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    Kurukshetra August 2011 11

    The Monthly Journal

    MINISTRY OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT

    Vol. 59 No. 10 Pages 52

    August 2011

    CONTENTS

    Kurukshetra seeks to carry the message o Rural Development to all people. It serves as a orum or ree, rank and serious discussion on the

    problems o Rural Development with special ocus on Rural Uplit.The views exressed by the athors i the articles are their ow. They do ot ecessarily refect the views o the govermet or the orgaizatios they

    work or.

    The readers are reqested to veriy the claims i the advertisemets regardig career gidace books/istittios. Krkshetra does ot ow

    resosibility.

    Sales Emporia : Publications Division: *Soochna Bhavan, CGO Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi -110003 (Ph 24365610) *Hall No.196, Old Secretariat, Delhi

    110054(Ph 23890205) * 701, B Wing, 7th Floor, Kendriya Sadan, Belapur, Navi Mumbai 400614 (Ph 27570686)*8, Esplanade East, Kolkata-700069 (Ph 22488030)*A Wing, Rajaji Bhawan, Basant Nagar, Chennai-600090 (Ph 24917673) *Press road, Near Govt. Press, Thiruvananthapuram-695001 (Ph 2330650) *Block No.4,

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    (Ph 25537244) *Bihar State Co-operative Bank Building, Ashoka Rajpath, Patna-800004 (Ph 2683407) *Hall No 1, 2nd foor, Kendriya Bhawan, Sector-H, Aliganj,

    Lucknow-226024 (Ph 2225455) *Ambica Complex, 1st Floor, above UCO Bank, Paldi, Ahmedabad-380007 (Ph 26588669) *KKB Road, New Colony, House No.7,

    Chenikuthi, Guwahati 781003 (Ph 2665090)

    l Establishing good govErnancE in

    Panchayat administration: shaPing

    a vibrant FuturE For rural india ap h 3

    l dEcEntralization and ParticiPatory d. m a K

    Planning For rural dEvEloPmEnt t a 6

    l Panchayati raj in india: Pf. r s

    rEtrosPEct and ProsPEct d. Pee P s 12

    l Planning From bElow:

    lEgislation vErsus mobilization up ck 16

    l FirE in thE ForEst Kuma sg tpp.

    Kanker,Chhatsgarh 22

    l dEmocratic dEcEntralization:

    a study oF villagE councils in mizoram d. he s 26

    l rural businEss hubs 30

    l FROM THE GROUND

    Post 73rd constitutional amEndmEnt &

    womEn lEadErshiP in siKKim D.G.D.Bha 33

    l tagorEan PhilosoPhy:

    dEvEloPmEnt EnvisagEd through rural

    rEconstruction & lovE oF naturE DhujaMukhj 37

    l BioMetriCsAtM

    dEvEloPmEnt and rEcEnt trEnds r.s 41

    l dasaPushPa, thE ausPicious

    mEdicinal hErbs d. jk. t. r. 44

    CHIEF EDITORRINA SONOwAL KOULI

    EDITORKAPIL KUMAR

    pRODuCTIOn OFFICER

    VINOD KUMAR MEENA

    COVER DESIGnRAJAT NAIK

    EDITORIAL OFFICE

    ROOM NO. 661, NIRMAN BHAVANA-WING (GATE NO.5),MINISTRY OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT,NEW DELHI-110011

    TEL. : 23061014, 23061952FAX : 011-23061014E-MAIL : [email protected] SUBSCRIPTION ENQUIRIES,RENEWALS AND AGENCY INFORMATIONPLEASE CONTACT:

    Business Manager

    EAST BLOCK-IV, LEVEL-VII, R.K. PURAM,NEW DELHI-110066

    TEL. : 26105590, 26100207FAX : 26175516E-MAIL : [email protected] : publicationsdivision.nic.in

    SUBSCRIPTION :

    INLAND1 YEAR : RS. 1002 YEARS : RS. 1803 YEARS : RS. 250ABROAD (AIR MAIL)ONE YEARRS. 530 (NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES)

    RS. 730 (OTHER COUNTRIES)

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    Kurukshetra August 201122

    InsIde

    indakamajpndcnalznggvnancfmpbmwhn

    padh73dand74hAmndmnhCnun.Whlhul

    fdvlunfpwhlcalgvnmnancuagngh

    ndgvmnancaluchlcalgvnmn-hPanchayaraj,

    whchaldcbdahlaagfdmcacy.

    thundlyngpncplfhPanchayarajakdmcacynaly

    6000,000 e f e .

    Whlhaccpancfhndflf-gvnanc,llalng

    waybffulldcnalzanfpwanfd.

    te ee e e e p f P

    hycandchaghpnblcvly.

    thGamsabhahavbcmnumnalncvlycayngucvly

    f e e ee f eepe, epe e mnrEgs.

    twducupn,andcvlycayuhplcfhgvnmn

    fncluvgwh,dcnalzanfpw, hughPanchayarajwllplaya

    vycvlngdgvnanc.Dvlunfpwhkygvngh

    i e e. s, e ee f ee e e e f

    dcnalzanpc.

    Panchaya,bngnahpplv,havypnalacaa

    mdladmnavunfualgdgvnanc.

    Panchayarajhaplaydagncanlnhmpwmnfwmn,

    uplmn f backwad cla, and mplmnan f ual dvlpmnal

    ee.

    Wdcunhuhwhpncplfdcnalzanfpwha

    wkdvhyawhpcalpfmhgund.

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    Kurukshetra August 2011 33

    te ual admnav cna f inda,

    pcallyhadmnanfPanchayaRaj

    nun ac h nan makd

    by bh uccful nnvan and pacc n

    publc vc dlvy a wll a a numb f

    pahc pfmanc. th gnal wakn f

    e pee

    p ee ee e f e p

    n inda. Buaucaccmplx andpcdu

    makdculfualppulanawllah

    cvlcy navga h ym f mlyand

    Establishing Good Governance inPanchayat Administration:

    Shaping A Vibrant Future for Rural India

    q ee f ee. te k f pe

    anddmnancfplcalbanhahavbn

    acadwhhpanchayatadmnavym

    ncndpndnc,bdgnangcupn,

    havalldnjucandfavum.E

    ee panchayat admnan n

    h gadwllbhmcnand cv

    mau,whhfuncnngandadmnav

    aafhPanchayawllbmanagdnamann

    whchpn,accunabl,quablandpnv

    pepe ee.

    Anupam Hazra

    The issue of good governance in panchayat administraon is gradually emerging as a key issue in

    the sphere of rural development, because failure in the rural governing system will result in spread

    of corrupon, inadequate availability of basic services for the rural poor, and failure in tackling rural

    poverty.

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    Kurukshetra August 201144

    Establishing Good Governance in PanchayatiRajSystem: Portraying The Priorities

    a f e eee ee e f e ee e. te ee e

    ee ffee fe f PanchayatiRaje. a ee ee ee e

    quphmlvwhppaud,kllandknwldgahwuldulmalycnbu

    effee pee f eepe pe i.

    E p pp e Eee ee ff f PanchayatiRaj ,

    whch wll gnfcanly nhanc h pfmanc. Panchaya anngmu pm a culuf

    ee Panchayatladandffcal,hughxpuvandnacnbwn

    se.

    Pplanng,bhwhnandudhahughgnalnanalupandv

    e P e ee ppe, pe e

    pe panchayats e pe.

    Prindhavhmnmumcapacybuldngnfaucualngwhamfcapablan

    f

    spcal anng pgammmu b ganzd n aa cvd by hPanchaya (exnn

    see ae) a, 1996 e e e pe ee f

    pepe.

    ief eek e ee ee e pee ke

    p , p e, eep pp e; E ee, e,

    amnandvaluanladfuncnngfPri,whchwlluggplcyacnawlla

    wllndcaaaffuhadmnavfm

    inunalngaymfcalaud,whchnalfmpvnglcalvcdlvyand

    fnungcmplancwhlawandgulan.spcalffmubmadundakanng

    andawancampagnfscalAudbyGamsabha.smulanuly,hNn-Gvnmnalo (ngo), e c be o (cbo) e e

    (cso) e e e pe, pp eee e e

    ek .

    Whlcalaudandgvnmnalcnlancayfmaknghuallcallf-gvnmn

    panchayataccunabl,nhhhandanndpndngvancdalbdywuldpvd

    hualppulanwhhmuchnddnumnfnfcngaccunably;hlcalbd

    eee e p e f ke eee e ee

    fhualppulan.thwuldquabun-humchanmfdalfgvanc.

    P eq e ee ee e p e f e p; e pe

    andmagnaldcnndbnlghndandmpwdhughhpacpayplannng

    pe, e e ppe e p, pee pee,

    e e e efe e ee p e e g s g P

    plan.empwmnfhppplwuldcanwdmandandpunqualyvc

    andnlyanffcvadmnavymalncanmanaghnwdmand.

    Ndnuclnwkngwhmdaandhngagmnncangpublcawanand

    e e f ee Pr e

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    Kurukshetra August 2011 55

    te e f ee panchayat

    ee ke

    e e pee f eepe, ee

    falu n h ual gvnng ymwll ul

    pe f p, eqe

    f ee f e p, fe k pe. o e e ,

    gvnancwllmnmcupn,hvwf

    mnwll b akn n accun, hvc

    f h m vulnabl n cywll b had

    ndcn-makng, and h ual admnan

    wl l b pnv h pn and fuu

    ee f e pp. s, e ee f

    ee e e e f

    ee pe. Panchayat, e ee

    e pepe ee, ee pe

    e e f

    ee.

    F dmcacy b uly mpwng,

    e f e e ee.

    F nung ual dvlpmn a wll a

    e f pe e

    e e ee, e

    ee panchayatiRaj e e

    peeqe. r g ee e

    e; e ee e

    andnuhdxplclyandcnculybyh

    . if ee p fe

    pplyandualgvnmnucuawll

    applnunanuppply-

    ualindawllnbablnuauanabl

    ualgwhwh quyand juc.th qu

    f effee ee, p e

    e ee, e f e

    ee, e fe i; e

    e e, e effee ee

    PanchayatiRaji e f e e

    ppe f p fe f i.

    (The author is Assistant Professor in

    Department of Social Work at Assam (Central)

    University, Silchar - 788011; Assam; e-mail:

    [email protected])

    effcvrucmblzanbyGamPanchayahughaxandnn-axmaundb

    mpvdubanally;rucwllhavbuldaGamsabhaandGamPanchayalvl

    fmp-pucm,ladnguanablducnnualpvyandmpwmnf

    e pe f e p

    me eff ee e e f eee e f PanchayatiRaj dvlpcampagnand cmmuncanym fawan gnan amng ualcmmun

    e ffee eepe e e; e ee ef

    pp f e ict e f e ee, eee Pri epeee,

    pp fe fe. cpeee ee ee e fe e

    mpu h -gvnanc nav, whch wll ncuag m anpancy n Panchayat

    thandfmachwkandudywhn-dphfcunhwaualnun

    e pe, ee e pe, e e ee pepe

    acvpacpan.succ n h gad wll bhlpful ndawng ppplcy f h

    dvlpmnandnd-badmdfcanfPanchayat

    Pepe pp ee f e pepe ke e ee,

    e , , ngo ee ee p e

    e f eepe; e eff ee e e e

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    Kurukshetra August 201166

    th m dcnalzan h pc

    whby auhy ucud bwn

    nun f gvnanc a h cnal,

    gnalandlcallvlwhpwandfuncn

    anfd h lw nunal cal

    lvlhacapablfcmplnghm.invlv

    dvlvng plcal pw, dnng ppl l

    n h dcn makng, anf f funcn,

    Decentralization and ParticipatoryPlanning for Rural Development

    dvlun f fund, makng admnav

    gmn f plannng and mplmnan f

    axngpwandnancalaunmyandn.i

    habnflhadcnalzanfpwh

    f ee ee e

    fhbwayfmpwngppl,pmng

    p pcpan, ncang cncy and

    pe.

    The 73rd Amendment to the Constuon hence has been welcomed as focusing the aenon of the

    naon on the scal structures and processes of rural India. As per the 29 items of the Eleventh Schedule

    of the Constuon, three funcons i.e funcons, funconaries and funds have to be devolved on the

    Panchaya Raj Instuons for planning and implementaon of schemes pertaining to a parcular

    sector. But Centrally Sponsored Schemes implemented by other Central Ministries, oen ignore the

    involvement of PRIs. In case the role is idened, it is either non-existent or minimal. Although 73rd

    Amendment was not a component of structural reform but the aempt to decentralize allocave

    decisions with the change in the development strategy should be more open and market friendlyeconomic regime.

    Dr. Mohd Azam Khan & Tosib Alam

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    Kurukshetra August 2011 77

    dee ke

    eepe way. th pxmy f

    p peee e e p ee

    f f ef

    e p ep e pe

    ef p p fe e

    pe. deee p f e p

    vccanalhlplnkvnu-xpndu

    e e . t pe

    effe e p f

    ee. gee e e

    e pepe ppe, e e pe

    ee e effe effee

    ee, ee .

    in inda, Panchaya raj ym dnd

    a pm numn f dcnalzan hughwhch dmcacy bcm uly pnav

    and pnv. th Panchaya raj nun

    acnddalcallf-gvnmnmanf

    pvdngbacnfaucufacl,mpwng

    wak cn f h cy and na h

    dvlpmn pc a h ga- lvl f

    ualinda,whhlfindalv.thnd

    f dcnalzan wa alzd lng back bu

    h cn gv cnunal back-up

    uallcalgvnmngncan.Whh

    pe f 73 aee a, 1992, pepe

    pacpannhpcfplannng,dcn-

    makng, mplmnan and dlvy ym n

    i ee ee.

