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KEMAHIRAN BERFIKIR ARAS TINGGI

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KEMAHIRAN BERFIKIR KPD 6034

TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS MODERN METHOD VERSUS TRADITIONAL METHOD IN ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLE SUBJECT SUB TOPIC OF PREPARATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS BY

FARAWAHIDA BINTI ABDUL JALIL

M20122001445

ABSTRACT

A minor study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of modern teaching methods than traditional methods in subjects Accounting Principles in sub topic preparation of financial statements. It also helps researchers to find out whether the modern methods can be carried out to form the subject of a long calculation. This study was conducted at the Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Hutan Melintang, Perak and involves only three female students. Methods used now to hear and write and the centrality of the teacher alone. Through modern teaching methods are student centered teaching and the use of diagrams, mind maps etc. used maximally.INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Of The ResearchA minor study is made to improve their teaching methods more effective. In addition, this study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of modern teaching methods than traditional methods among students taking subjects Accounting Principles. This is because the subjects Accounting Principles are more focused on the calculation and preparation of Financial Statements. Researcher also wanted to see if the time taken by students to answer questions using both types of method is faster or otherwise.

1.2 Purpose Of The ResearchThe main purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the use of modern teaching methods than traditional methods to teach Accounting Principles in the sub-topic of Preparation of Financial Statements. The time was taken by students to answer questions also dealt with more quickly whether or not to use both methods.1.3 Problem StatementStudents often complain when requested make exercise for subtitles financial statements. It is quite difficult and take a long time to answer and difficult to detect errors early. Thus, students would be able to detect errors after the statement is completed. By using modern methods, difficulty completing the financial statements will be minimized and the time to prepare the financial statements will also be shortened and errors will be detected early.1.4 Research ObjectivesIn this study there were a number of objectives to be achieved. It is Looking at the differences in the use of traditional teaching methods and modern methods Looking at the effectiveness of using modern methods than traditional methods- See if there is an improvement scores achieved by students in the use of modern methods-proves that time can be saved by using modern methods

LITERATURE REVIEW2.1Introduction of Traditional Method and Modern MethodThese days we have great possibilities in what a teacher can do with his or her students, in terms of teaching methods, seating arrangement, visual aids, etc. With this freedom in teaching, we have as well an enormous number of ideas to use in our classrooms. A young teacher is discovering a great number of new ideas and activities all the time. However, since the time of our students is precious, one of the teachers crucial tasks is to compare, analyze and evaluate the methods they use in order to motivate the students and to make the learning as effective as possible. 2.2Traditional method The traditional approach to teaching, as ancient as formal teaching itself, involves the directed flow of information from teacher as sage to student as receptacle. How effective this transmission has been can then be tested by posing various exercises to the student. Too often, however, what are actually tested are the students pattern-matching abilities. Too often, also, what appears as excellent teaching actually turns out to be facilitated pattern-matching. Traditional teaching is classroom-based and consists of lectures and direct instructions conducted by the teacher. This teacher-centered method emphasizes learning through the teachers guidance at all times. Students are expected to listen to lectures and learn from them. Teachers talk to the students about the subject matter and expect them to learn everything through the lectures held in the classroom.

Traditional teaching is concerned with the teacher being the controller of the learning environment. Power and responsibility are held by the teacher and they play the role of instructor (in the form of lectures) and decision maker (in regards to curriculum content and specific outcomes). They regard students as having 'knowledge holes' that need to be filled with information. In short, the traditional teacher views that it is the teacher that causes learning to occur (Novak, 1998).

Traditional methodology is based largely on a reduction of the integrated process of using a foreign language into sub-sets of discrete skills and areas of knowledge. It is largely a functional procedure which focuses on skills and areas of knowledge in isolation.

The traditional method puts the responsibility for teaching and learning mainly on the teacher and it is believed that if students are present in the lesson and listen to the teachers explanations and examples, they will be able to use the knowledge.

2.3Modern Method (Critical thinking)

During the past several decades, critical thinking has became ubiquitous presence in educational program at all levels of instruction. Critical thinking is a form of higher order thinking (HOTs) consciously controlled reflective thought that draw on, but can be distinguished lower order cognitive processes like perception, attention and memory (Smith 2003).

Micheal et al (1987) Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions: clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth, and fairness. Critical thinking is self-guided, self-disciplined thinking which attempts to reason at the highest level of quality in a fair-minded way. People, who think critically, consistently attempt to live rationally, reasonably, empathically. They are keenly aware of the inherently flawed nature of human thinking when left unchecked. They use the intellectual tools that critical thinking offers concepts and principles that enable them to analyze, assess, and improve thinking. They work diligently to develop the intellectual virtues of intellectual integrity, intellectual humility, intellectual civility, intellectual empathy, intellectual sense of justice and confidence in reason (Edward 1941). 2.4Differences between Traditional Method and Modern MethodBilElementTraditional MethodModern Method

1Main ObjectiveHigh test scores, grades, graduation.Learning, retention, accumulation of valuable knowledge & skills

2LearningTeacher-centered instruction and focus on teaching not learningStudent-centered instruction and focus on learning not teaching

3ContentMemorization of facts, objective information; Correct knowledge is paramountUnderstanding the facts, application of facts, analysis, evaluation, Innovation; Critical thinking is paramount

4Teaching

methodsTraditional education emphasizes:

Direct instructionand lectures

Seatwork Students learn through listening an observation.Modern education emphasizes:

Hands-on activities

Student-led discovery

Group activities.

5ClassroomStudents matched by age, and possibly also by ability. All students in a classroom are taught the same material.Students dynamically grouped by interest or ability for each subject, with the possibility of different groups each hour of the day.

6MaterialsInstruction based on textbooks, lectures, Instruction based on textbooks, lectures, and individual written assignments.Project-based instruction using any available resource including Internet, library and outside experts.

7Student and teacher relationshipStudents often address teachers formally by their last names. The teacher is considered a respected role model in the community. Students should obey the teacher.

Students and teachers may work together as collaborators.

8Social aspectsFocus on independent learning. Socializing largely discouraged except for extracurricular activities and teamwork-based projects.Significant attention to social development, including teamwork, interpersonal relationships, and self-awareness.

METHODOLOGY3.1Introduction

The study was conducted among students taking subjects Accounting Principles. It did quantitatively. Data collected through the biodata and student achievement yardstick effectiveness of the methods used. Testing is done in a sequence that is the same question to the same student on the same day but using different methods. The differences are expected to be available to the scores achieved by the students and the time taken by students to solve the questions. 3.2Sampling

The study was conducted at Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Hutan Melintang, Perak. The sample consisted of three students consisting of form 4 students of subjects took Accounting Principles. The sample also consists of all the girls. After researcher conducting classes using traditional approach such as presenting, reading and writing and modern approach such as using mind map, internet, diagram and computer graphic, minor test was given to students to test their understanding in sub topic Financial Statement.

List of respondents are as follow:

Table 3.2: List of Respondents

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