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    BP Refinery (Kwinana)

    Mason Road, Kwinana, WA 6167

    Public Environmental Report

    Jan 2007 Dec 2009

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    1 INTRODUCTION ..............................................................................................11

    1.1 Aim and Scope of the Public Environmental Report ...............................11

    1.2 General information on BP Refinery (Kwinana).......................................11

    1.3 Environmental Management System .....................................................141.4 Objectives and targets............................................................................14

    1.5 Major modifications since the 2006 Public Environmental Report..........15

    1.6 New Significant Environmental Aspects.................................................17

    2 PETROLEUM REFINING ..................................................................................18

    2.1 History of BP Refinery Kwinana..............................................................18

    2.2 Crude processing at BP Kwinana Refinery .............................................20

    3 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM...............................................293.1 Policy ......................................................................................................29

    Kwinana Refinery Environmental Policy ............................................................30

    3.2 Legal and other requirements.................................................................323.3 Environmental Aspects...........................................................................32

    3.4 Objectives and Targets ...........................................................................32

    3.5 Environmental Management Program....................................................33

    3.6 Audits .....................................................................................................34

    3.7 Non-conformance Reporting and Incident Investigation.........................34

    3.8 Management Review .............................................................................34

    4 ENVIRONMENTAL NOTIFICATIONS..............................................................35

    4.1 The Structure of Environmental Enforcement ........................................35

    4.2 BP Refinery (Kwinana) Environmental Notification History.....................35

    5 SIGNIFICANT ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS .................................................37

    6 AIR EMISSIONS...............................................................................................41

    6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................41

    6.2 Particulates.............................................................................................42

    6.3 Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) .............................................................................50

    6.4 Oxides of Nitrogen (NOX)........................................................................56

    6.5 Carbon Dioxide (CO2)..............................................................................60

    6.6 Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) ...........................................................................72

    6.7 Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) ........................................................75

    6.8 Carbon Disulphide (CS2)..........................................................................81

    6.9 Odour .....................................................................................................84

    6.10 Odour - Carbonyl Sulphide (COS)............................................................87

    6.11 Noise ......................................................................................................906.12 Smoke ....................................................................................................94

    6.13 Hydrogen fluoride (HF)............................................................................97

    6.14 Methane ...............................................................................................100

    6.15 Carbon Monoxide (CO) .........................................................................102

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    6.16 Benzene................................................................................................108

    6.17 Heavy metals........................................................................................112

    6.18 1,3 Butadiene .......................................................................................122

    7 WATER EMISSIONS......................................................................................125

    7.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................1257.2 Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP)................................................127

    7.3 Hydrocarbons .......................................................................................128

    7.4 Sulphides..............................................................................................134

    7.5 Fluoride.................................................................................................138

    7.6 Phenolics ..............................................................................................142

    7.7 Nitrogen................................................................................................145

    7.8 Heavy metals........................................................................................150

    7.9 Arsenic..................................................................................................151

    7.10 Cadmium..............................................................................................154

    7.11 Chromium.............................................................................................157

    7.12 Cobalt ...................................................................................................160

    7.13 Copper..................................................................................................163

    7.14 Lead......................................................................................................166

    7.15 Mercury ................................................................................................169

    7.16 Nickel....................................................................................................172

    7.17 Vanadium..............................................................................................175

    7.18 Zinc.......................................................................................................178

    7.19 pH.........................................................................................................181

    7.20 Temperature.........................................................................................185

    7.21 Total Suspended Solids ........................................................................188

    7.22 Chemical oxygen demand (COD) / Biological oxygen demand (BOD) ..192

    7.23 Refinery Water Use..............................................................................197

    8 SOLID WASTE ...............................................................................................2018.1 Background...........................................................................................201

    8.2 Management Systems & Waste Facilities............................................203

    8.3 Current Wastes Produced & Disposal Routes......................................208

    8.4 Performance.........................................................................................211

    8.5 Future Plans..........................................................................................212

    9 SOIL AND GROUNDWATER.........................................................................213

    9.1 Historical Background...........................................................................213

    9.2 Setting ..................................................................................................215

    9.3 Subsurface hydrocarbon.......................................................................217

    9.4 Recent Investigations...........................................................................229

    9.5 LNAPL Recovery Methods ...................................................................2349.6 Subsurface product recovery................................................................238

    9.7 Treatment of Contaminated Soil...........................................................240

    9.8 Historical contaminated sites................................................................241

    9.9 Future Plans..........................................................................................246

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    10 BIODIVERSITY ...............................................................................................247

    11 VERIFICATION STATEMENT ........................................................................249

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    LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure 1: Location of BP Refinery (Kwinana) in relation to Australia. .........................12

    Figure 2: Location of BP Refinery (Kwinana) within the Kwinana Industrial

    Area...................................................................................................................13

    Figure 3: Location plan of BP Refinery (Kwinana). .....................................................18Figure 4: Simplified flowchart of crude processing at the BP Refinery

    (Kwinana), from the Crude Distillation Units to the resulting products..............20

    Figure 5: The two Crude Distillation Units at the BP Refinery (Kwinana), with

    the Residue Cracking Unit in the distance. .......................................................21

    Figure 6: The Catalytic Reformer (CR3) at BP Refinery (Kwinana). ............................24

    Figure 7: The Bitumen Unit at BP Refinery (Kwinana). ..............................................25

    Figure 8: The East flare at BP Refinery (Kwinana). ....................................................26

    Figure 9: The Waste Management Area at BP Refinery (Kwinana). ..........................27

    Figure 10: Salt Cooling Water Circulars .....................................................................28

    Figure 11: Flow chart of the BP Refinery (Kwinana) Environmental

    Management System (EMS). ............................................................................29

    Figure 1: Filter elements from the Pall Filter being lifted into place...........................43Figure 13: Particulate Emissions from BP Refinery (Kwinana) from 1992 to

    2009. .................................................................................................................45

    Figure 14: Visible Particulate Emissions prior (left) and After the Installation

    of the Pall Filter (right). ......................................................................................46

    Figure 15: Hourly average particulate emissions for BP Refinery (Kwinana)