    Need for Parcipatory Planning

    Ppl pacpan mpl acv

    pacpanfpplndcnmakngpc,vz.

    plannng,fmulan,mplmnan,mnng

    and valuan f dvlpmn pgamm and

    n hang h bn.thu,pacpand e e e pepe p

    n vau ual dvlpmn acv uch a

    cnucnf vllag-nfaucu bual can

    b n h fm f andanc n h mng,

    nacn, nvlvmn n appng h bn,

    andpacpa e e k pe.

    th pacpay appach hlp u

    ee eepe , ee peee

    and acual bn and nca awan

    amnghpplandhlpnhmblzan

    f ee, fe e

    pjc mplmnan. i fuh nablpepe e e e e

    ucandnuhahbnach

    h lgma claman. i al ca

    uanablyapcandgadually mpw

    e e e

    pepe.

    Devoluon of Powers and Funcons toRural Governments

    te 73 Cnunal Amndmn Ac ha

    cad h panchaya aj nun ne e e . (1) g

    p e e ee (2) P

    ee e eee ee (3) z p

    hdclvlwhallcanfpccubjc.

    Pee, i ee pe

    2,33,606 e p, 6,094 eee

    p, 543 p, k

    f 2,40,243 e ee ee. t

    numb f lcd pnav f panchaya

    ee e e 28 k, f ee

    naly37pcnawmn,19pcnblngsCand12pcnblngst.Allhgu

    e e pee, e e

    cunynhwl.

    Table 1

    Leadership Positions in Rural Local Bodies

    (Panchayats)

    Panchayat

    level

    Number Elected

    represen-

    tatives

    Women

    %

    SC

    %

    ST

    %

    d

    P

    543 111,93 36 17 11

    ieee

    P

    6,094 1,13,684 37 21 7

    ve

    P

    2,33,606 18,50,334 37 19 12

    se: Pe if be, gee f i,

    2010.

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    Kurukshetra August 201188

    a ae 243 (g) f e 73

    c aee a, e e

    a qud dvlv adqua pw and

    epe e Pri ke e

    ffcv nun f lcal lf-gvnmn.

    te epe f pep f p f

    e eepe e

    pee e 29 e

    e e Xi see e ee e

    p. a e, e p

    hav bn gvn m pw, funcn and

    fe. tee e e e pef

    f p fe, , ,

    dnkng,wa,lcfcan,aananalng

    whcalculu,wmnandchlddvlpmn

    andfamly wlfa du h dcand clpxmyhppl,pcallywppl

    nav uppandpacpanwuldplaya

    e.

    Achievements

    d e 17 e e e 73

    aee e fe, e pe f

    plcal mpwmn f h Panchaya ha

    e ee ee. we P ee

    e ee e e e se

    UnntxcpJhakhand,van

    hav bn pvdd h wmn, schduld

    ce, e see te e oe

    Backwad Cla ( n m f h a) n

    pp e e f e pp

    e p e. se Ee c

    se Fe c e ee e p

    nallha.Hwv,nlyeghsaand

    e u te e fee e 29

    f e e Pri. se

    h Pe, m, P, tNadu, and Ua Padh hav dvlpd fw

    funcnwhumachngdvlunffund.

    we e Ke, Kk, h,

    o, we be, skk, d n

    he d & d e pee

    pp, ee e 73 aee.

    b Pri e e e f

    funcna.M f h anf, hwv,

    mannpapwhuhuppfadqua

    f fe. m f e f

    ldnhXi schdulahadbwnh

    epe e Pri ee e

    dmacannhfuncnaldmanfhw.

    te f ee p e

    ee eee f e f e epe.

    te e f fe

    mandwh dpamn.th gncnau

    f dvlun and vlap wh dpamn,

    drda, dPc e ee ke e pe

    f f e ee. Fe,

    manyfuncnahadbwnwfh

    e f Pri. tee, , e eeffee e effe effeee f e

    p ee e pepe

    p f e eepe

    e ee e c . F

    e f f e ef,

    e pe e e f fe

    f. t e, e ee ep

    eke pp e ee

    funcnwhavwabungachacvy

    e pppe ee f p, keep

    e ppe f . t

    p f Pri fe ee

    e f f ee e

    pe e ee f Pri

    fe f epe fe.

    Fiscal Devolution to Rural

    Governments

    F ee

    gvnmnnindamanngfulnlywhnh

    p e eqe e f pepublcvcagndhmwhchqu

    agnmn f ax pw hm. th fcal

    ee ee e c

    aee e pe f

    pe e effe f p ee ee

    e . te ee f e p

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    Kurukshetra August 2011 99

    pe e eee e

    hmlvhughhxcfaxandnn-

    axpw,and ee eee f e e

    e f f e f

    e e e u gee. tee e

    nallyhypfaxwhchdvlvnpanchaya; wn ax- h lvy, cllcnand

    ufwhchvnhpanchayabyau;

    agndax-hlvyandcllcnfwhch

    e e e e e p

    and had ax, h lvy and cllcn f

    whchvnhagvnmnbuhad

    wh lcalbd. thnn-ax ucf Pri

    f eee f ee fee, fe

    pee, e/ee ee

    pp. Buh ax, du,ll andf

    e ee e e e

    h gan-n-ad b gvn hm a lf

    e e f e e ee.

    thfhfcalmmachnnlybwn

    wn vnu and al xpndu bu al

    bwn al vnu and al xpndu

    f p pee e ee pe

    ee p e f

    hugdfcandhwnucamag

    ee e ee f ee ee

    e ee e e e. tee

    nun huldnnly hav hpw

    e ee e e e f

    pe e ee pe.

    Issues and Challenges

    a pe e peee e f fdcnalzan,fnanchuldfllwfuncnal

    e. b Pri e ke e p

    e eee eff epeee

    gan-n-ad and agnd vnu fm bh

    Cnal and a gvnmn. impvng wn

    uc nghn h lnkbwnvnu

    andxpndudcnfhuallcalbd

    a h magn, whch xmly mpan

    pe effe

    e p f ee. b e ee

    mblanbyhPrilmdahaxlk

    landvnu,huaxcfee e

    e e ee e e

    e. F ee f ee e

    pe eef f ee, e ee

    bfcallympwd.thcndabl

    ee e e e e

    ee e eee ee e

    vnu and ncu xpndu accdng

    h pfnc f h czn. expndu

    func n man nn-anpan and vy

    Table-2

    Fiscal Position of Rural Local Bodies (All tier)

    Year

    Total Revenue

    (Rs. Crore)

    Total

    Expenditure

    (Rs. Crore)

    Own Sources Percentage of

    Total Revenue

    Transfer

    Percentage

    of Total

    Revenue

    Transfer

    Percentage

    of Total

    ExpenditureTax Non-Tax Both

    2002-03 27888.76 26402.23 2.90 3.61 6.50 93.49 98.76

    2003-04 31380.05 30105.47 3.60 3.09 6.69 93.31 97.26

    2004-05 35384.62 34537.36 3.00 3.50 6.50 93.50 95.80

    2005-06 45028.70 41812.50 2.39 3.00 5.40 94.60 101.88

    2006-07 52864.07 51286.23 2.16 2.89 5.04 94.96 97.88

    2007-08 59881.83 57672.22 2.28 2.29 4.57 95.43 99.07

    suc:rpfthnhFnancCmmn(tHFC),2010-15

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    Kurukshetra August 20111010

    llxpnduaunmyhabngvn.i

    mpanpcfyxpndupnbl

    ee , ee pe

    ep, p f e

    ee. i eee e

    v xpndu dcn can mak hng

    ee pe ee ee. a e

    gvnmnhmlvafacdwhval

    ee , e eee e

    e e eqe ee e

    effee ee e eqe f p

    ee. a effee e

    eqe f f f ee,

    f e e e e f

    pefe f ee, ef

    h n fnancal dffcul a wll a h

    xngwakvnumblzanff.i

    p e e f e

    ee e (fe, e,

    lcalax)napdcba.

    a f e pe f

    eepe e ee ee e

    ee f e p e

    mplmna n, mnng and vw f

    h pgamm. Hwv n pc f

    ce spe see peee

    e ce me depe, e

    nvlvmnfpanchayahnn-xn

    . i p e effee

    pee f eepe pe

    epe p e epee p

    f ee . iee

    f pepe ee

    q pee, pefe

    epe e p

    nv nmn n whch h dcn

    pcwk.

    Conclusion

    dee p

    pee f pe, e

    e ppe f , ee

    upplmn nhanc uc flw n

    e e e eepe

    pp empwmn f h p.

    Puung a pacpay gwh agy n

    nly mak h nung gwh accpabl a

    hga-lvl,fcapacybuldng

    fuanablgwhadffnflcal

    lf-gvnmn. th ucc f dcnalzd

    pe pee epe effee

    fe f f, fe fe

    lcallf-gvnmn.thhanhappnd

    h ncay xn. Fcal dcnalzan,n

    e f ee ee

    h vnu-xpndu l nk man wak.

    Panchay a a m hav bn nawly

    cnfnd n-gvnmnalflw, xcludng

    hmavannual dvlpmnalxpndu

    flwfmhCnalgvnmnualaa.

    th dcxpndu n ual aaby h

    ce ee pe e ee

    e e e effee e

    cnx wh h agd bjcv, angng

    f fe epe

    ee , e e

    unm.Mlyungfundpanchayawll

    n achv ul whu phycal mnng

    fucm.Hwvh nd akup

    capacybuldngxcnamavcalf

    e p fe ee

    e e f e

    e. de f pe

    e f f e p

    e ee ee f e g s

    k p e e ee

    eke f eee pe e

    p e e e.

    (Dr. Mohd Azam Khan is Assistant Professor,

    Department of Economics, AMU, Aligarh, e- mail

    [email protected], and Dr. Tosib Alam

    is Research Scholar & Project Fellow, UGC (MRP),

    Department of Economics, Aligarh Muslim

    University, e- [email protected])

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    Kurukshetra August 2011 1111

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    Kurukshetra August 20111212

    t

    h inu f Panchaya ud pfm

    h funcn f e r e

    pd. i n nly pfmd h funcnf e ee efee e

    vllag cmmuny fm xnal ha. in h

    wd, h Panchaya ud pfm n nly

    h plc and judcal funcnbu al hf

    e efee. mee, ee ee

    aunmy.Dpmnnhpwa

    aulfhadmnav,judcalandvnu

    e e e af m

    h mdval inda, h Panchaya cnnud

    pfmhfuncnfhraj..hplcand

    judcal funcn dung h p-clnalpd

    acndablxn.thawhyChalMcalf,h Pvnal Gvn Gnal f inda (1835-

    Panchayati Raj in India:

    Retrospect and Prospect

    Prof. Ranbir Singh & Dr. Preet Pal Singh

    36)dcbdhvllagcmmunahLl

    rep.

    se, e P , f e

    vy bgnnng f h Bh raj challngd h

    clnal gmandpaculaly dunghrvl

    f 1857 al knwn a h F Wa f indan

    indpndnc, h nun f Panchaya wa

    cuhdbyBhhughvpnfh

    vllagcmmunahCwnkvf

    e e f e E i cp 1858.

    inad f ung h ndgnu nun, h

    Bh cad h c fZaildar, Nambardar

    Chowkidar f e ee f e

    cmmun. Bd, laba plc evnu and plc admnan ym w

    Rajiv Gandhi, the former Prime Minister of India, decided to revitalize the PRIs by according them a

    constuonal status. Infact, he decided to do so aer realizing that only 15 paisa out one rupee for

    rural development programmes was able to reach the beneciaries. Moreover, he was keen to create an

    inclusive system of Panchaya Raj for inclusive development.

