Who is Karl Marx? Karl Marx was born in Trier in 1818, just
after Napoleonic wars. His parents were Jewish at first, but they
later changed to Christianity. He was a philosopher, political
economist, sociologist, humanist and the founder of communism He
was an educated students who studied in Germany at Bonn, Berlin and
Jena. At Bonn, he engaged with Jenny von Westphalen.
He became an editor in Colongne of the Rheinishe Zeitung.
However Prussian closed the paper He was expelled from Paris in
1844 with Engles, due to their radical movements. Marxs income was
mostly from Engles who had a steady family business in Manchester.
Death of his wife and his eldest daughter made his health more
worse. He traveled all around the Europe in order to get his health
cured. However he faced death in March 14, 1883
His most influential works Communist Manifesto is his most
leading and powerful political document. Capital, Volume 1 is one
of the manuscript that are Marxs historic work. Critique of the
Gotha Programme is a significant work for Marxs thoughts in the
nature of communist society. The Civil War in France, was published
in order in defense of the Commune during Paris Commune of
A picture of Karl Marxs family
His Philosophy He proposed a new economic movement, Socialism.
He believed that Capitalism will call for destruction within the
society. The labor theory of value He believed to decrease the
rates of profit but at the same time increase the wealth.
Communist Manifesto The Communists do not form a separate party
opposed to other working-class parties. They have no interests
separate and apart from those of the proletariat as a whole. They
do not set up any special principles of their own, by which to
shape and mould the proletarian movement. The Communists are
distinguished from the other working-class parties by this only: 1.
In the national struggles of the proletarians of the different
countries, they point out and bring to the front the common
interests of the entire proletariat, independently of all
nationality. 2. In the various stages of development which the
struggle of the working class against the bourgeoisie has to pass
through, they always and everywhere represent the interests of the
movement as a whole.
proletarian and Communists)
Thoughts behind the communist Manifesto. Engles and Marx
believed that the removal of classes will come through a revolution
not changes in government. This document led to ideas of communism
and socialist ideology. They thought that there will be end of the
struggle between the peasant and the nobility classes. Later on, it
will be the peasant that would remove all the other classes. And
there will be no more class struggle, no nation-states or
government. They also thought that when proletariat gains the
control, they will inevitably destroy ownership of private
Das Kapital Volume one A spider conducts operations that
resemble those of a weaver, and a bee puts to shame many an
architect in the construction of her cells. But what distinguishes
the worst architect from the best of bees is this, that the
architect raises his structure in imagination before he erects it
in reality. (Capital, Vol. I, Chap. 7, Pt. 1)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Marx (under philosophy)
Thoughts behind Das Kapital This was published in order to
explain the class struggles that are embedded in the capitalist
social relations of production. He believed that the work is a
social activity. Also, he thought that when the means of production
is under capitalism, then it will change more than relations of
production. He emphasizes the distinction between means/ forces of
Critique of the Gotha Programme Labor is the source of wealth
and all culture, and since useful labor is possible only in society
and through society, the proceeds of labor belong undiminished with
equal right to all members of society. In present-day society, the
instruments of labor are the monopoly of the capitalist class; the
resulting dependence of the working class is the cause of misery
and servitude in all forms. The emancipation of labor demands the
promotion of the instruments of labor to the common property of
society and the co-operative regulation of the total labor, with a
fair distribution of the proceeds of labor.
The emancipation of labor must be the work of the working
class, relative to which all other classes are only one reactionary
mass. The working class strives for its emancipation first of all
within the framework of the present-day national states, conscious
that the necessary result of its efforts, which are common to the
workers of all civilized countries, will be the international
brotherhood of peoples.
Thoughts behind the Critique of the Gotha Program This proposes
the principle of From each according to his ability, to each
according to his needs. He believed that what the individual
attains from the society will be exactly what he gives to the
society. (This was his last major document).
How they influenced on society The political economist, Adam
Smith and David Ricardo, were greatly influenced by Karl Marx.
Russian Revolution of 1917, which was led by Lenin who stated
himself philosophical heir to Marx. Mao Zedong, who also stated
himself an heir to Karl Marx, formed Maoism. Marxism (Communism) VS
Capitalism led to Cold war. It helped to centralize control of the
government in attempting to create equality within establishing
health care, education, military, and industry. For instance in
China, communism helped them govern both diverse and large
populations and more balanced society pertaining to economics.