    2007 and 2009 [see Note below]. .....................................................................47

    Figure 16: Yearly SO2 Emissions...............................................................................54

    Figure 17: Sources of NOXEmissions from BP Refinery (Kwinana) in 2009..............57

    Figure 18: The NOXEmissions from the BP Refinery 1990 to 2009 (Kwinana). ........59

    Figure 19: The Greenhouse Effect that creates a blanket of warm air around

    the Earth. ..........................................................................................................60

    Figure 20: Cogeneration Plant (COGEN) next to the Refinery that producessteam and electricity used by the Refinery.......................................................62

    Figure 21: BP Kwinana Continuous Catalytic Reformer (left) and VDU furnace

    (right).................................................................................................................63

    Figure 22: Plantation of Maritime Pines in the South-West of Western

    Australia. ...........................................................................................................64

    Figure 23: Decommissioned Inefficient Boiler (left) and Mission Energys

    Cogeneration Plant (right)..................................................................................65

    Figure 24: New Induced Draft Fan on Crude Distillation Unit One (left) and

    New Stripper Structured Packing Prior to Installation on Crude

    Distillation Unit Two (right)................................................................................66

    Figure 25: Energy Efficient Hydrofiner 3 Unit. ...........................................................67

    Figure 26: CO2Emissions from BP Refinery (Kwinana). ............................................68

    Figure 27: CO2Emissions from BP Refinery (Kwinana) (t/yr) per unit

    throughput (t/yr). ...............................................................................................69

    Figure 28: The Energy Intensity Index Performance at BP Refinery (Kwinana)

    for the Past 8 years. The Lower the EII the Better the Performance................70

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    Figure 29: Hydrogen Sulphide Emissions from BP Refinery (Kwinana). ....................74

    Figure 30: Aerial View of the Tank Storage Facility at BP Refinery (Kwinana). ..........76

    Figure 31: (left) The Inlet of the API (where the Oily Water Sewer Enters the

    Waste Water Treatment Plant) is Open to Atmosphere, (right) Sewer

    Box with Open Vent to Atmosphere. ................................................................76Figure 32: VOC Emissions (tonnes) from Different Sources Within the BP

    Refinery (Kwinana) in 2009. ..............................................................................77

    Figure 33: Leak Detection Monitoring at the Waste Water Treatment Plant.............78

    Figure 34: Total VOC Emissions from the BP Refinery (Kwinana) since 1993...........79

    Figure 35: Emissions of Carbon Disulphide from BP Refinery (Kwinana) 2007-

    2009. .................................................................................................................82

    Figure 35: BP Refinery (Kwinana) Land Farm cell and Waste Water

    Treatment Plant (WWTP). .................................................................................85

    Figure 37: COS Emissions from BP Refinery (Kwinana) 2004-2009. .........................88

    Figure 38: RCU Silencer installed in 2008 at BP Refinery (Kwinana). ........................91

    Figure 39: VDU Furnace.............................................................................................95

    Figure 40: The new Rapid Acid Dump system, installed in 2008...............................99Figure 41: Carbon Monoxide Emissions from BP Refinery (Kwinana) from

    1995 to 2009...................................................................................................104

    Figure 42: Contributors of CO to the Local Airshed of Rockingham, Cockburn

    and Kwinana for 2008-2009. ...........................................................................105

    Figure 43: Number of Days of Unplanned Shutdown of the CO Burner at BP

    Refinery (Kwinana) Compared to the Target to Achieve 98% Reliability.........106

    Figure 44: Benzene Emissions by Source for 2009 from BP Refinery

    (Kwinana). .......................................................................................................109

    Figure 45: Benzene Emissions from BP Refinery (Kwinana)....................................110

    Figure 46: Emissions of 1,3 Butadiene from BP Refinery (Kwinana). ......................123

    Figure 47: Aerial photograph of the Waste Water Treatment Plant.........................126

    Figure 48: Annual Average Daily Hydrocarbon Emissions to Cockburn Soundfrom BP Refinery (Kwinana) from Treated Process Wastewater. ...................130

    Figure 49: Daily Hydrocarbon Emission in Process Water to Cockburn Sound........131

    Figure 50: Monthly Averaged Hydrocarbon Emissions in Process Water to

    Cockburn Sound..............................................................................................132

    Figure 51: Quarterly Emissions of Sulphide (kg/day) to Cockburn Sound from

    BP Refinery (Kwinana).....................................................................................135

    Figure 52: Annual Average Daily Emissions of Sulphide from BP Refinery

    (Kwinana) to Cockburn Sound. ........................................................................136

    Figure 53: BP Refinery (Kwinana) Alkylation Unit. ...................................................139

    Figure 54: Quarterly Average Fluoride Emissions to Cockburn Sound from BP

    Refinery (Kwinana) Process Wastewater from 2007 to 2009. ........................140

    Figure 55: Quarterly Average Phenol Emissions (kg/day) to Cockburn Soundfrom BP Refinery (Kwinana) Process Wastewater..........................................143

    Figure 56: Nitrogen Daily Load to Cockburn Sound (kg/day) from BP Refinery

    (Kwinana) Process Wastewater. .....................................................................147

    Figure 57: Nitrogen Quarterly Average Emissions (kg/day) to Cockburn Sound

    from BP Refinery (Kwinana) Process Wastewater..........................................147

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    Figure 58: Annual Average Daily Total Nitrogen Emissions to Cockburn

    Sound from BP Refinery (Kwinana) Process Wastewater...............................148

    Figure 59: Monthly Average Arsenic Concentrations (mg/L) in Process

    Wastewater from January 2007 July 2009...................................................152

    Figure 60: Cadmium Concentrations in Wastewater from BP Refinery(Kwinana) from 2007 to 2009..........................................................................155

    Figure 61: Chromium Concentrations in Wastewater from BP Refinery

    (Kwinana) from 2007 to 2009..........................................................................158

    Figure 62: Cobalt Concentration in Wastewater from BP Refinery (Kwinana)

    from 2007 to 2009. .........................................................................................161