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    Kurukshetra August 2011 1313

    cadbyhmwhchvuallygavafaalblw

    hnunfGamPanchaya.thnun,

    aa maf facbcamvually daddu

    h pnan f h vllag cmmun by

    hvnuadmnan hugh hPawa,

    Q, te, ce

    h plc admnan hugh Cnabl

    (Sipahis), he ce (Havildars), a

    sub-inpc(Chhota Thanedars),sub-inpc

    (Thanedars), ipe, dep .speee

    f Plc (knwn a Chhota Police Kaptans)

    h supnndn f Plc (knwn a Police

    Kaptan).

    te ee ee fe

    e i ee eeee

    acquaubjcplcalculu.thclafm

    hwppulaayng:

    (i) Afsar key Agari aur ghore key phichari nahi

    jana chahiye (oe f f

    candnhafah)

    () Kichar key phisle ka aur police key pitey ka

    bura nahin manana chahiye (oe

    mndlppng nmudandgngban by

    pe)

    Royal Commission on Decentralization

    Bhaamay,hBhddalzhflly

    f havng dyd h nun f Panchaya

    n h dcad f h 20 e. t

    ee f e f e r c

    Dcnalzan(1907)cmmnddhcan

    fVllagPanchayaandhnunwacad

    e pe e e ee f

    ha cnuy. F lluan, vllag panchaya

    wcadnhPvncfPunjabhughh

    ee f P ve P a, 1912.

    smla au w nacd f h pup n

    hpvnc.BuhBhddnwan

    ee e r (e) f e P. te

    nwangvhplcandjudcalfuncnhm.th bjcvwadn. thywand

    lghn h nancal budn f h pvncal

    ee ee ee e P

    ha h culd pfm cvc funcn by

    mblzng h wn uc. Hwv, h

    Panchaya dd g py judcal pw a

    h nducn f Dyachy n 1921 hugh h

    mplmnan f h Gvnmn f inda Ac,

    1919. F e, e P ve P

    Ac,1921whchhadbnmvdbyFazl--Huan,

    me P gee e

    pwvllagPanchayadphpcpn

    f e ee P e ee

    fnjuc.thchangkplacbcauh

    ef ee ee fee

    e e e ee f d ee

    e e i e e f ee

    lnhcagyfhvdfuncnwhch

    had cnnudwh hexcuv Cuncl f h

    Gvnfhpvnc.Bu,hanffpy

    judcalpwddncaPanchayaraj.thraj

    mandwhhclnaladmnan.

    i wa n h abv cna ha Mahama

    g epe e ee f P . he

    wafhvwhaindacannuvvfhvllagdandhcanbavdnlyhughGamswaaj

    .e. e ee e P e f

    h clnal admnan.Dp h anc f

    Mahama Gandh, h wa ll mpvmn

    n h au f vllag Panchaya vn a h

    nducnfPvncalAunmyn1937hugh

    hmplmnanfhGvnmnfindaAc,

    1935.smnavwakn,undubdly,n

    hpvnc lk PunjabwhhDvlpmn

    me, c r ee e P

    ve P a, 1939. b ee

    ee e e P e bmplmndwnghubakfhscnd

    WldWaandhadvplcalclmahahad

    ee ee e i s (1940),

    e e f Pk (1940), e Q i

    mee (1942), e ek f

    (1946).

    iwahpdhahPanchayawllbabl

    ganhrajandpndncbcauf

    advcacybyhFahfNan,MahamaGandh,

    whhadplaydpvallnhugglagan

    clnalmfm19201947.Bu,hhpwabld by h mak f indanCnun. thy

    pvdd f h can f a hghly cnalzd

    fdalymnwhchhcnwamadvy

    ng and h a w mad ah wak.

    Abvall, hwa nmnnf hwdh

    Panchayaraj n hDa f hCnun f

    inda.iadnhnghahhuandcyby

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    Kurukshetra August 20111414

    h Gandhan fcd h Cnun mak

    pvd f h canfVllag Panchayaaa

    lcallfgvnmnnunnAcl40fh

    nn-jucablDcvPncplfsaPlcy.

    Gram Panchayat Acts

    ceqe, e g P a

    w nacd by vau a a h i

    Gnalelcn,hahadbnhldn1952,f

    mplmnngAcl40.Anhanfh

    navwaapmhahindanNanal

    CnghadmadnelcnManfn1951

    fhcanfGamPanchayaanunf

    lcallfgvnmn.Fxampl,hPunjabGam

    P a, 1952, ee g P

    agndhmhcvcandpyjudcalfuncn.

    Lkw,hanacdmlaauf

    hpup.Bu,hPanchayawbynmangvnhraj(hpwfgvnanc).thyhad

    n bn agnd plc and vnu funcn.

    Mv, h clnal ym f admnav

    e e P ee e.

    inhmanm,hCmmunyDvlpmn

    Pe ee e oe 2,

    1952 f e e , , e

    andplcaldvlpmnf ual cy hugh

    cmmuny.iwahpdhahpgamm

    wllbngabualnvlunnualcyby

    awaknnghdmanfcfpgn.th

    pgamm hwv, pvd b hpvbalGd ha fald. th happnd bcau wa

    mplmndbyhdcadmnanwhh

    ep f eepe e e.

    ceqe, ee pepe

    pe.

    te fe f pe e e

    ng up f Balvanay Mha sudy tam f

    xplng h cau f falu, f uggng

    h mdal mau, f xamnng h

    ufuln f h xng lcal lf gvnmn

    nunfhpupandfuggnganee e f ee. te te

    fl ha h pgamm dd n uccd wng

    lack f ppl pacpan n . i al fl

    ha h xng nun f ual lcal lf

    ee e g P e

    d b ee e e. ie,

    uggdachmfdmcacdcnalzan

    nvnnghcanfdmcacallylcd

    ke g P e e

    lvl,Panchayasama hblcklvl,and h

    ZlaPahadahdclvl.iwaalfh

    vw ha h Gam Panchaya mall and

    hdclagaunfhdvlunfa

    funcnfdvlpmnalplannng.thf,hakbagndhPanchayasambcau

    h blckhadan pmum z.iwanha

    e e e . ae ,

    hvywdblckwaacadnhpychf

    ualmawhualdvlpmnandwaal

    e eqe e p f e

    BDo,hexnnocandhGamswak

    (ve lee wke) f eepe.

    thu,hPanchayasamwagvnhkyl

    eepe p e g P

    wahlpnmplmnngplan.Wha

    hZlaPahadwaplayhlfupvn,advcandcdnanvhPanchayasam

    g P.

    Panchayati Raj Inaugurated

    A a ul h mplmnan f

    cmmndan f Balvanay Mha sudy

    tam,hchmfdmcacdcnalzan,

    ppulaly knwn a h Panchaya raj wa

    e n r e e

    PmMn f inda P. Jawahalal Nhu n

    ocb 2, 1959. Gadually, wanducd n

    all h a. Badly pakng, w mdal f

    Panchayarajmgdninda.inhmdl

    whch wa al knwn a rajahan mdl, h

    Panchayasamwamadhkyauhy,h

    CllcwagvnhkylandhMLAhad

    bn acad wh h Panchaya sam and

    bhMLAandMPwhhZlaPahad.inh

    hmdlknwaMahaahamdl,hZla

    Pahadwagvnhcnall.thCllc,

    hMLAandhMPwkpufPanchaya

    rajym.iwaagudharajahanmdlwa

    bfdcnalzanandhafMahaaha

    f dvlpmn. Bu, h wd Panchaya raj

    ee e. i ee g P,Panchayasam andZla Pahad a hvllag,

    blck and dc lvl pcvly bu dd n

    agnhmhlfgvnanc.thfuncn

    fplc,vnuadmnanandjudcayw

    kpufbundfmhm.thywagnd

    e eepmnal funcn. th

    GamPanchayaddgpyjudcalpwandn

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    Kurukshetra August 2011 1515

    mfhaNayayPanchayawcad

    e e e f ee kep e e.

    evnhdvlpmnallwaaknawayfm

    e e d r deepe aee

    (DrDA)n1980.Aaul,hPriwlwh

    nlycvcfuncn.thfacfhmaha

    hybcamhadwwhuubanc.evnh

    cmmndanfhHghPwdCmm

    nPanchayaraj(1978),ppulalyknwnaAhk

    MhaCmm,faldjuvnahm.th

    nly xcpn w h a fW Bngal,

    KanaakaandAndha Padh,whch dd up

    vbanymfPanchayaraj.

    Rajiv Gandhis Vision

    r g, e e Pe me f

    i, ee ee e Pri

    hm a cnunal au. infac, h dcdd

    daalznghanly15paaunup f ual dvlpmn pgamm wa

    ablachhbnca.Mv,hwa

    kn ca an ncluv ymf Panchaya

    raj fncluv dvlpmn.Hnc, hwand

    vanfhwmn,hsCandhstn

    h. Hwv, h64 aee b e

    e lk s 1989 fe e e

    qu w-hd majy n h rajya sabha.

    Hvnwa, hwv, lan nunalzd

    P.v. n r, e e Pe me f

    i 1992 e f f

    e 72

    Cnunal Amndmn Bll whchee 73CnunalAmndmnAc,1993.

    t aee e e e f k

    mplmnnghplanfcnmcdvlpmn

    and cal juc n h f h 29 ubjc

    e e 11 ee e ee

    e P e se lee. a,

    e p f e aee ee e

    P e e ef e e, e ef

    gvnanccnnubamagfhPri

    vn ghn ya a h mplmnan f

    73 Cnunal Amndmn Ac n 1994. th

    Prihavbndndfuncn,funcnaand

    fundnmfha.evnwhhha

    bn mmdcum fdvlun, aunmy

    ee e.

    i f e e Pri e e

    ee f e e e e ee

    f mplmnng h ual deepe

    calwlfapgamm.thcanbynch

    f magnan b cndd a lf gvnng

    bd. in h wd, w cnnu hav

    Panchayaavaulvlndnabu

    hyhavnraj.evnhallufhUPA

    gee e ee e 2004 e f

    fald bng abu anyqualavdnc n

    h cnx. i pnn mnn h ha

    e gee ee d. m s

    cnud a paaMny f Panchayaraj

    and had appnd a hghly cmmd pn,

    m sk ae, e. he e

    ee r te cfeee f

    e e e ee

    ffuncnalagnmnhPri.Hhadal

    gnd Mmanda f Undandng wh h

    ChfMnfvalafhppaan

    fDcumnnAcvyMappngbyhmfh

    ppe. he e e r g

    swaajYjana (rGsY) f hCapacyBuldngfhlcdpndfPri.Bungncan

    ek e e e ee

    f e ee f e ee ee

    pwhbd.

    L u hp ha h mplmnan f h

    cmmndan f h scnd Admnav

    rfmCmmn(2007)fhfuncnaland

    funcnal mpwmn and h accpanc f

    e e e e 15 ae ce

    fPanchayaraj(2008)fhampup,may

    e k e P ef e e

    ee e e e r ee f epfmancfhlmdfuncnhahavbn

    e e 11 see.

    Bu h n nly qu plcal wll n

    e p f e se gee

    pee e e e e e.

    l e e, e eep f e Pri

    wllhavganzlfahdc,aand

    nanallvlfhpup.iwllalhav

    nuhahPrignaucfhwn

    e f e epe p e f e

    e e e ee. ue e

    , e e e

    e e.

    (The first author is Consultant, Haryana

    Institute of Rural Development, Nilokheri and

    the second author is Assistant Professor in

    the same Institute , e-mail : dirhird1@rediffmail.

    com)

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    dee e p pe

    alwaybn pe e p

    i. Ee nchnducnfv

    yaplanhbacbjcwaachvngad

    andpacpaydvlpmnahdagggad

    lvl. Bu h nal andcncuv wv ya

    p e ee c

    DvlpmnPgammahBlcklvlwn

    pccnugha nfcmnand ngan

    famwk f uch plannng pc. Alhugh

    Panchayawablhdfmvllaguph

    Dc lvl n h la pa f 1950 fllwng

    h cmmndan f B.r. Mha Cmm

    e pe ke ee

    Planning from below: Legislation versusMobilization

    Utpal Chakraborty

    Although inial legislaon at the Naonal level took place more than one and half decade ago, an eecve

    iniaon on the part of Planning Commission was observed rst in the year 2006 when a set of guidelines

    were issued by them in preparaon of the District Plan.

    hap f wan f amakd l and adqua

    ee ee . d e e f

    f 1960, h Admnav rfm Cmmn

    whl accpng h lvanc f plannng and

    cdnan amng h mplmnng agnc

    alppdfallcanfucblwh

    e ee. seqe, e P c

    f h Cunydd n ha udcv

    h sa Gvnmn f mplmnan f

    Dclvlplannng.Nfuulachvmnwa,

    hwv, bvd, agan fwan f nunal

    famwk a h gund lvl. Agan, n 1978

    Pf. M. L. Danawala cmmndd f Blck

    Lvl Plannng a a ub-a plannng pc

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    Kurukshetra August 2011 1717

    hava lnkagbwn cluf vllag, dc,

    a and Nanal lvl. sfgudlnw

    fuhudgadngfmulanfBlckPlann

    cnfmywhhcmmndan.

    thdcadf1980wndhmgnc

    f cnally pnd chm wh an bjcvf ee e e ee p pe

    fllwdbyfmanfwuccvcmm,

    ppulaly knwn a Hanumanha ra (1984) and

    G.V.K.ra(1985)Cmmwhhambjcv.

    Bh h Cmm quvcally advcad f

    an nunal lnkag f hpc hav an

    cvucm.Fnallyappadnhcna

    e 73 74 ee f e

    CnunnhalyNnhamandaly

    pvddfhlcallvlGvnmnfm

    vllagDcwhapccbjcvfplannng

    fecnmcDvlpmn andscal Jucwh

    anaddnalnunffmulanflcalual

    and uban plannng a h Dc lvl knwna

    DcPlannngCmm(DPC).incally,dp

    many vnu dcnalzd plannng ll

    cndd a a pacula dpamnal xc,

    e brgF, 13 F.c mnrEga. i ppe

    wwllyxplvaublnckacad

    whhpc.

    Reviewing Legislaon and subsequentiniaves

    WhlAcl243Gand243W,ancpad

    n h Cnun hugh 73 74amndmn, mpw h Pri and ULBs

    pcvly fmula h wn plan f

    cnmc dvlpmn and cal juc, Acl

    243ZDpvdfcnldanfhplana

    hDcLvlbyhDcPlannngCmm

    a akng n accun h cmmn n f

    bhhualandubaninunwhchnclud

    paal plannng, hang f naual and phycal

    ee, ee eepe f fe,

    nvnmnalcnvanandhxnandyp

    fucavalabl, bnancalhw.

    thu, lk cnun f Pri fman andfuncnngfhDPChavbnbwdupn

    e se gee e f a

    rulfamdbyhpcvawhnagvn

    famwkdgndnhCnun.

