what is said and how it is said.

Writers choose techniques that help them achieve their purpose, convey a message, and reach their audience.

Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Goal 1: Evaluate the Authors Techniques3

Denotative meanings are standard dictionary definitions.

Connotative meanings are the feelings or other associations that accompany a word.

Figurative language makes a comparison between two unalike things that share one common characteristic.Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Goal 2: Understand Connotative and Figurative LanguageWord choice can greatly influence a reader, so writers must choose words carefully. Critical reading involves understanding the connotative meanings of words. Connotative meanings can vary by individual, and they can be used to spark an emotional response. Remember to be alert for meaning as suggested by the authors word choice. When writing, be sure to make appropriate word choices.

Activities:Exercises 14-1, 14-2, and 14-3 on pages 427428. Each exercise emphasizes understanding connotations. 4

Figurative language makes a comparison between two unalike things that share one common characteristic.

Types of Figurative Language:SimileMetaphorPersonification

Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Goal 2: Understand Connotative and Figurative LanguageFigurative language is creative and full of imagery, creating a visual for the reader. Planting this image communicates the authors purpose to the reader.

Similes use like or as to make a comparisonMetaphors state or imply the relationship between the two unalike itemsPersonification compares humans to nonhumans and attributes human characteristics to objects or ideas

Evaluating Figurative Language:Why does the author make the comparison?What is the basis of the comparison?Is the comparison accurate?What images does the comparison make you visualize, and how do you feel about them?Is the comparison positive or negative?Are several different interpretations possible?5An assumption is an idea or principle the writer accepts as true and makes no effort to substantiate.

Assumptions often use the terms if, since, and when.

Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Goal 3: Analyze AssumptionsIf an authors assumption is unproven or unsubstantiated, then the statements that follow from the assumption should be questioned.6A generalization is a reasoned statement about an entire group based on known information about a part of the group.

Generalizations may use the terms all, always, none, or never.

Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Goal 4: Evaluate GeneralizationsGeneralizations can be evaluated by looking at the type, quality, and amount of evidence given to support them.

Evaluating Generalizations:Evaluate types of evidence. What evidence is needed to convince you generalizations are or are not true?Evaluate the quality of the evidence. What research or studies are provided to substantiate the generalization? Evaluate the specifics.Think of exceptions. What might make the generalization inaccurate?

7

Bias is prejudice. If an author is biased, then he or she is partial to one side of a particular argument or point of view.

What are strategies to identify bias?Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Goal 5: Identify BiasStrategies to Identify Bias:Is the author presenting facts, or is he or she trying to provide only favorable (or only unfavorable) information?Does the author appear to feel strongly about one side of the issue?Does the author create a positive or negative image by utilizing connotative or figurative language?Does the author seem emotional about the issue?Are there other views of the subject that the author does not discuss?

Activities:Exercise 4-13 (Identifying Bias) on page 436: Mark the statements that show bias. Then, explain HOW they show bias.Exercise 4-14 (Identifying Bias) on pages 436438.

8

What are strategies for writing fair and effective essays?

Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Goal 6: Write Effectively and FairlyStrategies for Writing Fair and Effective Essays:Use connotative language carefully.Use figurative language to make fair comparisons.Make reasonable assumptions.Make generalizations based on sufficient evidence.Handle bias openly.9Goal 1: Evaluate the Authors TechniquesReview QuestionsFill in the blanks:

Critical reading, writing, and thinking involve examining ___________ is said and __________ it is said.Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Answers: what and how

10Goal 1: Evaluate the Authors TechniquesReview QuestionsFill in the blanks:

Critical reading, writing, and thinking involve examining what is said and how it is said.Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Answers: what and how11Goal 2: Understand Connotative and Figurative Language Review QuestionsFill in the Blank:_____________ are standard dictionary definitions.

_______________ are the feelings or other associations that accompany a word.

Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Answers:Denotative meaningsConnotative meanings12Goal 2: Understand Connotative and Figurative Language Review QuestionsFill in the Blank:Denotative meanings are standard dictionary definitions.

Connotative meanings are the feelings or other associations that accompany a word.

Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Answers:Denotative meaningsConnotative meanings13Goal 3: Analyze AssumptionsReview QuestionsAssumptions often use which of the following terms:IfWhenSinceAll of the aboveNone of the above Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Answer: D14Goal 3: Analyze AssumptionsReview QuestionsAssumptions often use which of the following terms:IfWhenSinceAll of the aboveNone of the above Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Answer: D15Goal 4: Evaluate GeneralizationsReview QuestionsTrue or False:The phrase all rich people are snobs is an example of a generalization.

Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Answer: Truenot all rich people are snobs, but that is a common perception.16Goal 4: Evaluate GeneralizationsReview QuestionsTrue or False:True: The phrase all rich people are snobs is an example of a generalization.

Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Answer: Truenot all rich people are snobs, but that is a common perception.17Goal 5: Identify BiasReview QuestionsAn author who is biased does which of the following?Presents both sides of an issueIs unemotional about the issueProvides only favorable informationPresents facts Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Answer: CProvides only favorable information18Goal 5: Identify BiasReview QuestionsAn author who is biased does which of the following?Presents both sides of an issueIs unemotional about the issueProvides only favorable informationPresents facts Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Answer: CProvides only favorable information19Goal 6: Write Effectively and FairlyReview QuestionsTrue or False:Using figurative language to explain extreme examples is a strategy for writing effectively and fairly.

True or False:Making generalizations based on sufficient evidence is a strategy for writing effectively and fairly.

Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Answers:FalseTrue20Goal 6: Write Effectively and FairlyReview QuestionsTrue or False:False: Using figurative language to explain extreme examples is a strategy for writing effectively and fairly.

True or False:True: Making generalizations based on sufficient evidence is a strategy for writing effectively and fairly.

Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Answers:FalseTrue21

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