    Figure 63: Copper Concentration in Wastewater from BP Refinery (Kwinana)

    from 2007 to 2009. .........................................................................................164

    Figure 64: Lead Concentration in Wastewater from BP Refinery (Kwinana)

    from 2007 to 2009. .........................................................................................167

    Figure 65: Mercury Concentration in Process Wastewater from BP Refinery

    (Kwinana) from 2007 to 2009..........................................................................170

    Figure 66: Nickel Concentration in Process Wastewater from BP Refinery(Kwinana) from 2007 to 2009..........................................................................173

    Figure 67: Vanadium Concentration in Process Wastewater from BP Refinery

    (Kwinana) from 2007 to 2009..........................................................................176

    Figure 68: Monthly Average Zinc Concentration (mg/L) in Process

    Wastewater from BP Refinery (Kwinana) from 2007 to 2009.........................179

    Figure 69: pH Measurements of the Process Wastewater from BP Refinery

    (Kwinana) to Cockburn Sound. ........................................................................183

    Figure 70: BP Refinery (Kwinana) Salt Cooling Water flow diagram. .......................186

    Figure 71: Salt Cooling Water Outfall Temperature Differences from BP

    Refinery (Kwinana) 2007 to 2009. ...................................................................187

    Figure 72: Monthly Average Daily Concentrations of Total Suspended Solid

    (TSS) in Process Wastewater from BP Refinery (Kwinana) Dischargedto Cockburn Sound..........................................................................................190

    Figure 73: The Annual Average Concentration of Total Suspended Solids

    (TSS) in Process Wastewater from BP Refinery (Kwinana) Discharged

    to Cockburn Sound..........................................................................................191

    Figure 74: Average Monthly Concentrations of Chemical Oxygen Demand

    and Biological Oxygen Demand from BP Refinery (Kwinana), 2007 to

    2009. ...............................................................................................................194

    Figure 75: Annual Average Concentrations of BOD (mg/L) in Process

    Wastewater Discharged from BP Refinery (Kwinana).....................................195

    Figure 76: Annual Average Concentrations of COD (mg/L) in Process

    Wastewater Discharged from BP Refinery (Kwinana).....................................195

    Figure 77: Annual Average Daily Water Use at BP Refinery (Kwinana) andWater Use Efficiency (expressed as kL water use / tonne crude

    throughput). ....................................................................................................199

    Figure 78: Old Landfarm (left) and the Current Waste Management Area

    (right)...............................................................................................................202

    Figure 79: Plan of the Waste Management Area (WMA). .......................................205

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    Figure 80: (a) The Use of the Rotary Hoe to Incorporate Oily Solids into the

    Landfarm for Bio-remediation (left); (b) and Spreading Oily Solids onto

    the Landfarm...................................................................................................206

    Figure 81: Biopile Cells at BP Refinery (Kwinana)....................................................207

    Figure 82: Evidence of Subsurface Hydrocarbon Staining. ......................................214Figure 83: Photograph of NAPL (degraded diesel) Recovered from a

    Groundwater Well (Courtesy of CSIRO)..........................................................218

    Figure 84: BP Refinery (Kwinana) 900 Series Monitoring Bores..............................219

    Figure 85: Location of the PICL and Dune Sparge Lines. ........................................223

    Figure 86: Extent of LNAPL Plume..........................................................................225

    Figure 87: The Dye Facility Prior to being Upgraded................................................227

    Figure 88: The Dye Facility After being Upgraded. ..................................................227

    Figure 89: Total Corrosion Control Yard Prior to Upgrade. .......................................228

    Figure 90: Total Corrosion Control Yard After Being Upgraded. ..............................228

    Figure 91: Location of PB8. .....................................................................................229

    Figure 92: Benzene Concentration Contours for PB8 Investigation.........................231

    Figure 93: Location of the Southern Dune Dissolved Phase Plume. .......................232Figure 94: Schematic of Passive Recovery Trench Design......................................234

    Figure 95: Location of Passive Trenches at BP Refinery (Kwinana).........................235

    Figure 96: Schematic and Photographs of Single Phase Skimmers. .......................236

    Figure 97: Solar Powered Air Compressor Units used for Product Recovery. .........236

    Figure 98: Schematic and Photographs of Dual Phase Recovery Systems. ............237

    Figure 99: Photographs of VER System and Generator...........................................238

    Figure 100: Historical Sub-surface Product Recovery..............................................238

    Figure 101: Location of BP Refinery (Kwinana) Contaminated Sites .......................245

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    LIST OF TABLES

    Table 1: The Environmental Aspects for BP Refinery in 2009. ..................................38

    Table 2: The standards for SO2 concentrations in the air for Western

    Australia (information from DEC 2009)..............................................................52

    Table 3: Emission limits (hourly averages) set by the licence issued to BPRefinery (Kwinana) to maintain SO2 concentrations set by the EPP.................53

    Table 4: Performance against operational targets to control SO2 emissions. ...........54

    Table 5: Assigned noise levels from the Environmental Protection (Noise)

    Regulations 1997. .............................................................................................92

    Table 6: Emissions of heavy metals to air from BP Refinery (Kwinana) from

    2007 2009. ...................................................................................................120

    Table 7: Heavy metal emissions from BP Refinery (Kwinana) as a percentage

    of the total emissions of the substance to the local airshed of

    Rockingham, Cockburn and Kwinana and the Perth & Rockingham

    airshed in 2008-2009.......................................................................................121

    Table 8: Licence Limits for Hydrocarbon Discharge from BP Refinery

    (Kwinana). .......................................................................................................130Table 9: Heavy Metal yearly average load to Cockburn Sound from 2007 to

    2009 from BP Refinery (Kwinana) process wastewater..................................150

    Table 10: Solid Wastes at BP Refinery (Kwinana)....................................................204

    Table 11: Waste Produced by BP Refinery (Kwinana) by Category

    (tonnes/year). ..................................................................................................211

    Table 12: Status of the Refinery Historical Contaminated Sites. .............................241

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    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

    BOD Biological Oxygen Demand

    BPRK BP Refinery (Kwinana)