    AlhughnallglanahNanallvl

    k pe e e f ee ,

    bu ancv nann h pa f Plannng

    Cmmn wa bvd n h ya 2006

    whna f gudlnw udby hm n

    ppaanfe d P.

    sm day a whn h cnd

    Admnav rfm Cmmn ubmd

    xh p n Lcal Gvnanc bcam fuhvcalnhfllwngpn:

    1. Dvlpmn auh bcm h

    e f e dPc

    2. s pe f e ee f P

    c e 25 a,2006

    pep d P

    3. Dvlpngmhdlgyflcalpacpay

    p

    4. ingan f Dc Plan wh h sa

    P

    5. Cla dmacan f plannng funcn

    e ee pcmm.

    Agan, hMnyf Panchayaraj (MoPr)

    nc ncpn nvndn nghnngh

    dcnalzanpchughfundabl

    cnfnc,Mdl PanchayaAcand publcan

    fadmapfhPanchayaraj.thypadly

    hghlghdhlvanc,landpnblf

    Dcnalzadplannngwhhznalappach.

    o 11 Plan dcumn wh a vn f

    ncluv Gwh wa ah m paccal a

    e pe f eee p. i aGvnanchdcumn,bddnfyng

    hpccCnallyspndschm(Css)f

    cnvgncfucandnfcmnfn-

    cal p al h ld 12 p a a

    pcfbm-upplannng:

    1. Amn and py ng hugh

    pacpayfalkGamsabhaandsHG

    nwk.

    2. suananalyunglcallyavalabldaa

    pe e ppeee

    PacpayrapdAppaalchnqu.

    3. ree ee f e

    e f f e e,

    f css

    4. Fman f a vn f dvlpmn a

    wll a ag f aanng h vn by

    Pri hugh a pc f nacn wh

    akhldandlcalxp

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    5. deepe f pe e e ee

    ee and uananaly by xp

    wkngGupadnlvlfPri.

    6. Cnldan f dvlpmn ppal f

    hwknggup.

    7. Pzan f ppal and allcan fee eef

    8. Ppaan f pjc p n dald

    f.

    9. Vng f pjc p n chncal and

    nancalapcbytchncalAdvyGup

    f dPc.

    10. inganfpjcnplanbyPri.

    11. CnldanfPriplannDcPlan.

    12. cee f e P e dPc.

    te e e ee e

    ppal f dn Pri mg n a Dc

    plan;wllbncay dvlpa famwk,

    bhcalandc-cal,ahDclvl

    hughamul-lvlandavplannngpc

    whamnandpzanbngmadah

    lwlvlandhncnldadahghlvl.

    te p e eee ee

    b aa wh dnc may a n lav

    pbu anablcnnucan bavd

    e .

    t ee e dPc ppeee p, e 11 P e

    nallydndhfllwngpcclfbh

    e gee e ce se ee

    wllahPlannngCmmnlf:

    1. DPCbngcnunalqumnnd

    bfullynghnd,njuacmm

    buafull-dgdnun.

    2. dPc e e te a

    Gup f dn c cnng f

    pfe f gee, e

    nunandnn-gvnmnganzan

    awllacvlcy.

    3. DPChuldbncuagdnwkwh

    acadmcandachnunwhnh

    4. thPlannngCmmn,whhappval

    f e me, e

    ee f pepan f plan n a

    cnvgdmann,ulzng hucf

    css.

    5. se gee e ee ee

    f eee p e d

    P

    6. P c e ) ae e pe se e

    upcfhDPCawllachncal

    pp

    b) ov a pd fm, a lcalacal

    e eee e

    e pe e f e nss

    npan pbla laa h

    ee f bk, f e e

    c) on xp nun n ach sa

    dnd f ppaan f pl

    Dc Plan hugh acn achnpanhp wh h a and lcal

    ee

    Fnally, h Nanal Cnfnc f

    cpe/cEo f dPc e 16 17

    Januay,2009aNwDlhnddhlvanc

    f nghnng h pc f funcnng f

    DPC,ppaanfvyaDcppcv

    plan and annual plan, pcc nfman

    and cmmuncan chnlgy (iCt) upp,

    daabafDcandub-dclvl,nancal

    dmanfPanchaya,paalplannng,cnldan

    f u & r P, p f dplannngc.Afuncnalmanualfppaanf

    ee d p pepe e tk

    Fcwaalnddbyhcnfnc.

    Our Experience with DPC

    i , eefe, e p e

    gadhCnunalpvnfmchanm

    f plannng fm blw, u plcy mak hav

    paduannnghnhfuncnal

    dmanfDPC.Hwv,dphguand

    cnnuu vnu au f funcnng f DPC

    f f e ee. i e ee cnducd by h Plannng Cmmn fllwng

    whkyndngaaufDPC:

    . DPCanfuncnalnmfha.

    inafwa,hyhavnyvnbn

    cnud,whlnmfhsahy

    a cnud bu n a cnunally

    eqe.

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    . sval sa uch a Chhagah,Gujaa,

    m Pe, o, m

    h Pe e me

    Chapn f DPC , whch hamp hpacpavnaufhplannngpcn

    e dPc

    . DPC a funcnng cvly n Kala,Kk r.

    v. DPChavnbnablcvlynablual-ubanlnkag.Cdnadplannng

    k pe pe p

    ee ee eepjcmplmnan.

    Agan, a gad au f ppaan f

    DcPlan,hndngwafllw:

    . o a P f brgF e ee ppe.

    PlannngpcnNn-BrGFdcy

    ee. thnpaadcbudgwhnh

    p f e e.

    . dPc e e p e

    e d deepe P

    v. in m f h a nly cnunal

    f pefe.

    v. th n mnd f cdnan eee e.

    i,hf,mpavhnkulyf

    ucunghDPCkpngnvwhaand

    dcpccflnd.indlmnnhawhavnyulyhughnpvdng

    paa cal upp DPC. Apa fm ha

    mxpfmacadmcandnn-gvnmnganzannd b ncludd n h DPC

    ha ncay ub cmm may uably b

    cnudvwhcalplan.Agadxpcdlf hDPCwhn hmanng and

    cpfAcl243ZDhpbablpnbl

    ulnd by h radmap f h MoPr wh

    e:

    . P e eep e p

    pc whu akng away fm hfuncnal pnbl f h lcal

    ee

    . Ladnghdcnvnngxc

    . sng dc p n h ba f

    e ee, e

    epe, e, e e

    kee eepe

    v. Pfmnghcnallnhppaan

    fPna lke ce P (PlcP) f e

    dcwhhuppfhNABArD

    v. rvwng plan f lcal gvnmn and

    eepe epe e pe

    f cnldan, paculaly wh a vw

    e ee e e

    vnaawhlandaffvlapand

    duplcan

    v. ovnghpacpavplannngpc

    nuhahpcandmlna

    fllwd

    v. Mnng mplmnan f happvd

    dcplanandaddngblnckha

    e.

    Instuonal linkage and acvity

    mappingA a plngd dba a h Nanal

    lvl, Acl 243G f h indan Cnun

    mpwd h lcal gvnmn funcn a

    inunflfgvnmnffmulanand

    mplmnanfplanfecnmcDvlpmn

    and scal Juc na abu w dcad ag.

    see feee e e eqe

    mak hmpwmnpanal. Alhugh

    mfhahavbyhmdcladh

    plcy f dvlun hugh acvymappng bu

    n aly h ammach bwn funcnal

    dvlunwhcaldvlun.Aacnqunc, f e se a e P

    havbn bwdwha l fvcdlvy

    pnbl h dnc abnc f cal

    dvlun fllwd by anfng h vc

    flndpamn calwkngahgund

    lvl n an cv mann. th radmap f

    h Panchayaraj (2011-16) ppad by h

    MnyfPanchayarajfuhahanm

    ca,whhahavclalydvlvduch

    pnbl hPanchaya,hah

    ll lagly bng pvdd n a p-dwnmann

    e e ee e e f e P ee ee e

    hdudcnnancalandadmnav

    pwlackfcapacyandaccunablyfh

    Pri.svc,hf,cnnufalhczn

    f wan f a nd-bad gund lvl plannng

    havngadnc vn andmn ghwh

    nandnnunallnkag.

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    Kurukshetra August 20112020

    Acvy mappng huld, hf, b

    ee ke e ucc f bm-up

    appachfplannng.smpldvlunfubjc

    wuld b manngl unl uch dvlun

    e ppe f e e

    p e f ee ee ee. a

    clagudlnhacdalnghpbfllwd nhgad huldb udbyh

    MnyfPanchayaraj. A h am m l

    fachfPrihuldclalybdmacada

    ppaanf plangh fm dmnan f

    nfmananalycalucm.

    Convergence with Centrally sponsoredschemes vis--vis ulizaon phobia

    UndAcl282fhCnunCnally

    pe ee (css) e ee e

    hCnalGvnmnfabulanvya

    planapcalpupganmvahsa

    Gvnmn faanng hNanalbjcv.

    Dung ya f h 11 plan(2007-08), h

    P c e ee e 99

    uch chm whch a cnlld by 27 cnal

    me.

    ev nc nducn h Mny f

    Panchaya raj ha bn yng b by ung

    dcnhsaGvnmnnghn

    e Pri f e gee

    cnfmywhh73 74 ee f e

    Cnunand11 ee ee e

    cnalyfhPrinplannngandmplmnan

    fCss.thwavnadcvfmhPm

    me 2004 e e me

    dpamndalngwhhCsshuldvwh

    hpcvchmnhlghfAcl243(G)

    adwhhelvnhschdulnlandp

    Unfunaly,ndnudahNanal

    ee ee ee ee e

    mplmndbysaDpamnhughvcal

    ucu.thnhanyhznalngan

    ee f e e e

    and auchCssfal c h flndand

    wnhpahlcallvl.AlhughhPrihav

    bn nvlvd n mplmnan fCssaa pafhCnunalmandabuhnvlvmn

    e e p f e ee p

    whchnafmhGamsabha,ahCss

    bcmanladappachwhapaaplana

    pdcnfhcncndlndpamn.Aa

    cnqunchalwayp ee f e e

    dpamnupnhPriwadalyulzan

    f e f e eqe e

    n b upndd. thu h alway an acu

    cnfnanbwnqualavandquanav

    appachduulzanphbafwhchCssculd

    bancvuppfngadplannng.

    ifhdcnalzdplannnghabcvnun,hCssfundhabmadcndnal

    wad apppa dvlun f ubjc ld

    11chdul.Ahamm,PriwhGam

    sabha hav b funcnally mpwd and

    capacad ulz h Css a a uc f fund

    f ngad plannng fm blw. on h h

    hand h huld b adncly agnd lf

    Pri n plannng and mplmnan a gad

    aghp pgamm lk sava skha Avjan,Md

    e pe, dk we m, t

    sananCampagn,NanalrualHalhMn,

    iee c deepe see, m

    GandhNanalrualemplymnPgammandhNanalPgammlkBhaaNmanand

    JawahalalNhuUbanrnwalMn.smlaly

    e f css e ee f

    whhacvymappngandbbughund

    hcnalcnlfhMnyfPanchayaraj

    e m f r deepe. F, ee

    huld b a cl lnkag bwn a pcc

    acvymappngandwfCssfund.

    Does legislaon ensure parcipaon

    on f h lun n h Nanal lvl

    feee e 16 17Januay,2009wa

    happlpnanupacpanhkye e f eee p pe.

    tee pe ee ee

    whhmblzanfllwhlglanh

    lglanhuldfllwhpanfmblzan.

    oulanngfmhyhwhandmcacy

    aladpndupnhpanfndgnu

    culu, adn and yl f gvnanc and

    admnav yl whch ulmaly c h

    dncvn and cmplxy f vau nanal

    dn,awllaalandculualdv.

    Agan, na glbalzd cywhnwa alkng

    abumnmala,waaccpnghlvancfpvanav,cvlcyandcalcapaln

    u gvnanc ym. incally, pacpan n

    un,alanuca,llnama

    fpvanav,fnagnpccplcal

    pe.

    Ah lapf wdcadfmhday

    f u dcnalzan nav, may nw b

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    Kurukshetra August 2011 2121

    calldhancnfmywhhglbalagndau

    fcufdcnalzanwanhngfpy

    f e gee gee f e

    whch dc ann h l fmulplcy

    f ac and nun n plcal dcn

    makng.thuqunngvnancagadng

    ucncndwh cy andh fcu ncdnanandlf-gvnancauch,manfd

    n dn yp f nwk and panhp.

    (re,1997)i ee e, eefe,

    dcnalzanmandpnfpwnnly

    ual and uban lf-gvnng nun bu

    allcallfhlpgup,lcalcmmunand

    NGo. th h v ya plan-eghh,Nnh and

    nhnadfcnnnghmlvPanchaya

    rajMuncpalGvnmn,havpvddwd

    manngdcnalzan.Fuh,whuldn

    fg ha u f dcnalzan n aly

    1990w nnwaya pn anypu

    buldngnPlcymakfmblw.thnavwaapnhdmandflgupand

    ppn pa clamng f ga dvlun

    whch cncdd wh h cnmpay glbal

    e.(m,2008) a eqee pepe

    h bmlvl nad fmblzng hmlv

    fhwnplannngpfdbbnca

    f gee Pe.

    w e ee fe f ee ee f

    pacpanaGamsabhaandWadsabhamay

    nwb cncluddha nlyngcnnuand

    cv panhp buldng amng dn

    calandplcalacwhcvuppfhacanhlpugdfhuan.A

    hammplcalachuldbp-acv

    nghnhpacpaymchanmahGam

    sabhaandWadsabhalvlwhfullnfmann

    ee ee e f p.

