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Key Technologies & New Developments in Processing High Quality Fruit Juice & Concentrate International Symposium, “Novel Technologies in Food Processing & Byproduct UntilizationRonald E Wrolstad Oregon State University May 26, 2012
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Page 1: Key Technologies & New Developments in Processing High ......Anthocyanin loss during blueberry juice processing 0 20 40 60 80 100 Loss estimate Concentrate Pasteurized juice Press-cake

Key Technologies & New Developments

in Processing High Quality Fruit Juice

& Concentrate

International Symposium,

“Novel Technologies in Food

Processing & Byproduct

Untilization”

Ronald E Wrolstad

Oregon State University

May 26, 2012

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Goals of Fruit Juice Processors

• Superior color and flavor attributes

• Optimal nutritional quality

• Free of pathogens & toxicants

• Maximize yield

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Application of New Technologies

• High-Pressure Processing

• Pulsed Electric Field Processing

• Ohmic Heating

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Effectiveness of new technologies—

• Commodity dependent

• “Apples are different from oranges”…

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Orange Juice Unit Operations

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Apple Juice Unit Operations

Spanos, Heatherbell & Wrolstad. 1990

J Agr Food Chem 38:1572-1579.

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High-Pressure Processing of Fruit Juice

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High-Pressure Processing Conditions

Pressure— 58,000 to 130,000 psi (400 - 900

MPa)

Temperature— -20 to 80 °C (typically 20 to 40 °C)

Time— 1 to 10 minutes

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HPP Effects on Enzymes & Microorganisms

• Enzymes inactivated with pressures >400

Mpa

• Some enzymes show enhanced activity after

pressurization <400 Mpa

• Effective for inactivation of vegetative cells

• Spores very resistant to pressure

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Commercialization

Fresh orange juice, refrigerated

Deactivation of pectin methyl

esterase ensures cloud stability

Reduction of microbial load (yeasts,

lactic bacteria)

Producer: Ulti, Pernod-Ricard,

France, www.pernod-ricard.com,

market introduction, 1995

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Sensory Difference Test Results

Fresh vs. HPP

Apple juice – no significant difference

Orange Juice – no significant difference

Batches Correct Incorrect Critical Value

B1, n=101 32 69 38

B2, n=101 34 67 38

B3, n=101 30 71 38

Apple Juice Results

Batches Correct Incorrect Critical Value

B1, n=74 26 48 29

B2, n=74 27 46 29

B3, n=73 24 49 29

Orange Juice Results

Courtesy Avure Technologies &

Tom Shellhammer Laboratory, OSU

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Antioxidant levels– HPP Fresh Juice

ORAC (M)

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

Apple Juice Orange Juice

OR

AC

( M

)

HPP Control

FRAP (M)

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

Apple Juice Orange Juice

FR

AP

(

M)

HPP Control

No significant difference, p > 0.05, n = 3

Ascorbic Acid (M)

0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

4500

Orange Juice

Asco

rbic

Acid

(

M)

HPP Control

Fresh vs. HPP

Courtesy Avure Technologies,

Tom Shellhammer Laboratory, OSU

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Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) Processing

• Non-thermal method of food preservation using short bursts of

electricity for microbial inactivaton with minimum (20-80

kV)effect on food quality attributes.

• Pulse time = 1-10 sec, # pulses = 2-50; temp = ambient

• PEF breaks cell membranes & expands pores (electroporation)

• Restricted to food products with no air bubbles & low electrical

conductivity

• Fruit juices very suitable for PEF processing, typically

pasteurization as opposed to sterilization

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Effects of PEF on yield & quality attributes of apple juiceSchilling et al. 2007. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 8:127-134.

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% Δ Juice Yield Compared to ControlSchilling et al., 2007

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

1 kV/cm 3 kV/cm 5 kV/cm EnzymicMaceration

Trial 1

Trial 2

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Effects of PEF on Composition & QualitySchilling et al., 2007

• Polyphenolic profile— no significant difference

• Antioxidant capacities (TEAC FRAP, DPPH)— no

significant difference

• Composition (pH, °Brix, TA, sugar profile, malic

acid, pectin)— no significant difference

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Products with low electrical conductivity, low viscosity &

high density are the easiest and most energy efficient

for PEF processing…

Electrical

Conductivity @

22°C

Viscosity @

22°C

Density @

22°C

Apple Juice 0.239 0.001372 1055

Cranberry Juice 0.090 0.001475 1058

Grape Juice 0.083 0.001350 1052

Orange Juice 0.360 0.003407 1054

Ruhlman, Jin & Zhang in Pulsed Electric Fields in Food

Processing (Barbosa-Cánovas & Zhang, Editors)

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Enhanced anthocyanin extraction from

red cabbage with PEF processing…

Gachova et al. 2010. J Food Sci 75:E23-E29.

• Fruit & vegetable juices are approved food colorants

exempt from certification in the USA

• Natural colorants & nutraceuticals have high

economic value

• PEF extraction increased total anthocyanins by 142-

379% compared to control.

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Some Additional Extraction Technologies

Ohmic heating-assisted

extraction

Supercritical extraction

with CO2/

Pressurized liquid

extraction

Microwave-assisted

extraction

Ultrasound-assisted

extraction

Continuous counter-

current extraction

Solid-phase extraction

Micro-extraction

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Ohmic Heating… (Joule heating,

Resistance heating)

• Rapid, uniform heating induced by passing electrical

current through food, which serves as an electrical

resistor.