    BTEX Benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene

    CDU Crude Distillation Unit

    CR3 Catalytic Reformer 3

    COD Chemical Oxygen Demand

    C3 Hydrocarbon consisting of 3 carbon atoms (eg propane)

    C4 Hydrocarbon consisting of 4 carbon atoms (eg butane)

    DEC Department of Environment and Conservation

    EMS Environmental Management System

    Hyd3 - Hydrofiner No.3

    HSE Health, Safety and Environment

    LNAPL Light Non Aqueous Phase Hydrocarbons

    OWS Oily Water Sewer

    ppmw parts per million by weight

    RCU Residue Cracking Unit

    TPH Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    TSS Total Suspended Solids

    WMA Waste Management Area

    WWTP Waste Water Treatment Plant

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    1 INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Aim and Scope of the Public Environmental Report

    As part of the BP HSE commitment to openly report our performance, good or bad,all major business operations will periodically produce a public environmental report

    that is externally verified. The aim of this report is to openly report against BP

    Refinery (Kwinana) significant environmental aspects.

    Environmental aspects are identified by the Refinery Environmental Management

    System (certified to ISO 14001:2004), and are defined as an element of an

    organisations activity, product or service which can have a beneficial or adverse

    impact on the environment.

    This externally verified report covers the performance of the Refinery for the

    Significant Environmental Aspects for the period 2007 2009. This information is

    presented with a historical context where appropriate. The aspects have beengrouped into the major categories of air emissions, water emissions, soil and

    groundwater. Where appropriate any Regulatory Notices or Licence exceedances

    will be discussed (see section 4.1 for further definition of scope in this area).

    Additional information is also provided on solid waste and biodiversity as there are no

    significant environmental aspects in these areas.

    It is not within the scope of this report to cover the health and safety performance of

    BP Refinery (Kwinana). The scope does not include any external pipelines or BP

    property leased to third parties.

    1.2 General information on BP Refinery (Kwinana)

    Located on the edge of the magnificent natural deep-water harbour of Cockburn

    Sound, Western Australia (see Figure 1: LOaction of BP Refinery (Kwinana) in

    relation to Australia), the BP Refinery (Kwinana) has been processing crude oil since

    1955. The Refinery is approximately 35 km south-west of the City of Perth; the

    capital city of Western Australia. The majority of the population of Western Australia

    (~ 2.5 million) live within a 50 km radius of Perth. BP Refinery (Kwinana) is the only

    refinery in Western Australia and one of only seven in Australia.

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    Figure 1: Location of BP Refinery (Kwinana) in relation to Australia.

    Currently the Refinery processes approximately 6 million tonnes of crude oil per

    year. Approximately 65 percent of the Refinery products are transported by pipeline

    to Fremantle and Kewdale for distribution throughout Western Australia. Theremaining 35 percent of products are exported by ship to markets in the remainder

    of Australia and internationally to South East Asia, New Zealand, the South West

    Pacific and Japan.

    The Refinery is located in the Kwinana Industrial Area (see Figure 2: Location of BP

    Refinery (Kwinana) within the Kwinana Industrial Area.) and is the most isolated

    refinery in the world. Crude oil is delivered to BP Refinery (Kwinana) mostly by ship,

    with a small proportion arriving via road transport.

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    Figure 2: Location of BP Refinery (Kwinana) within the Kwinana Industrial Area.

    The assets of the Refinery have a replacement cost of $2.5 billion, and are operatedand maintained by a permanent BP staff of 410 people who are supported by

    contractors as required.

    For further information on the history of the Refinery and crude processing please

    refer to Section 2.

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    1.3 Environmental Management System

    An Environmental Management System (EMS) is a structured framework to manage

    environmental issues. It is a commitment of BP Corporate for each major Business

    Unit to have a certified Environmental Management System. An EMS based on ISO

    14001 aims to achieve:

    Compliance with legislation and regulations,

    Continual improvement,

    Management of significant environmental issues and

    Prevention of pollution.

    BP Refinery (Kwinana) first achieved certification of its EMS in 1999, was recently

    recertified in January 2009 (ISO14001:2004), and will continue to undergo regular

    audits to maintain this certification. For further information on the EMS at BPRefinery (Kwinana) please refer to Section 3.

    1.4 Objectives and targets

    The Senior Leadership Team of BP Refinery (Kwinana) set objectives and targets

    every year for Significant Environmental Aspects. The objectives and targets can be

    set to maintain business as usual performance, investigate, or implement an

    improvement.

    A single Significant Environmental Aspect can have a number of targets associated

    with it, as targets can be applied to any activity or outcome. Multiple targets may be

    set, for example, on the inputs that may manage a particular aspect such as

    equipment reliability and availability; operational conditions such as flow and

    temperature; emissions monitoring system reliability and on the outputs such as

    actual emissions.

    Generally targets will aim to control a particular piece of refinery equipment (and

    therefore also control the performance), to achieve a task by a particular time (a likely

    example is to commission a piece of equipment), or a target can directly state a limit

    to the emission/occurrence of the Significant Environmental Aspect.

    Targets originate from a number of sources, both internal and external. These

    include; Licensing requirements, Works Approval documentation, EMS

    (Environmental Management System) and BP corporate guidelines.

    An example of a significant environmental aspect that has a number of targets

    associated with it is particulate emissions. The Environmental Licence issued to BP

    Refinery (Kwinana) by the Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC)

    requires that particulate emissions from the Refinery never exceed 250 mg/m3, and

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    for 95% of the time emissions must not exceed 150 mg/m3. The Refinery has set

    internal targets on the air velocity in the regenerators, as this partially controls what

    the particulate emissions will be, as well as targets to ensure compliance with the

    licence emission limits.

    The Public Environmental Report reports on the performance of the Refinery for the

    period 2007 - 2009.

    It is intended that a Public Environmental Report will be updated every three years

    and be made available to the public via the Internet.

    1.5 Major modifications since the 2006 Public Environmental Report

    A number of Refinery modifications have taken place since 2006. These include the:

    KWRP Tie In, SDOOL Output, Cracker Revamp, Alky RAD, Naptha Splitter,

    Mercaptan Crudes, Bitumen Plant and Building Changes.