    Revising Kerala Experience

    Kala mdl f plannng ppulaly knwn

    a ppl plan campagn nw wll knwn

    e ee . w

    e e nnhplanfh cunywa

    cvdvlunfpwandpnbl,

    funcna and uc h Lcal lf

    gvnng inun wh a fcu n ppl

    pnanu pacpan. th n pc

    wa nad und h ladhp fKala sa

    PlannngBad.Whhcmmndanfh

    CmmnDcnalzanfPw,ppulaly

    knwnasnCmm,hhnsaGvnmn

    ee ee e f P f e

    lvlnunwhchwafllwdbyaf

    uablnunal ef. be ppe f

    ubday,hydvddhfuncnfdn

    f ual and uban lcal gvnmn n

    acv and ub acv. Plannng fm blw

    wamdaannumnfcalmblzan.

    Whhnanfcapacybuldngfvylvle e p pe f g

    sabha,ach lcalbdywa qudppaa

    cmphnvaaplanwhfcunlcalppl

    fe ee efe e p f f

    hGvnmn.thmajucmfhn

    pe, ee e se P b,

    wafllw:

    1. enablng h a ucu a ymac

    pacpayplannngmhdlgyavau

    e f eepe pe

    2. inanfhanffaundnhdf

    hannualplanallcannhabudghlcalgvnmnnhfmfund

    ganfmplmnanfpjcap

    pepe ee

    3. enablng anf fund, funcn and

    funcna

    4. ip e p f pepe

    h pnav n undandng and

    dnfynglcallvlplannng

    5. Mvang mpvng accunably and

    nducnggdgvnancpacc

    6. Pvdng avc h wak cn n

    mnghbacndducpvy

    andnablnghmhavablvlhd

    pn.

    Wha wa pbl n Kala wh a ng

    k f e e pe e

    hughu h cuny, buwhaw lan fm

    hxchaancvlglanpbl

    whn h a pacvba fmblzan

    bhhpcunmulanuly.thwaal

    e e f we be e e 1970 epe

    flandfmmvmnwhchpavdhway

    f dmcac ual dcnalzan vnwhua cnunal manda. ou n xc f

    plannngfmblwwuldbfulunlun

    hughbhwayac.

    (The author is a member of the West

    Bengal Civil Service, presently working as Block

    Development Ocer, Sainthia, Birbhum, e-mail :

    [email protected])

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    Kurukshetra August 20112222

    te e, e e, ee

    f d, wng

    e fe e f f f e

    fe f e, e f fe

    e.

    i h bwldng vay f lf whch

    cnal uxnc aa pcamng

    cunlhnhplanY,nlyfllw

    pee f ee; e fe f fe

    fmnhah.twaknwdy

    h naual uc wuld b a cp f a

    da,nwhchhwldhawknup.

    Clhm,hwv,hngangng

    fe e e

    e ek. Fe f b e

    wh nhab h gn, lagly adva, h

    py f many lf-uann ee,

    accdbyh cmmun.s why ha

    ee e e flamvynw

    e?

    YhalwfFPcnAc

    ee pe. reee Fe f e

    hpuvwf Fdpamncann nway

    b dyd ncachd whu h a

    machnycmngdwnhavlynuchac.Bu

    hanhha,hafmwhn.Whn

    h f cmmun wh adnally hav

    bnknwnbnaualpcfhf,

    whchfdhmwhpducandakca

    f e ee f f, ee, e

    e.

    smwh h m b a gap, n

    undandng. Why l wuld h adva

    hmlv lgh h f, whch dy h

    pe fe?

    Fanac.thgwh,h

    e. tee, , fe e eee

    Fire in the Forest

    Kumar Singh Toppo. Kanker, Chhatsgarh

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    Kurukshetra August 2011 2323

    ef allchangwhhanandpufh

    w, lav, fu, hb and b wh h

    changngan.thwhahadvapluckand

    e, e e e e ke, .

    thfnKankdc,nuhChhagah

    fllwhpan.

    Mahuanfhmvaluablwhch

    npngahfvalfcluHlpufh

    abundanc f w whch h adva wp

    dwn n dung h an, cung h f

    fhdanywhw.thamany

    ufMahua,hmppulabngbwngan

    nxcangdnk,afavwhhadva.th

    e ee e pee f

    bw5lfhlqu,whchdlldung

    lcal cnapn. Acually mahua ha mulpl

    u,amnghmauaamadfmh

    cuhdw.ifchagdpcahhaa

    awll.thcalancnbwcunymad

    q f e e e,

    ef e ee e k

    mmbdngnan-calacv.

    swhydhadvawh knwnly

    wll,hvalufhf,adungand

    a h mahua pckng an, ypcally nMay-

    Jun? i cau wdpad dvaan. tnd

    yung planwhchhav akn nallpbl

    plac n h f a chad.th gnav

    qualy f f ak a bang a h human

    eee.

    oe ke e e. t fe

    h pckng fmahua w, hddnund pl

    ffallnlavandwg, h adva a a,

    whuallygahnghlavnapl.iman

    val h w whu caung xnv

    damag.Buhnhngfndlyabua,

    whchunamd,andgwld.

    evnamallcanmmnandnll

    e ee p.

    scfnhBa fe e

    wapcunaualwalh.thhagdy

    fhgn,fhadvamnd-.thycann

    peee e f e e e

    pe e. Fe f e eee

    e e e. a e

    mahua-pckng an ha ud. th f

    e f pe e e: k p, , e f, ee

    andbwhchfndamakhugvngacah

    e e ee e ke

    k p f e pe.

    oe f e pe fe pe e f k

    ee e te p( ef).

    l fe e e f e p,

    ladhgwhffhlavfafnqualy,

    fe e e

    adwhupplyfdabugnngbd

    e .

    thadvacnncwhhfpbably

    daback a p-agculuala.Lngbf

    landwaculvad,lfllng,havngand

    ganw nu, hadva w pckng

    pk fe pe e

    e. g e e e e

    plughanddaywhawfndacnfluncf

    hwa,wflf-yl.Advaday

    e fe pe, e e pe

    e. w fe e ff e e f e fe,

    hjhmfm,paccdxnvlynnly

    c fe e

    e .

    smwh h mayhm ha p. And

    h nu claly fall n h gvnmn wh

    ndakmauc-phadvan

    pe f e fe. t e eqe

    quanumchangndcn,nlyawakngfh

    cunpacc,a-nanhhyhm

    fhf,whchhfcmmunhav

    e e. Fe Pe

    e pe

    wllnlybgnmaknfhyad

    wh f x e e e

    e.

    (Charkha Features)

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    Kurukshetra August 2011 2525

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    Kurukshetra August 20112626

    te ve c m e

    ee e P r e, fe

    e e ee e

    lcal lf-gvnng bd du much fee efeee, p f f

    e f e. te pee ppe ep

    xamnhdfcncfhVllagCuncl

    p e P fe e 73

    c aee a ee

    e ee ee .

    de ee e f e

    pe eqe f ee. i p

    appaauhughwhc e ee

    epeee e. dee ee

    Democratic Decentralization: A Study ofVillage Councils in Mizoram

    Dr. Harendra Sinha

    The present posion of the Village Councils in Mizoram may be compared with the Panchayats of Indian

    states before the Constuon (73rd Amendment) Act 1992. Socio-economic development is beyond the

    scope of the Councils due to lack of nancial and polical power.

    galvlpplpacpanndcn-

    k pc. Fllw f dcnalzan

    p ee e e, pp,

    epee effe. te e d-cncna pw and mak publc

    ee e e pepe. i, e e

    dmcacyfhwld,alznghmpanc

    fdmcacdcnalzan,nadhh-

    Panchayarajinun(Pri)n1958wh

    e ee f f pepe

    e f f epeee ee

    e ee.

    te 73 c aee a

    1992 fe ee e Pri. te 73

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    Kurukshetra August 2011 2727

    aee e e Pri

    ee ee e f

    f epe e ee

    pp eepe pe e e

    lvl. th a fMzam habnxmpd

    f e 73

    c aee e h xnc f adnal lcal lf-gvnng

    e e ve c, ee e e

    l h d (ve c) a 1953.

    The Village Councils in Mizoram:

    te a f l (m) e

    ee cef ee epe e

    ve c fe epeee. te l

    h d c, (ve c) a 1953

    wa pad und h Luha Hll Ac. N.V, f

    1953 1 deee, 1953.

    sm laly, h Paw-Lakhre c (ve

    Cuncl) Ac wa pad n

    sepee, 1954 ee

    e e

    Paw- Lakh gn. By h

    l h a

    d (a

    je) re1953, e d

    CunclCuwaablhd

    and Paw-LakhAunmu

    re (a fje) re, 1954, e

    Vllag Cuncl Cu w cnud n h

    Paw-Lakhrgn(sngh1994:149).thVllag

    c e f e e

    habn xmpd fm h73 c

    aee.

    te f f e ve c

    nclud h dbun f jhum land whn

    h judcn n accdanc wh h law,

    nfcHnalangwhnallhablbdd

    vllag whch h dn f h vllag a nd h vc f h wlfa f h

    vllagwhnvccandmand,nung

    e e e pe

    e p f

    dfvacanwhnvnday.thVllag

    c e e f e gee

    fmwhchhgvnmngvalac,

    ek f fe e e. te ve c

    ep e ee e ee

    f e e ke fe fe; e

    e p, ke ee ee e

    f p e e.

    The Deficiencies of the VillageCouncils:

    te pee p f e ve c

    nMzammaybcmpadwhhPanchaya

    f i e efe e c (73

    Amndmn) Ac 1992. sc-cnmc

    eepe e e pe f e c

    dulackffnancalandplcalpw.th

    man dfcncy f h lcal lf-gvnmn

    bdyfnancalhandcapwhnpmann

    e f e. a

    ee p f ef, pee e

    f e ee.

    mee, pepe

    ke p e

    f ve c ee.

    te ee

    e pe e

    e ve c. ue

    l h d (ve

    c) a, 1953 (ee

    up da) , sub- cn

    (3) f cn 13 ad,

    n pe e ee f e ve

    c e pek ke p

    ee pe e

    h pvnhall bpunhablwhfnn

    xcdng r. 50/- by h Vllag Cu. th

    ub-cn(1)fcn25fhAcpvd,

    thGvn,bypublcnfcan,dh

    f ve c f p,

    e ve c effe

    e e e

    e e pe e ee

    f e e f e e ffe

    f . t, f e

    Vllag Cuncl a h lcal lf-gvnmn n

    m ee e ee

    nfnc and whu fnancal pw; h

    ve c ee e ee

    lf-nun (sapahy 1995: 358-362). th

    The state of Mizoramhas been exempted from

    the 73rd ConstuonalAmendment due to theexistence of tradional

    local self-governing bodies the Village Councils,

    created under the LushaiHills District (VillageCouncils) Act 1953

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    Vllag Cuncl hav w maj lman a

    e f e. F f ee

    e ee f e p f ee

    e e g s e e

    Panchayarajymwhchnablpacpan

    f e ee pp f e e

    e e k pe. se, ee

    e e eee e eep

    f h Vllag Cuncl whch duc hm

    uncad dmcac (Da 2004:142-143).

    tee p f ee f e f

    wmnnhCunclawll. 4

    m ve c

    e e ee pe

    wh c accmmdan bye ee d

    c. a , e e

    cunclxcuvandmmb

    e pe ee,

    cnvnmng,dawupplan

    ee f eepe

    and cnucn, pv

    cd fmng, ca, and

    bk/papcncndwhvllagadmnan

    (Paad 1995: 138). Mv, lgally cnudVllagCunclancanglylngpwand

    auhyhhncbadganzanuchah

    YungMzAcan(YMA),MzUpaPawl(MUP)

    andMzHmchhinuhkhawmPawl(MHiP)c.

    thVllagCuncl,whchxpcduphldh

    adnalcumandpaccfhMz,n

    ncv n can accun hby ndng

    hulflawmanngl.thhcnunal

    bdandhacannfuncnaval

    andnapan.thfachawkacadunaclmafnnandvalybwnh

    Dc Admnan and h Dc Cuncl

    ha ld lw and ncn mplmnan.

    te pe f eepe

    plcal. thppl fMzama nd n

    uannghmdnplcalnunbuhy

    ee e ee eacvalu.

    thvalufdmcacnunayb

    mlynnchdnhMzcy(Hakp 2009:

    34-35). Lalzawngae e mpanbwn

    Pri and Vllag Cuncl n Mzam (Lalzawnga

    2010:247).

    1. thPrihanhCnunfinda

    wha Vllag Cuncl ha n uch (Pri

    nwcnunalbd).

    2. Unlkwh-fPrihnly

    nnVllagCuncl.

    3. Abncfavanfwmn.

    4. Whl h duan f

    P 5 e, ve

    c e 3 e.

    5. elcn h panchaya ee e f se

    elcn Cmmn wha

    h lcn f h Vllag

    c e e

    h sa Lcal Admnan

    depe.

    6. g s pe

    pf f p ee

    d xchang f da

    wha, publc pacpan

    ve c e ee.

    7. Pw, auhy and pnbl fP pepe p f e

    eepe e e

    pee f ee (

    e e e e Eee see)

    e pe ve c.

    Village Councils and Rural

    Development

    a ve c e e e

    e pe f eepe pe,

    e e e Pr i (s 2010: 47). be

    e e pee f e

    ee f eepe m. te

    fllwngabl:1and2hwhpna

    whpnblnhlcnfbnfca

    and h uc fmwhch vllag ppl knw

    f f eepe pe.

