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  • http://apa.sagepub.comPsychoanalytic Association

    Journal of the American

    DOI: 10.1177/00030651970450031001 1997; 45; 807 J Am Psychoanal Assoc

    Allan N. Schore Psychoanalysis and Neurobiology At Hand?

    A Century After Freud's Project: Is a Rapprochement Between

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  • Allan N. Schore 45/3


    In his 1895 Project for a Scientific Psychology Freud attempted toconstruct a model of the human mind in terms of its underlyingneurobiological mechanisms. In this endeavor to furnish a psychologywhich shall be a natural science, Freud introduced the concepts that tothis day serve as the theoretical foundation and scaffolding ofpsychoanalysis. As a result, however, of his ensuing disavowal of the Project,these speculations about the fundamental mechanisms that regulate affect,motivation, attention, and consciousness were relegated to the shadowyrealm of metapsychology. Nonetheless, Freud subsequently predictedthat at some future date we shall have to find a contact point with biology.It is argued that recent advances in the interdisciplinary study of emotionshow that the central role played by regulatory structures and functionsrepresents such a contact point, and that the time is right for arapprochement between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. Currentknowledge of the psychobiological mechanisms by which the righthemisphere processes social and emotional information at levels beneathconscious awareness, and by which the orbital prefrontal areas regulateaffect, motivation, and bodily state, allows for a deeper understanding ofthe psychic structure described by psychoanalytic metapsychology. Thedynamic properties and ontogenetic characteristics of this neurobiologicalsystem have important implications for both theoretical and clinicalpsychoanalysis.

    Assistant Clinical Professor, Department of Psychiatry and BiobehavioralSciences, University of California School of Medicine; faculty, Institute ofContemporary Psychoanalysis, Los Angeles.

    This paper is a slightly expanded version of a keynote address delivered by theauthor on April 30, 1995, at the American Psychological Association Division ofPsychoanalysis Spring Meeting, Los Angeles. A version of this paper was also pre-sented on April 18, 1996, at the Los Angeles Psychoanalytic Society and Instituteand on June 13, 1997, at the Austen Riggs Center, Stockbridge, MA. I would like tothank Karl Pribram and Henry Krystal for their comments on the manuscript.Submitted for publication September 15, 1995.


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  • A l l a n N . S c h o r e


    On April 27, 1895, Sigmund Freud wrote his friend WilhelmFliess that he was preoccupied, indeed obsessed, with a problemthat had seized his mind. In what would turn out to be a creative spell,he was attempting to integrate his extensive knowledge of brainanatomy and physiology with his current experiences in psychologyand psychopathology in order to construct a systematic model of thefunctioning of the human mind in terms of its underlying neurobio-logical mechanisms. In the preceding month he had completed the finalchapter on psychotherapy for Studies on Hysteria, and at this point intime, twenty years into his professional career, he had produced over ahundred neuroscientific works. Yet in his letter to Fliess he openlyadmitted that I am so deeply immersed in the Psychology forNeurologists as to be entirely absorbed until I have to break off, reallyexhausted by overwork. I have never experienced such intense preoccu-pation. I wonder if anything will come of it? (Jones 1953, p. 380).

    Throughout the summer Freud continued to relay to Fliess messagesof both his progress and frustration with the Project, describing his moodas alternately proud and happy or ashamed and miserable. Breuerwrote to Fliess in July that Freuds intellect is soaring at its highest(Sulloway 1979, p. 114). In September Freud feverishly began puttinghis ideas in writing, and within a month he had filled two notebookstotaling a hundred manuscript sheets. He sent this draft to Fliess in earlyOctober. In a letter of October 20, commenting on his ambitious attemptto work out the direct links between the operations of the brain and thefunctions of the mind, he wrote: One evening last week when I was hardat work, tormented with just that amount of pain that seems to be the beststate to make my brain function, the barriers were suddenly lifted, theveil drawn aside, and I had a clear vision from the details of the neurosesto the conditions that make consciousness possible. Everything seemedto connect up, the whole worked well together, and one had the impres-sion that the Thing was now really a machine and would soon go byitself. . . . Naturally I dont know how to contain myself for pleasure(Jones 1953, p. 382). The state of elation and excitement would not last.A month later he admitted to Fliess, I no longer understand the state ofmind in which I hatched out the Psychology, and I cant understandhow I came to inflict it on you (p. 383). In fact, he never asked for thereturn of the manuscript and never wanted to see it again. Fliess kept it,however, and after Freuds death it was finally published in 1950 undera title devised by Strachey, Project for a Scientific Psychology.

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    Despite Freuds disappointment with this work and his repudiationof it, Strachey (1966) characterized the essay as an extraordinarilyingenious working model of the mind and a piece of neurologicalmachinery (p. xvii). Ernest Jones (1953) called it a magnificent tourde force and concluded that the experience released in Freud some-thing vital in him that was soon to become his scientific imagination(p. 384). Yet Jones also wrote that the Project imposes more exactingdemands on the reader than any of his published work; there must bevery few who can apprehend its full meaning with several perusals(p. 383). More recently, Sulloway (1979) has asserted that no otherdocument in the history of psychoanalysis has provoked such a largebody of discussion with such a minimum of agreement as FreudsProject (p. 118). And Gay (1989) has offered the observation that theProject, or rather its invisible ghost, haunts the whole series of Freudstheoretical writings to the very end . . . (p. 87).

    What was Freud attempting to accomplish, and why did the seemingpossibility of achieving this goal create in him an exhilaration he washardly able to contain, yet his failure trigger a quick and seeminglyirreversible repudiation? What are the contents of this controversialdocument that appeared at the dawn of psychoanalysis, at a point thatimmediately preceded the period of Freuds self-analysis, and how didthey influence his subsequent thinking? How did Freud later view thepossibility of a rapprochement between neurobiology and psycho-analysis, and why do the issues first broached in the Project criticallyrelate to the current status of psychoanalysis as it enters its secondcentennium?

    At the very outset of the Project, Freud proclaims that its essentialaim is to furnish . . . a psychology which shall be a natural science(p. 295). He then presents, for the first time, a number of constructs thatwill serve as the foundation, the very bedrock of psychoanalytic theory.In this remarkable document Freud introduces the concepts of the primaryand secondary processes (which Jones calls Freuds most fundamentalcontribution to psychology); the principles of pleasure-unpleasure,constancy, and reality testing; the concepts of cathexis and identifica-tion; the theories of psychical regression and hallucination; the systemsof perception, memory, and unconscious and preconscious psychicactivity; and the wish fulfillment theory of dreams.

    These ideas are very familiar to us, but it should be mentioned thatthis seminal work also contains Freuds earliest thoughts about the


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  • essential nature of affect and motivation, two problematic concepts hewould struggle with the rest of his career. In Freuds neuropsychologicalmodel of a living organism interacting with its environment, energiesfrom the external world impinge on sensory neurons, thereby fillingthem with a sum of excitation or quota of affect that is proportionalto the impinging energy. It is the fundamental property of each neuron,and therefore of the organism, to rid itself of excitation through a processof discharge. The organism also receives stimulation from

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