    KWRP Tie In

    The tie in to the Kwinana Water Reclamation Plant (KWRP) was completed in 2008.

    This project involved piping high grade tertiary treated munici0ple wastewater from

    KWRP into the Refinery. The KWRP purification process treats wastewater from the

    Water Corporation Woodman Point treatment plant by intense microfiltration and

    reverse osmosis. This water is then piped into the Refinery where it is used for

    industrial processes such as steam generation and cooling.

    BPs investment in the reclaimed water project has freed up nearly two GL - or 800

    Olympic size swimming pools - of potable water each year for public use.

    Furthermore, a future proposal to extend the use of KWRP water for firefighting and

    other industrial purposes could see this increase.

    SDOOL Output

    The second phase of the KWRP upgrade was the connection to the Sepia

    Depression Ocean Outlet Landline (SDOOL). This connection was completed in July

    2009, resulting in no process wastewater being discharged into Cockburn Sound

    from the Refinery. All BP process water undergoes rigorous treatment prior to

    discharge. This treated wastewater is now piped through the Water Corporation

    wastewater infrastructure to the Sepia Depression, 4.1 km offshore from Point

    Peron. This is preferable to Cockburn Sound discharge as the Sepia Depression has

    higher dilution and better assimilative capacity than the relatively poorly flushed

    waters of the Sound.

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    Cracker Revamp

    The Residue Cracking Unit (RCU) is a key unit for the Refinery as it plays a significant

    role in upgrading less valuable residue into valuable products. Furthermore products

    from the RCU are processed in five other Refinery units, so availability is crucial to

    the Refinery. The 2008 revamp of this unit centred on modifications to improve the

    reliability, yield, process safety and reduce the environmental impacts of the RCU.

    The environmental improvements achieved through the cracker revamp included: a

    decrease in Refinery sound power level (a reduction in the Refinery noise impact on

    the community), improvement to the storage of spent catalyst (eliminating the

    potential for runoff from the storage pit to contaminate groundwater), a reduction in

    particulate emissions under startup conditions and the amount of small particulates

    released into the atmosphere and a reduction in Refinery water usage.

    Alky RAD

    HF Alkylation is one of the chemical processes required within the Refinery. Thisprocess uses a highly toxic catalyst, hydrofluoric (HF) acid. In 2007 the Alky RAD

    project reduced the risk associated with this catalyst by introducing a RAD (Rapid

    Acid Deinventory) system and an Emergency Shutdown System onto the Unit.

    Although the project was primarily safety based there were also environmental

    improvements through reduced risk of toxic spills, reduced quantities for any

    potential leaks and ensuring a reduction in potential environmental impacts for such

    events.

    Naptha Splitter

    The new naptha splitter was built in 2008 to improve feed flexibility and throughputto the Refinery octane upgrading unit, the Catalytic Reformer Three (CR3). The new

    column was sized for optimal performance on any crude feedstock to ensure crude

    scheduling optimisation opportunities. Furthermore, the new unit also produces

    lower benzene levels in reformate.

    This project had a minor environmental impact with some increases in air emissions.

    These increases included: NOx (0.25%), VOC (0.01%), particulates (0.7%), CO

    (0.15%), metals (0.2%), SO2(0.42%) and CO2(0.39%). The changes resulted from

    improved process efficiency and a resulting increase in average feed rate. To offset

    the increase in CO2, off-site carbon sinks were used. The establishment of tree

    plantations on salt affected farm land in the south-west of Western Australia

    mitigates the effects of land salinisation and salinisation of adjacent water bodies,and offsets the Refinery CO2 emissions. The tree plantations provide carbon

    sequestration rates in the order of twenty tonnes CO2/hectare/year.

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    Mercaptan Crudes

    In 2008 the Mercaptan Crudes project reinstated the capability and flexibility of the

    Refinery to process crude containing up to 600ppm weight mercaptan. The

    improvements included reducing the volume of spent caustic generated whilst

    processing mercaptan crude on the PPU1 (thus ensuring LPG product quality

    [residue and sulphur] was maintained), changing the catalyst type on the Jet Merox

    Unit and ensuring that there was no odour risk associated with the handling, storage

    and processing of mercaptan crude. This project had predominantly economic

    impacts.

    Bitumen Plant

    The Bitumen Emulsions plant was shut down in early 2009 resulting in a reduction in

    water use for the Refinery. Furthermore, there are plans to decommission the entire

    plant in the near future.

    Building Changes

    Between 2007 and 2009 a number of building renovations and works have been in

    progress. The Central Control Building (CCB) was completed in 2008 with an

    extension and blast proof cladding installed appropriate to its location within the

    Refinery. The Canteen (new building) and Administration building was completed in

    2008 and 2009 respectively. The Canteen is at a location further removed from the

    Refinery and both have been fitted with appropriate protective materials in the

    structure (ie window coverings and new roofing material (tin)). Further to this, the old

    canteen building was demolished in late 2009 and a new laboratory building is in the

    planning stage.

    These new buildings have a number of environmental improvements includingenergy efficient lighting, water saving fixtures & fittings and infrastructure to recycle

    water for garden use.

    1.6 New Significant Environmental Aspects

    The Refinery has identified numerous new significant environmental aspects since

    the 2006 Public Environmental Report. These new aspects include numerous

    category three aspects for air, category four aspects for water and new waste and

    clean fuel aspects. These new additions are the result of external regulatory

    obligations and the Refinerys own internal targets and objectives. The Refinery

    significant environmental aspects are detailed in Section 5.

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    2 PETROLEUM REFINING

    2.1 History of BP Refinery Kwinana

    Figure 3: Location plan of BP Refinery (Kwinana).

    In the post World War Two era, Western Australia rapidly developed itsmanufacturing industries. This industry was important to enable the state to provide

    for itself and create employment opportunities for a population boosted by post-war

    immigration. In 1952 the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, later to become BP, acquired

    land at Kwinana, and within the same year, site preparation began with clearing and

    fencing for the construction of an oil Refinery.