    The Village Council, which

    is expected to uphold the

    tradional customs and

    pracces of the Mizo,

    is oen ineecve on

    certain accounts thereby

    rendering the rule of law

    meaningless

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    2thbnfcaandnn-bnfcafual

    dvlpmnpgammxplcahamajy

    (64.17) f e eefe e f, eee

    pe e ee f e pe f

    dvlpmn--by h Vllag Cuncl. Bu h

    e qe e e f eefe f eepe pe e eee

    e e. 10.41 pee

    ee e e e e p

    ee, 18. 75 pee e.

    thcagydnknw6.67pcn.

    Table-1

    Showing responses on the method of selecon

    of beneciaries of RD schemes

    Number of Respondents--240

    Method Number

    Responding

    Percentage

    seee ve

    c, *ve

    deepe c

    154 64.17

    g. off 45 18.75

    le p

    ee

    25 10.41

    Dnknw 16 6.67

    t 240 100

    suc:Qunnaandinvwschdul

    * th Vllag Dvlpmn Cuncl mm x and

    mmdlvdaphnucnfhgvnmn.

    Suggestions:

    l th x ng lcal lf-gvnmn n

    mmwanducdbyhLuhaHll

    d c; (ve c) a 1953

    whchndbvwda50yaha

    padnchn.exndnghpwf

    e ve c (f Pri e e

    e) e, effee

    andwkabldmcacnunapa

    whhCnun(73 aee) a

    eee f

    vanfwmn,xndnghm

    f 3 e 5 e, e e e

    makngpwhVllagCuncl.

    l P r i pe e

    c (73 aee) a

    e e e ve d

    lvlwhcanmdfcannnung

    hxngadnalvaluhpn

    Vllag Cuncl mpwdwh lk h

    p f e e m h d.

    l tw-mdlPanchayarajnun5

    e e ee e

    e m.te e f e

    ee g s, z P

    e e m.

    l te e f e yma,

    MHiP, MUP h lag nn-gvnmn

    ganza n n Mzam wll a l b

    e p p f

    f e f e P r

    .

    l m e f e

    e p p e

    e e pepe p,

    dcun, wkhp and mna c.

    abuhnwPanchayarajnun

    fe m.

    Conclusion:

    se e e

    e m ee. deepe

    e f e pepe ee. i ee e ppe

    f e pp e pp

    admnan whch ulmaly nghn

    dmcacy. th pa n pw huld hw

    acual plcal wll nduc Pri bng

    e e e c. i m

    wh h vllag a cad du

    ggaphcal lcan, nducn f Pri wll

    e e pepe. i

    wllnablhualpplpacpanbh

    e k p f

    bnghafdmcacdcnalzan-

    -pacpan, pnvn and ffcncy n

    m.

    (The author is Associate Professor and Head,

    Department of Political Science, Govt. J. Buana

    College, Lunglei, Mizoram , e-mail:(dawlasinha@

    gmail.com)

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    r be h (rbh) see, ce

    se see e peee e

    m f P r, pp

    eepe e f e e f e

    cunywhchbulnhplafmf4P..

    Publc-Pva-Panchaya-Panhp.thchm

    waadn2007.

    te e e e ee e

    ummazd a blw. Panchaya can pm

    r be h ee e

    eepe e. te ef k

    andndwmnfpplandnaualuc

    e P e. te e

    awan pgamm bng gh h

    e ee e

    pf ee fe epe f

    e e p kee. a e

    p , P ee

    e e eepe p ee f

    e rbh e e e eee

    p pe e ee. te

    e ee ee ee

    e e fe e e

    e rbh fe pp

    fe e p f eepe e

    pp p

    pep. te see ppe e

    e e brgF see

    n E se.

    P e e see

    e f d lee wkp,

    sub-Dc Lvl Wkhp f appcang

    e ep, ef ee &

    f eee, pep f p

    e e e., p k/

    nfaucu. Fnancal aanc r. 60,000/-

    f d lee wkp `15,000/-fsub-

    d lee wkp e.

    thmaxmumamunfganfndvdual

    pe r. 25.00 k. a 70 pe e

    ee ppe f r. 6.03 e ee

    pnllnwnelvnhPlanpdaganal

    f r. 24.90 e.

    F e effee pee f rbh

    schmandalwhavwup-calham,

    RURAL BUSINESS HUBS

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    epee e f e see

    ee e Edii, a. te rep

    e Edii e pe f fe

    e f .

    Panchayat Mahila Evam Yuva ShaktiAbhiyan

    te m f P r ee

    pee e see P m

    E y sk a (PmEysa) ee

    lcdwmnandlcdyuhpnav

    nc2007-08.thschmhahfllwngw

    cmpnn:-

    ) P m sk a (Pmsa)

    ) P y sk a (Pysa)

    te P m sk a buldnhubanalpnanfwmn

    P e e e ee

    nghmffcvly.PMsApvdwmn

    whpcfckndfuppwhchgbynd

    e e Pri epeee.

    th bjcv f h PMsA nabl wmn

    P ee e ee :

    ) AculahpblmawmnPanchaya

    ee,

    ) Dcu u gadng h nunal

    mchanmfhmpwmn,) Cm up wh a cha f u b

    ee p

    pp e e e ee

    e pe f eepe pe

    hsaandhh-Priym,and]

    v) Fm an acan f h eWr wh

    lcd c ba and wh cacadng

    pnanfeWrfmhdclvl

    anddvnallvleWrganzan.

    we e e e f e PmEysa

    cannbquanfd,hxpcdupuh

    fmanfAcan/nwkfeWrand

    eYrcllcvlywkfhaanmnfh

    f eee ee P

    rajandncahknwldg,capablyand

    epee f Ewr Eyr e e

    f e e. te e eke

    PmEysa e () F f ce cee,

    () F f a, () se d

    / d lee se, () Pep

    f ce, () Ee f se spp

    cee () se pe f

    mul-m.sfa,23sahavfmdhce cee e e se ee

    se. 13 se spp cee e e

    schm hav bn ablhd whch wk a

    pyf knwldg and vad nfman

    e pp f Ewr Eyr Pri.

    t se pe e e

    see e ee e 12 se. 69

    d ee se e ee e

    15 se. se ee a f Ewr / Eyr

    ee fe 7 se.

    Gram Sabhaae 243a pe g s

    xcuchpwandpfmuchfuncna

    e e ee e ee f se ,

    law,pvd.PwagndhGamsabha,

    hf,vayfmsasa.Hwv

    ky h lf-gvnanc and anpan and

    e f f e g P

    ee e ppe e.

    i ffe eq pp e

    h p, h wmn and h magnalzd e, ppe ee pp

    f hGam Panchaya (h xcuv) and al

    e pefe.

    i e pe p se / ut, e

    pe pe f g s eee

    ee, e e 2 oe 2009 2

    ocb2010wadcladahYafhGam

    sabha. sa /Utw qud bv

    e ye f g s ef e

    pe pe e g s

    lf-gvnancandanpanandaccunabl

    f f e g P. F e

    rep ke e eee

    f a Pe, a, b, g, g,

    h, Kk, Ke, m Pe,

    m, o, P, skk, uk,

    WBngalc.wandhamanynwand

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    mpan u w dcud n h Gam

    s ke dk we, s, we

    ee ie, P E, n,

    i, ae, s ce,

    we, Fe, see f eefe e

    ce se see, s a, Fscuy, and Vllag Da Plan. th wa a

    wlcmnd.

    se f e ep ke e se

    clbahYafhGamsabhaw:-

    l Cang awan amng ual ma

    f g s ee

    pe, e, eee e

    p.

    l AwadfbPanchaya.

    l hepe.

    l we e p f ke:

    f f P, ee ee f

    ee e pepe, p q f

    ee P, pp f

    pplndvlpmnwk,awanf

    pplnfuncnngfPanchaya,wmn

    mpwmnaalllvl.

    l iee g s f

    e ef ee.

    l t pe f gs ee, deee P,

    e epe f e g

    s s a g s.

    l de f e g s

    l m g s pepe

    oe , s a e

    e g s. ape f s a e:

    l g P e

    f efe g s.

    l g P e

    auwhamandaandaccunabl

    e g s.

    l m f pepe e e

    e g s.

    l te e ee.

    l tee e f f f

    f g s ee ee f

    see f f f g P.

    empwmn f Gam sabha can b a

    pwfulwapnfanpancy,accunably,ncluvgwhandcalaud.thcanband

    bngdnnwway.

    () i e ee f ffee me

    f ce se see (css), pef

    f f g s e e ppe

    mPr.

    () se se e pe f pef

    f f e g s w

    sabhaundhPanchayaLaw.

    smfhcndnwhchcanmpvhmpwmnfGamsabhaa()incangh

    e f e, p e e,

    halh,ducan,dnkngwaandanan,

    () ie k e f e f

    g s ee, () s a e e

    hughGamsabhanly,(v)Mpwb

    e g s e ee f ee

    fdffndpamn,(v) Pwb gvn

    g s w s e gP a

    re () see f eefe e

    w s () Q f g s e e 50% f e q e

    bwmn.

    te e e g

    P efe e g s

    ke pee m f r

    deepe e e see f mgnrEgs

    wll achv h wn bjcv f mpwng

    h Gam sabha and anpancy wh m

    effe ee f ee. ue e

    chm, whch affc h ppl and qu

    pepe pp, mPr ee k p

    whhMngvpcfcfuncnand

    e e g s. te m

    ee ee f eefe

    e e w sa lvl paculaly f

    e P.

    (Source Ministry of Panchayat)

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    te p eepe f e

    hgwh f e ,

    alagxn,dpndupnhqualy

    f eep e f f

    e P r i. te e

    f P r i ef epe

    e p e q peee f

    eep e e ee. teefe,

    Post 73rd Constitutional Amendment &

    Women Leadership In SikkimDr. G.D. Bha

    hudyf ladhpa hga- lvl

    ca a ga plcal lvanc a hw

    e ee f e

    ee.

    i a wll knwn fac ha dp m

    ee e f e i, e

    gn and a ha wn pcula pacc

    f e ee e

    FROM THE GROUND

    On the basis of the empirical data we found that an overwhelming majority of the women leaders of

    Zila Panchayats (80.3%) attended all the meetings of the Zila Panchayats and had full freedom for

    attending the meetings of the Zila Panchayats and did not need any escort for the same.

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    cndablvaannhualpwucu

    ffee e/ e. a , e f

    fe e e f e pp

    fwmn n hPanchaya raj inun al

    vaywdlyfmnaanh.thf,

    e e e e e e/e

    pef e, e e f e pe

    e ppe e. t , eefe,

    wuld b a md amp n h gad and

    dalwhamc-analyfwmnladhp

    e P r i f skk fe

    e 73 c aee a.

    skkm ha adpd w- ym f

    Panchayaraj-hfahvllaglvl(lw-

    )andhcndahdclvl(upp-e) 33 pe e epee ee

    vdfwmnnallh.inhlcn

    fPanchayarajinunwhchwhldn

    2002, f f 905 e f g P

    n hn a, 297 a w vd f

    wmnandnhZllaPanchaya,ufaal

    f98 a, 28 aw vdfwmn.

    Buaflcnaalf305wmnnGam

    Panchayaand30wmnnZllaPanchayaw

    lcd.Fhpnudy,whavlcd260wmn lcd lad a u pndn

    f e e. t, pe pe f

    hudygvnblw:

    Socio-Economic and Political

    Background of The Women Leaders

    thmanhghlghgadngc-cnmc

    and plcal backgund f h ampl wmn

    lad f h Pri hw ha h ual flk f

    skk e e epe f e ewmnladhpfhyungandmddlagd.

    thpncfyungwmnnlcalplcal

    e f e,

    e e e

    e f e e. a

    anvwhlmngmajy(85.8%)fhampl

    wmn lad wa e, ee

    pp (13.5%) f unmad gl wa al

    eee f ffee p e Pri.

    te e e f p e

    (sc, st, obc e) p e an mpan fac whch hlpwmn

    eep p e Pri.

    a f e e k f e

    ampl wmn lad cncnd, h udy

    hwhanbhhmaxmummmb

    hadupmddllvlducan(34.9%nlw-

    and50.0%nupp-)fllwdbypmay

    lvlducan(27.6%nlw-and25.0%n

    upp-).inhlw9.5pcnampl

    wmn ladw lla, bun hupp-

    e e pe wmanladwafund

    ee.

    te f e p f e pe

    wmn lad vald ha an vwhlmng

    majy (93.5%) f hm w ngagd n

    e e, /

    anmalhubandy.ihwhaccupand

    ppe e e f e

    wh plcal pacpan f wmn n Pri fe e. s, e

    much gnfcancwh gad hmgnc

    fualwmnladhpn hPanchaya raj

    inun.ialhwhalandwnhpha

    alwakndaaucfpwnhlcal

    e f e skk.

    E e e

    gnfcanc wh gad h mgnc

    f wmn ladhp n h Pri, nc an

    vwhlmng majy (78.0 %) f h ampl

    wmnladwhblwpvyln

    f e fe.

    An vwhlmng majy (92.0%) f h

    ampl wmn lad w f m nan

    e fe f p, f e

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    e f p ffe f k.

    t ee

    pee e f fe wmn e

    ppe e f e e e

    eep f skk de F (sdF)

    bcmnumnalnbanngpwpn

    e Pri.

    Extent and Nature of Participation

    of the Women Leaders in the Gram

    Panchayats (Lower Tier)

    te e e p

    pacpan f wmn n h lw a

    capuladblw:

    th wmn sabhapa, Up-sabhapa

    and sachva w vy gula and puncual n

    e ee f e g P.

    thlwpacpanacanbnnca

    fhwmnGamPanchayammb,an

    ee 45.5 pe e f e ee

    e ee f e g P.