• Suitable for liquids containing up to 1 inch particle

size.

• Microorganisms inactivated by heat.

• Electroporation effect on cell membranes.

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Fruit juice unit operations using heat…

• Blanching (enzyme inactivation)

• Pre-press enzymic maceration

• Pasteurization

• Concentration

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Ohmic Heating Curves for Tomato & Orange Juices Tomato— Greater electrical conductivity than orange

Presence of 17% solids decrease electrical conductivity

25

35

45

55

65

75

85

2.5 5 10 15 20 25 30

Tem

pera

ture

, °

C

Time (sec)

Tomato juice w/o solids

Tomato Juice w solids

Orange Juice w/o solids

Orange Juice w solids

Palaniappan & Sastry. 1991. J Food Process Eng 14:247-260.

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Impact of Heating on Apple Juice Yield

Treatments Temperature, °C Juice Yield

(ml/Kg apple)

Control (raw) Ambient 596a

Ohmic Heating 40 636b

50 653c

Microwave Heating 40 639b

50 618d

Wang & Sastry. 2002. Innov Food Sci & Emerg Technol 3: 371-377.

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Commercialization Status

1st Commercial Food Product On Market In 2005

– Genesis Juice (OR)

– Full FDA Approval

– Enthusiastic Market Acceptance

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Anthocyanin loss during blueberry juice

processing

0 20 40 60 80 100

Loss estimate

Concentrate

Pasteurized juice

Press-cake

Initial juice

Fruit

G. Skrede, R.E. Wrolstad & R.W. Durst. 2000.

J. Food Sci. 85: 357-364.

mg of ACY / 100g

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Anthocyanin Content of Pasteurized

Blueberry Juice with Pulp Addition

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Juice + blanched pulp

Juice + pulp

Incubation time (hr)

AC

Y r

ete

ntion (

%)

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Anthocyanin loss during blueberry juice

processing

0 20 40 60 80 100

Loss estimate

Concentrate

Pasteurized juice

Press-cake

Initial juice

Fruit

G. Skrede, R.E. Wrolstad & R.W. Durst. 2000.

J. Food Sci. 85: 357-364.

mg of ACY / 100g

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Potential application for ohmic heating…

• Recovery of natural colorants and nutraceuticals from

processing wastes

• Inactivation of oxidase enzymes

• Increased extraction yield from electroporation effect

• “Anthocyanins isolated from red raspberry pomace

more stable to heat thatn anthocyanins in juice”—Losso et al., Berry Health Benefits Symposium, 2011

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Anthocyanin Stability

• Tremendous variation

with commodity

• Large structural

variation (>600 in nature)

• Reactive juice

components removed in

processing

R1 + R2 = H, OH, or OMe

Glycosidic Substitution on 3, 5, or 7

Acylation Possible on Sugar

Page 30: Key Technologies & New Developments in Processing High ......Anthocyanin loss during blueberry juice processing 0 20 40 60 80 100 Loss estimate Concentrate Pasteurized juice Press-cake

Anthocyanin Degradation in Juice & Model

Systems

System 1st order rate constant

Half-life (days)

Strawberry Juice Strawberry Juice Fortified w/ Pgd-3-glu Juice Concentrate Juice Concentrate Fortified w/ Pgd-3-glu Pgd-3-glu, Aw=1.0, pH3.4 Pgd-3-glu, Aw=0.90, pH3.4

7.9x10-2

5.7x10-2

2.1x10

-1

1.4x10-1

3.74x10-3

2.08x10-3

8 12

3.5 4

186 332

Garzon & Wrolstad, J. Food Sci., 2001.

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Forward Osmosis (FO) Dewatering of Foods,

Beverages & Nutraceuticals

• Direct osmosis membrane technology developed by

Hydration Technologies, Inc., Albany, OR

www.htiwater.com

• Low temperature (5-20°C) & low pressure (10-30

psig)

• Acomodates products with wide range of suspended

solids with high flavor retention

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Forward Osmosis (FO) Dewatering of Foods,

Beverages & Nutraceuticals

Product Starting °Brix Final°Brix Temp, •C

Red Raspberry Juice 10 45 10

Cranberry Juice 10 50 10

Strawberry Puree 10 35 10

Passion Fruit Puree 15 36 25

Soursop Puree 16 31 15

Banana Puree 18 33 25

Pulpy Pineapple Juice 10 50 10

Mango Puree 15 30 25

Tamarind Juice -- 50 25

Courtesy Keith Lampi, Hydration Technologies, Inc.

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Additional Natural Colorant & Nutraceutical

Processing Technologies

• Enzymes as processing aids to increase recovery

• Filtration & microfiltration technologies

• More efficient evaporators and dryers, e.g., Rapid Zone

Drying RZM™

• Resin treatments, membrane processes for flavor

removal & pigment concentration

Page 34: Key Technologies & New Developments in Processing High ......Anthocyanin loss during blueberry juice processing 0 20 40 60 80 100 Loss estimate Concentrate Pasteurized juice Press-cake

Thanks!

Yanyun Zhao & Pei Zhou

Chairs,Symposium Organization Committee

Tom Shellhammer, OSU

Avure Technologies

Keith Lampi, Hydration Technologies, Inc.

Carlos Fajardo, OSU


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