    On the 23rd of January 1953 work officially began with the then Premier of Western

    Australia, Sir Ross McLarty, turning the first soil. The first piece of Refinery

    equipment was erected in September of 1953. Construction continued throughout

    1954 under the direction of the American firm Kellogg, with the labour force peaking

    at almost 3,500. In this year an average of three ships per week were arriving from

    the United Kingdom with equipment and materials, with additional ships also arrivingfrom the eastern states of Australia.

    On the 11th January 1955 the first crude oil arrived in the ship British Crusader, and

    at one minute past midnight on February the 1st, crude processing began over three

    months ahead of schedule.

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    The Refinery at that time consisted of two Crude Distillation Units (CDU), a Vacuum

    Distillation Unit (VDU), a Catalytic Reformer (CRU), Fluid Catalytic Cracker, Hydrofiner

    (Hyd), Bitumen Plant and associated support equipment. At the time the Refinery

    was built it was the largest industrial engineering project undertaken in Australia and

    had a design capacity of three million tonnes of crude per year.

    Since its original construction the Kwinana Refinery has undergone many upgrades

    and additions to improve the range of crudes it can process, the range and quality of

    products it can produce and improve the environmental performance of the Refinery.

    Currently the Kwinana Refinery processes approximately six million tonnes of crude

    per year and improvements are continuing to be made towards clean fuel

    production. A simplified flow chart outlining the main processing units and products

    is shown in Figure 4.

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    2.2 Crude processing at BP Kwinana Refinery

    BP Kwinana Refinery Flow Diagram

    Crude

    Distillation

    Units

    Amine &

    Merox Unit

    LPG

    RecoveryPPU1

    Catalytic

    Reformer

    Jet Merox

    Sweetening

    Isomerisation

    Hydrofiners

    Residue

    Cracker

    PPU2

    Sulphur

    Recovery

    Units

    CCS

    Minalk

    Alkylation

    Cat Poly

    Bitumen

    Oxidiser

    VacuumDistillation

    Unit

    Refinery Fuel Gas

    Propane

    Butane

    Gasoline

    Gasoline

    Kero/Jet

    Diesel

    Diesel

    Refinery Fuel Gas

    Sulphur

    Gasoline

    Gasoline

    Fuel Oil

    Bitumen

    Gas

    Naphtha

    Kero/Jet

    Gas Oil

    Atmos Residue

    Figure 4: Simplified flowchart of crude processing at the BP Refinery (Kwinana), fromthe Crude Distillation Units to the resulting products.

    2.2.1 Distillation

    Crude oil is not one chemical compound but a combination of hydrocarbons (carbon

    and hydrogen atoms bonded in various configurations) each with a unique boilingpoint. Before any other treatment crude is first distilled in the Crude Distillation Units

    (CDU).

    Distilling is simply a boiling process that physically separates the crude into a number

    of fractions and a less volatile residue, by boiling them off at different temperatures.

    There are two Crude Distillation Units, CDU1 and CDU2, which function in a very

    similar way.

    The crude oil is pumped from storage tanks into the CDU and heated, which

    removes the lighter material from the crude oil. These lighter ends consist of

    products like Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) that is fed to the Propane Production Unit

    One (PPU1) for separation into propane and butane. The remainder of the crude is

    further heated in stripping columns, which separates the side stream products

    according to their different boiling temperatures. These products include kerosene

    and light and heavy gas oils. The unvapourised residue (atmospheric residue) of the

    crude oil that remains after the other products that have been removed forms the

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    feedstock for the Vacuum Distillation Unit Two (VDU2) or the Residue Cracking Unit

    (RCU). (See Figure 5).

    Figure 5: The two Crude Distillation Units at the BP Refinery (Kwinana), with theResidue Cracking Unit in the distance.

    2.2.2 Cracking

    Residue from the Crude Distillation Units is fed into the Residue Cracking Unit (RCU)

    where it is converted to lighter components that are more valuable.

    The heavy residue is fed onto tiny spheres of alumina silica catalyst at high

    temperatures which crack the long chain molecules of the residue. The products

    from the reaction are then distilled into cracked spirit, a material suitable for blending

    in motor spirit (petrol), and other components for gas oils and fuel oils.

    During the process of cracking large molecules, small amounts of carbon form a

    layer over the catalyst. This is referred to as coke and if left in the system it will foul

    the process. The coke is removed by burning the catalyst in the regenerators, and

    the catalyst can be circulated back to the reactor section of the Residue Cracking

    Unit. The RCU has two regenerators, one converts the coke directly to carbon

    dioxide through a combustion reaction that is supplied with excess oxygen. The

    other regenerator converts the coke to carbon monoxide first by limiting the oxygen

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    supply to the combustion. The CO is then converted to CO2, which is an exothermic

    reaction (i.e. the reaction produces heat), and this heat is used as an energy source

    to produce steam.

    2.2.3 Sweetening

    The term sweetening refers to the conversion of mercaptans in motor spirit into

    less odorous disulphides (Leffler 2000). This is done through a series of units that

    perform in slightly different ways depending on the specific product being produced,

    but in this report are discussed under the same general heading.

    There are two Propane Production Units, referred to as PPU1 and PPU2. The PPU1

    takes overhead product from the Crude Distillation Units and removes the hydrogen

    sulphide (H2S). The lighter ends then go to the Refinery fuel gas main for energy

    production within the Refinery, while the bottom product goes to the Merox Section.

    Here the mercaptans are extracted from the LPG and oxidised to disulphide oil, and

    the remaining LPG is separated into propane and butane for sale.

    The PPU2 takes LPG from the Residue Cracking Unit and removes hydrogen

    sulphide and mercaptan sulphur. The mixed LPG is then split into C3 and C4

    streams, which are then further treated. The C3 stream can be sold directly from this

    stage, or be passed to the Catalytic Polymerisation Unit (CPU). The bulk of the C4

    stream goes to the Alkylation Unit while the remainder goes to the CPU.

    The CPU takes the C3 and C4 streams from the Propane Production Units and

    converts them to Polygas, which is used for motor spirit blending. This is done by

    diluting the feed with LPG, then heating it and passing it into a reactor. The reactor

    has beds of solid phosphoric acid catalyst, and the reaction produces excess heat.