    A fa a c-pan and c-dnan

    bwn wmn sabhapa and h lcd

    wmn lad n h acv f h Gam

    Panchaya cncnd, h c-pan and

    c-dnanwanly lmd bwnwmn

    sabhapa,Up-sabhapaandsachvaandh

    wa n pp c-pan and c-dnan

    bwn wmn sabhapa and h lcd

    wmn lad f Gam Panchaya. Wmn

    sp ee e e eee

    wmn lad f Gam Panchaya wh w

    e f p.

    th wmn sabhapa and h wmn

    mmb f h Gam Panchaya w ne e e ee

    hmngfhGamPanchaya.thyw

    e ppe epe e e ee

    e ee f e g Pchaya andw

    e f e

    f.

    te /e f ee f e

    wmn sabp ee e e ee

    f g P pef e e.

    th wmn sabhapa hav xcd h

    pw gadng h mplmnan f plc

    pe ee e z P;

    dcdnghypandmdalfhwk

    e eke e epee g s;

    e ppe e e

    ee e k pe e

    e e pe f e ef f

    eefe e ffee ee.

    Extent and Nature of Participation of

    Women Leaders in the Zila Panchayats

    (Upper-Tier)

    onhbafhmpcaldaawfund

    ha an vwhlmng majy f h wmn

    ee f z P (80.3%) ee

    e ee f e z P

    f fee f e e ee f e

    z P ee e

    f ham. i hw ha hdpndncyf

    hwmnladup f ee e

    nx e e f e e ee/

    acvfhZlaPanchaya.ifuhhw

    epee e fee e

    eepe e ee f e ppe

    f e eqe e f

    k e e p epee

    vn f lng danc.th wmn lad

    pe ee e ee f e z

    P k p e ee

    alway avald hmlv f ppun

    f e ee f z P

    f e ee .inhgadwfund

    ha nly h wmn lad wh

    e k w n a pn

    fee e e k pe f e z

    Panchayaandhwhhadlwducanal

    backgundwe ee e e

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    e e ee f e z P

    k e p e e k

    pc.iwaalfundhaanvwhlmng

    majy (77.3%)f h amplwmn lad

    f Zla Panchaya cvd c-pan and

    pp f e e ep e

    mng f hZla panchaya wh gad

    e k pe pee e

    vwandlvnghpblmaxpncd

    e pee eepe ee/

    pe e epee e.

    Concluding Remarks

    ou udy fuh hw ha h wmn

    f s kkm hav bn mpwd fllwng

    e pp e Pri e f 73

    c aee a. b e eee f

    mpwmnvafmandwmn

    wmnaccdnghpwpnn

    hPri.ifawmancnducpanchayaaffan

    hwn,fullypacpanhdcn-makng

    pe e e f e

    by nac ng wh ud agnc, h

    almfullympwd.Ahhxm,

    fawmandncmufhhu

    ee e e e e e (

    e e pe) ee e

    Pradhan pati, e f e

    mpwmn.Awman,whlavhhm,

    e e p pee p ffe,

    andnachanahmnandwmn

    alnhadmpwmn,vnfh

    keep qe e ee. tee e e f

    pnhadmpwmn.inhgad

    uudyfskkmhwhanhlw-an vwhlmng majy (89.5%) f wman

    sabhapa hav bcm fully mpwd a a

    e f e f pp e e

    k pe eee

    e pe f pee f eepe

    pgamm and nacng wh ud

    agnc. A fa a h wmn mmb f

    hlw-acncnd,maj(64.4%)

    fhmwnhadmpwmnand

    hmannghadzmpwmnaaul

    f e pp e e f g

    P.

    inhupp-anvwhlmngmajy

    (80.3%)fhamplwmnladandd

    all h mng f h Zla Panchaya; cn-

    p-cn f hm njyd full fdm f h

    e e ee f e z P

    ee e f e e

    e /f ee e

    e ee f z P. i e

    hymaybadfullympwd.Buafa

    ahpacpanfhwmnladnh

    e k pe f e z P

    cncndnly30.0pcnwmnlad

    w fully mpwd and h manng had

    zmpwmn.

    th ca-bad clavag, cal cla

    f, p e, pe

    e. ppe eee p

    pacpanfwmnnbh hf Pri.thpychlgcalfachanhbdwmn

    acvpacpannhPriwhynand

    ee k f e f e

    e epe. a f ep

    fac a cncnd, nly n fac .. lw

    ee f e e ee

    f wmn acv pacpan n Pri. th

    nvnmnal fac lk ca, cd, walh,

    ee ee p p e

    lmnghacvpacpanfwmnnh

    Pri.

    (The author is Associate Professor in Political

    Science, Sri Aurobindo College (University

    of Delhi), Malviya Nagar, New Delhi; e-mail

    :[email protected])

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    te 150 e f r te

    e e pp

    undand and cmphnd h mul-

    facd gnu f h ga pnaly wh

    wanjuapbuaulvfhumany.

    A lau pa xcllnc,h lvf nau

    andhhumanndvdualwllflcdnh

    pe, e, . i e

    fndalauwhwanjuapbu

    ee, e, ,

    muclgandapanwhnfluncand

    fe pe e e ee ewnwldandhFaea,pcallyChna.

    Tagorean Philosophy:

    Development Envisaged Through Rural

    Reconstruction & Love of NatureDhurja Mukherjee

    tagwawdddhgalvl

    andhadnma knwldg and lv f ual

    i, p be. a e 1890,

    whnhwalkngafhfamlyan

    n e k f e e P,

    hualxpncwamnalunngh

    pe f . w Modern

    Review (nee 1941), e ke f

    xpncdunghday.

    th nd f my wk k m n

    e f e e, f

    s P, e, e , beels (e

    We who follow Gandhi Maharajs lead have one thing in common we never fill our purses with spoils

    from the poor nor bend our knees to the rich.

    .Rabindranath Tagore

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    waway) and n h way i aw all d

    f vl lag l f. i wa fl ld wh agn

    e e e e e

    e pe f e e . g e

    w and pvy f h vllag bcam

    gwldmhngabu.md e e ef i

    aalandld,cncndnlywhmny-makng

    andngdwhmywnpfandl.

    te e e e f e ee

    buhwadmndbgnwknu

    ee e f e fk. h ee

    fualcnucnwagnaducan

    e pe

    whchncluddawanfhalhandhygn

    eepe e.

    a e ef e (

    e e c & ve

    Towards Universal Man,

    pe a P

    he, epe 1967:

    if w culd fvn n

    e f e ke f

    epee e,

    an dal f h whl f

    inda wuld b ablhd

    . L a fw vllag b

    bulnhwayandihall

    e e i. t

    hwaydcvhuinda.

    taghughhahwaanmpav

    ndbdghgapbwncyandvllag

    and bng h ual Bngal h knwldg

    and chncal knw-hw pd by h cy.

    Kpnghnvw,hbughwnybghaf

    landalngwha hu,juwmlwf

    sannkan, n a vllag calldsuulwh h

    ee e ie f r re

    n1922whchppulalyknwna Sriniketan.

    thunqusnkanxpmnpadaa

    cn wh cnm, agculu, cal

    wkand pcal n va fe f

    nduyandwkdghbngppy

    hvllag.thdawa e e,

    whn and n lf lanc and cpan,

    wuldbngunyamnghmandfhm

    f epeee e . mee e

    xpmn n Sriniketan e e hughxnnwkwuldgalngwayn

    p e f fe .

    tag da f chncal ducan wa

    ee f ee e e

    awanfhcal,cnmcandhcal

    aly and h lag culual cnx nwhch

    e eepe ke pe

    cnfc puu a cad u. H wand

    a udnf chnlgy appca hw h

    e e ewll bng f h labu,

    e fe e

    eepee. if f, K.m.

    oCnnll,whlcmmnng

    te e f e

    (2003, Rabindranath Tagore

    on Education), p pe

    : . h advcad a

    e e e

    e f e

    pe ee e

    n bakng dwn cal and

    e e. he fe

    ee ee

    wand dvh cnmc plcwhch

    mphazdcaljucandnawdhgap

    bwnchandhp.

    th lab--land appach ha wa

    mphazd nc h md 80 wa nly a

    efe f te e f e

    e e ppe eqpp e

    p p

    andvvalfag-badandcagndu

    e . ap f , e ee

    ducanandawangnanfvllag

    e e f ee ee f

    e e fe.

    Tagores idea of technical

    education was intended

    to significantly increase

    the students awareness

    of the social, economic

    and historical reality and

    the larger cultural context

    in which technological

    development takes place

    and scientific pursuits are

    carried out.

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    thmphadayncnfcawan

    wa ppundd te e

    ee e e , e

    e f i. Ee e,

    whch a bng dbad h wld v,

    fndflcnntagwngahwadplycncndwhpcngnau,pcallyv

    fe. he e e e f e

    e f ee

    humanwlfa,bhnubanandualaa.

    Tagore-Gandhi Outlook

    thwamuchncmmnbwntag

    g e fe e epe f

    e Fe f e n

    p e f

    ep f e p e pee. te e

    e e

    dcnalzan,whchGandh

    ppagad, wa vdn n

    tag hnkng a h wand

    p e e f pe

    andqual.Atagw(n

    ocb 2, 1937): Mahama

    Gandhhahwnuawayby

    fllwngwhchwhallavulvbumay

    ep e pepe e eee.

    on may qu fm a pm wn by

    te g m ( Fe 15,

    1940):

    WwhfllwGandhMahaajladhavn

    hngncmmnwnvfllupuwh

    p f e p e kee e

    Rabindranath Tagore

    t ee e f ee

    e e e p e

    ee p ee ee

    ep pe e f e p

    andhcnmcallywakcnfcy,

    pe e e.

    t p ee

    ee e, e e e

    e p pe. E

    ee, ee te

    g, e ee peee

    pe e p e f

    fund. Bh f hm wand cmpl pw

    f p e pepe ep eepe pe e

    e ee pe.

    th gal f lf lanc wa bac

    te ee f e. he

    wandwkdclywhhpaanyand

    ep e pe e k e

    f wk mpv vall pducvy. H

    mdywadnfyyung

    ducad vlun wh

    wuld ddca hmlv l vng and wkng n h

    vl lag whu fanfa

    pee.

    t

    e pe f

    ee

    (ngo) eee

    n ual dvlpmn wk.

    b e f e f e e

    ee e ee kee e

    e pp e ce ee

    mad avalabl m fund whch a ndd

    vymagfhwk.

    ap f e

    dvlpmn f man, tag wand

    nculcawhahcalldhlgnfman

    , ke e

    f lv, fllw flng and cmpanf h

    , epee f e, ee

    lgn.Ahncpndu:Dadu,Kab

    e pe p

    e e e p epe,

    buawalhwhchallhumanynld.

    Hnvagdacywhmdnducan

    f e ee e fee

    f pe pee ke

    hmcncufmdnknwldg.

    Economicdecentralization, as

    envisaged by Tagore and

    Gandhi, has not yet been

    implemented in practice

    as the panchayats still

    struggle for funds.

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    Kurukshetra August 20114040

    th nw cy wuld hald uny and

    e. i e pee e qe

    fmtag:Whavnfnfu,hpblm

    fncuny;heah,whdffnac,

    lk ndvdual,wuldhav h fauly fly

    blmandahammhwlday

    e fee. w e ee

    m pwful wh bad vw and dp

    fee.

    tagwandaulyglbalzdwldn

    nhnhawhavcmknwbu

    nhnhaglbalzanwuldallwf

    flwfknwldgfmallcnwhchwuld

    paculalympwandquphfamand

    e p e ee f

    e ee eef f e k

    xp. H wand

    e f f

    whch Srinikaten ee

    p e e

    e e. Ee ,

    nun,whch pa f

    VwaBhaaUnvy,ha

    ee e

    n mpang knwldg

    f e pe e, e,

    wamanagmnc.

    thugh h p wll

    e e e f

    i fee

    hugh h wng, pcally ng, h

    pp k f eepe

    e eee . t e e

    eee epe p e f

    dvlpmn wa hghlghd by tag and g f e f e e

    fk e e e f

    fe . b ee e

    e i p eee e

    e e e e ee e

    e e e ee ke.

    i f w a al ly chh h dal f

    te, ee pe e

    h plan f ual cnuc n whch can

    f e p pee f

    pe ppe e e. a e

    hmlfad:whadhavffman,whch nw happn hav yu dcvd? A

    e e fe ee

    fhdcvybcmadadwgha

    pe ee f e f ue m.

    smplyxngly.

    Ahjuncuwhpvylmnglag

    andhhghGDPgwhhavngfaldvv

    hualc,havwbcmpaalyzd?Can

    wnakpvpbnghappn

    e e f e e e e pe q?

    t a wh, n h ya

    ef k f epe

    e e pe e e

    e e ke p

    50 e

    e ,

    f k eepe

    pe f ep e

    xndd fam and

    e eepee

    e pe

    h wk capacy and

    e ee .

    Mvafwnun

    ke Sriniketan e

    e p p f

    e e e e f r

    tagwhvwdgvhhumanndvdual

    fe pee epe.

    (The writer is a freelance journalist andauthor, specializing on developmental and

    environmental issues. He is also a social

    and environmental activist connected with

    various NGOs and is the Secretary of the State

    Habitat & Environment Forum (SHEF). e-mail :

    [email protected])

    He wanted to raise

    farming standards for

    which Srinikaten has been

    playing a vital role over

    the years. Even today, this

    instuon, which is part of

    Viswa Bhara University, has

    been carrying out acvies

    in imparng knowledge

    of modern pracces in

    agriculture, soil conservaon,

    water management etc.

