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Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Israeli-Palestinian Conflict.

Date post: 27-Dec-2015
Author: morris-george
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Israeli- Israeli- Palestinian Conflict Palestinian Conflict
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  • Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
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  • Background to Conflict Background to Conflict Palestine part of Ottoman Empire until end W W I backwater for much of its history under Ottoman rule in later 19th. century economic development - farming, better communications, ports, and population increase Jewish population also increasing - possibly 100,000 by 1914, but still minority
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  • Zionism Zionism since diaspora Jews had lived in many lands persecution a common experience - Crusades, Russia, eastern Europe emergence of Zionism in late 19th C influence of new nationalistic movements and imperialistic/racist spirit religious impulse also a factor in shaping Zionism - hasten coming of Messiah
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  • Theodore Herzls book The Jewish State (1896) - Dreyfus context the following year the World Zionist Organization held its first meeting a land without people for a people without land Ottoman opposition to Jewish immigration, but support from Germany, Britain and Russia increased Jewish immigration into Palestine - Jews 14% of population by 1914
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  • with funding from Baron de Rothschild and Jewish organizations the Jewish community in Palestine was able to invest in land purchases, farming, and commercial endevours Tel Aviv founded on land bought from Turks in 1909 increased friction between Jews and other Palestinians - land boundaries Jews often created separatist communities incidents of Arab-Jewish violence
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  • Arab nationalism also developed in late 19th C Young Tuks movement in Ottoman Empire helped spread nationalist ideas across Arab world origins of Palestinian national identity linked to 19th C developments resistance to Egyptian rule in 1834; Ottoman reforms and Jewish encroachments also helped shape identity
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  • Impact World War I Turkey had sided with Germany - attacked by Russians and British British helped to organize revolts among Arabs in Middle East resources and location of Middle East vital to British foreign policy British gained support of Emir Hussein, guardian of holy cities Mecca and Medina British promised to support Arab independence, with exceptions
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  • Arabs rose in revolt; British forces advanced from Egypt Jerusalem occupied by British forces by end 1917 secret agreements (Sykes-Picot) between British and French divided Middle East - Palestine, cosidered international sphere November, 1917 Balfour Declaration - British government gave its formal support to the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine
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  • Balfour Declaration sowed seeds of future conflict early decades of 20th C Zionism formulated creation of Jewish homeland in Palestine - motives: escape pogroms and realize redemption Zionism supported by millenarian and colonial ideas of Lloyd George
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  • until 1928 Britain treated Palestine as a state, not a colony British proposals: provide equal representation for both communities Zionists, however, favored in proposed Legislative Council following rejection by both sides and British failure to implement plan uprising by Palestinians broke out in 1929 riots between Jews and Palestinians over access to the Western(Wailing) Wall - members of both communities died
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  • 1931 Palestines population-1 million; Jews 17% increased Jewish immigration from Nazi Germany Palestinians threatened by growth in number of Zionist colonies (300) Jews represented by World Zionist Organization (Ben- Gurion and Chaim Weizmann) sought to create socialist Jewish state in Palestine Hagana represented the military arm of the Jewish Agency (Governing Body)
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  • David Ben-Gurion Born in Poland; influenced by Zionist ideology Father of the Nation - served as Prime Minister of Israeli state following WW II he worked to bring an end to the Mandate system Arabs will have to go dominant leader in the Jewish Agency
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  • 1936 Uprising Palestinians rebel against British rule Palestinian leader - Grand Mufti Husseini British increase number of forces growing sense of Palestinian nationalism revolt resulted in forced exile of Palestinian leadership helped prepare way for Zionist takeover
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  • by late 1930s Zionists had carved out enclaves with British military assistance (Orde Wingate/ dirty Arabs)) they built up their forces learned tactics from British; accompanied them on punitive missions against Palestinian villages - Night Squads Hagana also helped create detailed registry of Palestinian villages - key economic, political and intelligence information Irgun (1938) attacks Palestinians preparation for redemption of land
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  • Partition Proposals 1937 Royal Peel Commission - three-way division pf Palestine proposals rejected on eve of WW II British adopt new policy - single Palestine and limitation on Jewish immigration WW II - some support from Arabs and Jews for British cause; but radical elements(Irgun) on Jewish side opposed British
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  • following WW II British Labor government sought democratic solution to Palestine Question British (Bevin) limited Jewish immigration Zionist forces led by Ben- Gurion retaliated attacks on British rule - oil refineries, bridges, police stations most infamous incident - King David hotel in Jerusalem (1946) Ben-Gurion mixed signals on partition option
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  • Palestine in 1947 still a majority Arab population; but Jewish presence had grown to approximately 30% most cultivated land owned by Palestinians Jews located in cities and colonies colonies designed as military garrisons
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  • Truman pushed for further Jewish immigration into Palestine rejected by British proposal for canton solution to Palestine question rejected by Palestinians and Jews United Nations now involved in solving problem United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) produced two reports majority report followed earlier Peel plan rejected by Britain and Palestinians
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  • UNSCOP partition plan General Assembly Resolution 181 - Nov. 1947 two states, both democratic Jerusalem under international control
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  • criticisms of UNSCOP plan unfair distribution of land - Palestinian (43.5%), Jews (56.5%) Jews had acquired more fertile regions Arab League and Arab Higher Committee refuse to negotiate with UNSCOP UN ignored ethnic composition of Palestine Jews compensated for Holocaust
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  • Ben-Gurion ready to accept partition, but reserved right to change it by force - no territorial boundaries for the future of the Jewish state the Consultancy, a select group of Jewish political and military figures devised plans to dispossess 1 million Palestinians systematic ethnic cleansing began - Plan D (1948) Arab and Jewish militias (Hagana and Irgun) fought to control Palestine
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  • 1st phase of conflict - Nov. 1947- May 1948 Palestinians joined by forces supported by Arab League to defend against Zionist attacks Jewish Agency under Ben-Gurion coordinated Zionist strategy Jews most vulnerable in Jerusalem by late spring 1948 Jews under pressure process of ethnic cleansing begins
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  • Irgun and other Zionist forces, commanded by Menachem Begin and Yitzhak Shamir, attacked Palestinian village of Deir Yassin villagers slaughtered both sides used incident as propaganda in struggle Einsteins comments by April 1948 as many as 200,000 Palestinians had fled their homes
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