    Then Polygas is separated from the C3 and C4 in the Debutaniser, after which the

    Polygas can be used for blending. The C4 product generally flows to the AlkylationUnit (Butane Splitter), while the C3 product goes directly to sale.

    The Hydrofiners (Hydrofiner 2 and 3) enable the Refinery to process sour crudes

    (higher sulphur content). Hydrofiner Unit 2 takes Light Cycle Oil from the Residue

    Cracking Unit and both take Gas Oil from the Crude Distillation Units. Sulphur is

    removed through a hydrotreating process, which involves contacting the feedstock

    with an alumina catalyst in the presence of hydrogen. This converts the existing

    organic sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen compounds in the feed to hydrogen sulphide,

    ammonia, water and hydrocarbons. The result is sweetened oil that is blended to

    make diesel.

    The Merox Unit takes Jet from the Crude Distillation Units and removes themercaptans. The process involves treating the Jet with a caustic soda solution in the

    presence of Merox catalyst and a controlled amount of air injection. After reaction

    the Jet is fed through sand and clay filters to remove traces of water and surfactants

    prior to being pumped to storage.

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    The Catalytic Reformer upgrades the gasoline and naphtha from the Crude

    Distillation Units to make them suitable components for blending into motor spirit.

    There are three parts to the Catalytic Reformer, the first section, the Naphtha

    Hydrotreater (NHT) is designed to clean-up the naphtha by the removal of sulphur,

    oxygen and nitrogen compounds. From this process both Light and HeavyHydrotreated Naphtha are produced, the Light Hydrotreated Naphtha is sent to the

    Isomerisation unit for upgrading, while the Heavy Hydrotreated Naphtha is sent to

    the next stage of the Catalytic Reformer. The Heavy Hydrotreated Naphtha is

    converted to a high octane motor spirit component. This section of the Catalytic

    Reformer unit is the continuous Catalyst Regenerator that regenerates the reformer

    catalyst allowing the unit to run continuously.

    The Isomerisation Unit uses a process designed to upgrade the octane number of

    Light Hydrotreated Naphtha from the Catalytic Reformer. This conversion occurs in a

    hydrogen rich atmosphere, over a fixed bed of catalyst. The reaction is exothermic,

    with the heat of the products being used to preheat the incoming feed. The gas is

    separated from the liquid product and the resulting Isomerate is moved to storage.

    The Alkylation Unit produces high-octane motor spirit by reacting butylenes (C4) from

    the Residue Cracking Unit with isobutene from the Crude Units, Catalytic Reformer

    and Residue Cracking Unit. Alkylation is the reverse process of cracking, as it takes

    small molecules and combines them together to make larger ones. This is done

    using hydrofluoric acid (HF) as a catalyst, and produces a motor spirit component

    called alkylate. The alkylate has superior stability and anti-knock qualities, therefore

    when blended into aviation gasoline (Avgas) it improves the environmental and

    mechanical performance. (See Figure 6).

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    Figure 6: The Catalytic Reformer (CR3) at BP Refinery (Kwinana).

    2.2.4 Bitumen Plant

    The heavy ends of crude oil are very complex molecules with high carbon tohydrogen ratios. Bitumen is made from this substance after it is extracted in the

    Vacuum Distillation Unit.

    The residue from the Vacuum Distillation Unit enters the blowing tower of the

    Bitumen Unit and compressed air is injected into the base of the tower. The air

    causes a chemical reaction, some lighter ends are carried through the vents to the

    fume disposal incinerator. Different grades/hardness of bitumen are produced by

    varying the quantity of air and the temperature. (See Figure 7).

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    Figure 7: The Bitumen Unit at BP Refinery (Kwinana).

    2.2.5 Environmentally related units/areas

    2.2.5.1 Sulphur Recovery UnitThe Refinery has two Sulphur Recovery Units that remove sulphur from gas streams

    that could otherwise contribute to atmospheric emissions. The units receive H2S rich

    gas from various areas of the Refinery, which is absorbed into a solvent and heated

    to generate a feed gas. The H2S reacts to produce sulphur that is condensed and

    stored as a hot liquid. The gas can then be used within the Refinery as an energysource and molten sulphur is sent offsite for use in the manufacture of fertilizer and

    other products.

    2.2.5.2 Refinery FlaresThe Refinery flare is an essential relief system that can safely dispose of any excess

    gas produced by short duration surges within the Refinery process units. This

    prevents the dangerous build-up of pressure, and ensures the gases are combusted

    to less harmful products. (See Figure 8).

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    Figure 8: The East flare at BP Refinery (Kwinana).

    2.2.5.3 Waste Management AreaThe Refinery has a specifically built Waste Management Area (WMA) for thehandling, storage and treatment of solid wastes produced by the Refinery. The

    handling and storage facilities in the WMA consist of a Solid Waste Shed, a Drum

    shed, an Oily Waste Dewatering Shed and a Hazardous Waste shed for the separate

    undercover storage of solid waste.

    The WMA also has a large bunded weathering slab constructed of concrete with a

    leachate collection drain and a High Density Poly-Ethylene (HDPE) liner to prevent

    contamination of the underlying soil. The weathering slab is used for the mixing,

    storage and weathering of solid waste.

    The WMA has lined calcium fluoride dewatering pits and bunded concrete drying

    slabs for the treatment of calcium fluoride prior to disposal and a landfarm facility forthe bio-remediation of oily sludges and oil contaminated soils.

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    Figure 9: The Waste Management Area at BP Refinery (Kwinana).

    Wastes are tracked by the Environment and Dangerous Goods Team through a

    permit system controlling the movement of wastes both onsite and offsite. (See

    Figure 9).