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    Kurukshetra August 2011 4141

    a

    e tee me (atm) e

    w h ha f bankng. Uag f

    atm e ee

    i ee e qee

    f pepe atm, epe ff e

    huandhlday.AtMhavbughdwnh

    wkpuubanallyfmcahlln

    k e, e e

    eee k e e e f atm.

    thlanhchn-blgcalfn

    e e. be e e

    ; fep, ep. te

    e ee k f eep

    andadfbmchadwaandfwa.

    be e e f

    ee.

    Biometrics

    Wha b way han ung Bmc,

    whch ha uccfully bn appld f

    ef ppe e pp

    Bio Metrics ATM Development andRecent Trends

    R.Srinivasan

    Deploying ATM for rural masses depends largely on banks stepping forward to take the requisite

    initiatives. The recent directive from the government on financial inclusion is key driver for the

    growth of such solutions in India.

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    Kurukshetra August 20114242

    e e, e ee e,

    e e ,

    epe eepe . be e

    ppe qe ef , e

    /e p p e

    a,fauabu,whchncludfacal

    cgnn (vag uch an xampl),DNA,

    fep, e e e.,

    tee e e f fep pf

    (fke e), e

    ee e e, e

    pe. i ffee e, e

    e (fep e e

    pee) ee ef e

    atm f f ewee bk e usa, b Fe

    Chl,Gup Fnanc Ban nMxc,

    mnn a fw. indvlpng cunucha

    ne, ep, atm f ee

    e e ke k

    ffcwhaablpvdpnnumband

    e ee f eqe

    e.

    History of ATM & Biometrics

    atm c p, f e 1961

    bycybankfNwYknaalba,allwd

    fnancalnunpvdhcumwh

    acnvnnway,undhclck,cayu

    vayng anacn whch ncludd whdawal

    f f, e ep, ek e,

    andlanncluddfauallwcum

    pay bll c., th wa n nd f a cah

    e pee f e p

    AtMchnlgyallwcumcayuh

    abv-mnnd anacn ung an AtM

    cad,whchculdbadbacdcad.An

    atm e ee e e

    ef e e p, e,

    xpanda,andanaladypvddp-

    eee Pin e.

    te ep f e f e

    wadvlpdn1981, efe e e

    mplmnhdawaavalabl.LnadFlm,

    MD, and Aan saf, MD, w phhalmlg

    w dcung h pb ly f ung h

    pe f e f ef.

    Developments

    w e eepe f e

    f e atm ee ee eee Pin

    numb. sfwa vnd a cmng up h

    fe p f e e. ce

    bad Fnancal sfwa and sym (Fss) ha

    ee e e atm iefe

    s (basis) ee e f atm

    wh bmc upp elcnc Fnancal

    tanacn (eFt) wch labang n h

    wkng f h bmc lun. Cum

    p f e e

    e

    Benefits

    se e e e e

    pe f Pin e atm, eef

    accu ual and llamawh fnd

    ff e e kep f atm. s

    pepe e p e e p

    e atm e pee f e

    .

    m Pe e.

    m c e e e f Pin

    m he f atm ee

    ke pe, ee,

    managmn,-uanc,PiNgnan,

    hlp-dk,and-uanccanbavdd.

    m ie f i e.

    m i e.

    m Flxbl accun acc allw cln

    e e e eee.

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    Kurukshetra August 2011 4343

    m Lw pa nal c f h AtM wl l

    e ee tco.

    How does it works

    w atm ppe e ,k peee e

    e ee e. te atm

    a nwkd and cnncd a cnalzd

    cmpu (swch), whch cnl h AtM.

    te e f e ef pe

    atm. te f e e

    k . atm e pee

    e pepe atm ee

    e e e epee f

    AtMPiN.thypcalAtMhawnpudvc( ee kep) f p

    ee (p, ee, pee, eep

    pe, peke). ie e e

    e k e atm

    dclyAtMhnwk.thAtMfuncn

    muchlkaPC,cmwhanpangym

    (uuallyos/2) andapplcan fwa f h

    e efe .

    Rural India

    t e e e, k e

    all u n pvdng a u-fndly bankng

    xpnc.tbmcfnancngnav,

    bank a dplyng bmc lun wh

    atm. E e e f

    ep e ke pe

    f ee e ee fk ee

    p f e k e . i ee

    ya h mpanc f bmc ha gwn

    mnduly wh an ncang dmand f

    e e f qe ef f

    . i e f ef pp

    hhanplcngnh.invwfh

    p e pp, e pe f

    e e, e ef

    vafac,na,.Fngpnng,hwv,

    e e f e f ep

    wldwd.

    se i k e e

    pee e pp e pp f ffe e.

    elwhnhwld,ffannablng

    pe kk e fep

    (nn-cad bad). AtM nhancmn wh

    e ee e ee e

    ee f Pin e, ee e

    anacn by humb- mpn. A

    mplfdmnunAtMcupldwhpbl

    e e ee e

    e f e. s f k atm eepee Pin ef. te fep

    auhncanmhd nn- Pn bad, and

    eqe eee e

    swchnvnmn.

    Conclusion

    dep atm f e epe

    lagly n bank ppng fwad ak h

    eqe e. te ee ee f e

    ee f ke efhgwhfuchlunninda.Bank

    aquawafhunappdpnalnh

    ualc.thlcmnduywnnga

    blnggwhpac,andhinn.th

    n r Epe gee P

    ee epe pe

    e e eqe . u

    p e e atm ee

    lacy qumn a cndabl xn.

    Hwv,hchnlgyncduale.

    (The author is Lecturer in Commerce,

    Sengunthar Arts and Science College,

    Tiruchengode 637 205, Namakkal District, Tamil

    Nadu. Email: [email protected].)

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    Kurukshetra August 20114444

    daapuhpa lally man n w (Mal.

    Dasa = e; pushpa = w). Bu h

    Kal,hmfagupfnny

    hbwhchampannhculualadn

    f e e. re e p

    w,hwhlplanacnddgncan

    e e. o e f t

    whch cm n h Malayalam mnh f Dhanu

    ( deee j), fee eeepe, e e f n n

    famlnKalawahmnhhaamdngh

    abvngafaandakngbahnapnd

    v.thualccnvnncalldPahapp

    chdalmanng wangwamdngh

    fllwdaacumacadwhhclban

    fthuvahafvalwhphd.

    te a d eee t n

    ep t f Ke. E e

    daapuhpacpndadyandwangwh

    eeee peumd quvaln whppng

    h pacula dy. Pahappchdal

    pee eef f e .

    c e e pe g e eee

    f . i eee e,

    e ppe e . i e

    e f Ke, pp

    awnbywmnandglvnnhday.

    dpp f ee e epn kakaka kanj(c gul ppad wh

    f e p, e e

    Malayalam mnh f Kakaka-md July md

    Augu,wadalmnandnghnh

    bdyfnwhlya).thdalmmbf

    daapuhpaahfllwng:

    i e eee e e f ee

    p, pe e sk e f

    e p e Ke.

    Dasapushpa, The AuspiciousMedicinal Herbs

    Dr. Jayakumari. T. R.

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    Kurukshetra August 2011 4545

    Indravall i ; Kesaraja;

    b; hk;

    b; jpp; s;

    se; t: tpk.

    (Indravalli- Uzhnja; Kesaraja- Kayynn;

    Bhargavi- Kauka; Harikrantija- Vhnukan;

    Bhadra-Chula;Jalapushpa mkk;Sambhari-

    m e; Sahadevi Pk;

    Thiru-thuhal;Thalapatrika npp)

    1. Indravalli - Cardiospermum halicacabum L.

    (balloon vine, love in a pu, e ee e,

    hapa)Pdngdy-Yama.

    A e, herbaceous, annual vine whnywhhflw,dbudhughuh

    plan f inda. i fa gwng wh fla

    ee e efe. te p

    nmuppwhndl.thfualgh

    gnhn-walld,papy,nfladangldcapul

    ee e , ee

    k ee. tee eee ee

    e e

    e. te ee e

    awhha-hapd

    ca whch gav

    e ee eC a r d i o s p e r m u m

    (cad- ha;

    pma- d) and

    e e e

    ee e. ae

    cnd h hb a duc, mc, laxav

    efe. i e e f,

    e, e, ee, e e e.

    i e e ee f e.

    th whl plan ha bn ud f val

    ee e ee f e, ffef , ke e; f e ee,

    pe, e, ee, eee,

    laxav, fgan, machc and udfc;

    ee k e e e ee

    f e, ee ee

    pulc f wllng. An nfun f hwhl

    p e e ee f

    Sl.

    NoBotanical Name Family

    Common Name

    Malayalam Hindi Tamil

    1Cardiospermum

    halicacabumspee u

    Kaanphuti,

    Kpp

    Mudukkottan,

    Kottavan

    2 Eclipta alba aeee K,K

    Bhringraj,Kesaraj

    Kaikeshi

    3 Cynodon dactylon Pee Kk Durba Arukampillu

    4 Evolvulus a ls inoides ceeVhnu-

    k

    Shankpushpi,

    VishnukrantaVishnukranti

    5 Aerva lanata aeece,

    bppChaya Cherupulai

    6 Biophytum sensit ivum oxaldaca mkk Lajjalu Teendanazhi

    7 Emil ia sonchifol ia aeeeMuyal-

    eHirankhuri Muyalchevi

    8 Vernonia cinerea aeeePvam-

    kSahadevi Puvam-kurundal

    9 Ipomoea maxima cee t - Thiruthaali

    10 Curcul igo orchioides ae npp Kala MusliNilappanai-

    kkizhangu

    Cardiospermum halicacabum

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    Kurukshetra August 20114646

    daha.Aquuxacfhvnwhnud

    aahawahuggdaddhafalland

    pmhagwh.

    2. Kesaraja or Bringraja- Eclipta alba (l.) hk

    (syn. E. prostrata) (false daisy) Pdngdy-

    s.

    This short herb enjoys worldwide distribution

    as a weed in moist places. i f ,

    bwn, much

    e e

    mall wh flw

    k. te

    blackh-gnlav

    e ppe

    ee. te f

    k

    ee ee

    ee. i aec ee,

    pcd f dv ang f halh-gvng

    pw, paculaly wh gad ably

    ee e e ke , ep,

    e eee, e e. i ee

    pcally gd f pmng h gwh f

    haandmaknghmblackandluu,whch

    bwdhnamkaajmanngkngfha.

    Applcanfpanglandulawllngand

    flaa,knwnmgawllngandpan.

    te fe e f e p e e e

    ee eepan.thmaagwhfhjucffcvn

    e ee. te p f e,

    mxdwhmlk,abnfcalnmgan.eclpa

    f ppee eee. i

    e e, ee, ee ee,

    e. te e f e p ee

    wh hny, ud a upp pay

    e e. a k e e f

    e ee e f e .

    ihaadnalxnalu,lkahlf,

    ee e. te ee e ee e

    e ee f p e ke e c b.

    inakfhxacfhplanalngwhhl

    e f f e pee

    fhaandbaldng.onnwlydcvdbnf

    f e e ee

    pee ee ee, pe

    ke f.

    3. Bhargavi- Cynodon dactylon (l.) Pe.

    (be , d , b

    , de , d ). Pdngdy-

    a.

    i a ny, pnnal, cpng gawhch

    pfmandwamclmawhhghlgh.te ee e

    ee, e

    fm1-10cm,naw

    andapngwad

    hapx.thflw

    e ee

    e pke. te

    f e

    .

    te p epe ee, e

    hzm.Afagwnge, f ee

    e . i ee e aallnd,cwdngumhgaand

    e . t e e e

    e ee e e e e .

    de e, e p e

    pe f .

    in inda, hm acdplan nx

    ul.HnduwhphGdGanawhgaland

    e f e ee f p e. te

    whl plan ud f mdcnal pup,

    xnally a wll a nnally. i ha bn

    ee f , e, epe ppee e e e. be

    e, efe, ee eef

    f kn cmplxn, xmly bnfcal,

    xnally n wund, hamhag, bunng

    e pe f e k. te

    pe f ee e ee ppe

    aumacwundandpl.incaahalcndn

    f e ee, e fe fe f e p e

    ee. te e fe, effee

    h naal bldng , whn ud a naal dp.

    te pe f e p ppe fee

    ee e f p .

    ie, e e ee f

    epep e e

    wh pan, du van f vaa da. i can

    effee e ee ee, pe,

    hamaua, pax, e, e,

    kp e. i ek e ee ee,

    Curculigo orchioides

    Eclipta alba

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    Kurukshetra August 2011 4747

    ee e e, e

    augmnfalgwh.thplanjucgvnalng

    whcwaandckcandy,cubvmng.i

    ef ee p. i

    alagdan-xn.

    4. Harikranja- Evolvulus alsinoides (seeDwaf Mnng Gly). Pdng dy-

    seek.

    i , perennial herb with prostrate,

    wiry branches arising from a small woody

    rootstock. te

    ee e ,

    ep ,

    ee e

    wh lky ha.

    F u n n e l - s h a p e d ,

    blue flowers arisemostly solitary in

    the terminal axils.

    te f e e pe. te p

    gw wldly n pn gay plac hughu

    i.

    exnally, h mdcad l f h hb

    ufulaahanc,pmhhagwh

    pee pee f f .

    ipaalappldxnallynknda.

    ie, e p e


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