    2.2.5.4 Waste Water Treatment PlantThe Waste Water Treatment Plant treats wastewater produced by the process units,

    storm water runoff and maintenance work. The water flows to the plant via the Oily

    Water Sewer network. The first stage of treatment is the API (American Petroleum

    Institute Oil Water Separator) which uses gravity, density variation and time to

    physically separate the free oil, sludge and water. The free oil is returned to the

    system for reprocessing and the water is pumped to the Equalization Tank to

    homogenise the flow to the remainder of the plant. From this tank the water is

    treated in the Dissolved Air Flotation Unit (DAF) for removal of fine suspended oil

    particles, then the dissolved phase oil and other organic contaminants (e.g.

    phenolics) are removed in the Activated Sludge Units (ASU). The wastewater is

    clarified and polished before disposal.

    Under normal circumstances disposal of treated wastewater occurs through the

    Sepia Depression Ocean Outlet Landline (SDOOL). The SDOOL is a pipeline that

    ends 4km offshore at the Sepia Depression. This location has a much higher rate of

    dilution than within Cockburn Sound and is subject to an extensive monitoring

    program. A number of industries share the SDOOL pipeline and extensive

    environmental conditions are a requirement of its use.

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    The Refinery also has a once through Salt Cooling Water stream that under normal

    conditions does not come into contact with hydrocarbons. This water stream is only

    required to undergo primary treatment in the Salt Cooling Water oil/water separators

    before the water is returned to Cockburn Sound.

    Figure 10: Salt Cooling Water Circulars

    See Figure 10 of the Waste Water Treatment Plant at BP Refinery (Kwinana). On the

    left are two Salt Cooling Water circulars, on the right the two Activated Sludge Units

    and clarifiers are visible.

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    3 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    An Environmental Management System (EMS) is a structured approach to managing

    environmental issues. BP Refinery (Kwinana) has an EMS based on the international

    standard ISO 14001:2004, therefore the system is structured, transparent andauditable. This provides the framework for the continual improvement of

    environmental performance.

    BP Refinery (Kwinana) achieved its first certification of the EMS in 1999 based on

    the international standard ISO 14001. The basic structure of the EMS for BP Refinery

    (Kwinana) is outlined in the Figure 11 below).

    1. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

    3. OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS

    4. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    PROGRAMME

    5. AUDITING

    6. NON-CONFORMANCE REPORTING

    & INCIDENT INVESTIGATION

    7. MANAGEMENT REVIEW

    2.1. LEGAL AND OTHER REQUIREMENTS

    2.2. ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

    4.1. .ACTION PLANS FOR TARGETS

    4.2. OPERATIONAL CONTROL

    (Procedures and practices)

    4.3. EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT

    4.4. TRAINING

    4.5. ENVIRONMENTAL

    RESPONSIBILITIES MATRIX

    4.6. COMMUNICATION

    4.7. PERFORMANCE MONITORING

    4.8. RECORDS

    Figure 11: Flow chart of the BP Refinery (Kwinana) Environmental ManagementSystem (EMS).

    3.1 Policy

    The Environmental Policy establishes the overall direction and principles of theRefinery EMS, reflecting the culture and value system of the Refinery. BP Refinery

    (Kwinana) Policy is aligned with the broader HSE BP Corporate policy of no harm to

    people, no accidents and no damage to the environment.

    The BP Refinery (Kwinana) Environmental Policy for 2009 is shown below:

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    Kwinana RefineryEnvironmental Policy

    At BP Refinery Kwinana, we are committed to the BP HSE Policy and its stated

    expectation of no damage to the environment. The prevention of pollution resulting

    from our operations is of the highest priority to us.

    We are committed not only to meeting the requirements of our Environmental

    Protection Act licence and all other environmental legal obligations, but also to the

    concept of best practice environmental performance. To us, this means managing

    our operations to the highest standard possible to minimise our potential

    environmental impact at all times.

    To provide assurance both to ourselves and our community that we are managingour significant environmental issues effectively, our environmental management

    system is based upon the requirements of the international standard ISO

    14001:2004. It is therefore structured, transparent and auditable and provides the

    framework for the continual improvement of our environmental performance.

    We focus our efforts on those environmental issues which we have identified as

    being most significant to the community and the receiving environment. We set

    ourselves objectives and targets to manage these significant issues, which address

    contributing factors within our operations as well as the emissions themselves.

    All employees and contractors on our site have a role to play in our environmental

    management system. We are therefore committed to training all personnel to anappropriate level to ensure the effectiveness of our environmental systems and

    procedures, and to ensure an acceptable level of environmental awareness across

    our site.

    Our key environmental goals include:

    Protecting Cockburn Sound and water resources

    We protect our groundwater resources by managing our wastes effectively and by

    our programmes to eliminate oil and chemical spills and improve our chemical

    storage systems. We aim to eliminate oil and chemical spills from our operation and

    activities. We will record and measure spills as far as possible to enable us to

    prioritise our efforts in engineering out problem areas and improving procedures andpractices which may result in oil or chemical spills to the ground or water.

    We aim to reduce our water consumption and manage our sewer discharges and

    wastewater treatment plant operation to minimise impacts on the receiving water of

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    Cockburn Sound. We will work towards zero discharge of process water to

    Cockburn Sound by participating in the Kwinana Water Recycle Programme (KWRP).

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    We participate in the Federal Government Greenhouse Challenge and set ourselvesemissions reduction and energy efficiency targets. This includes forestry trials for

    carbon sequestration in salt affected areas of the State. Furthermore, we will

    eliminate deliberate operation of refinery process units in a manner which causes

    production of gases excess to requirements for fuel consumption, sales to Cogen, or

    other sales, resulting in the disposal of the excess gases to flare. We accept the cost

    penalties associated with this mode of operation.

    Reducing Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) emissions

    We aim to continually reduce our VOC emissions by the use of best practice

    equipment and systems and by monitoring and controlling our emissions sources.

    We have programmes to install closed loop sampling systems, use environmentallyfriendly valve packings, reduce emissions from our sewers and reduce emissions

    from tanks storing volatile products.

    Other Atmospheric Emissions

    We recognise that sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides have the potential to impact

    on the environment, and we are therefore committed to reducing these emissions.

    We will operate our plant so as to keep SO2emissions to the lowest practicable

    levels and aim to reduce NOx emissions by optimising furnace performance and

    efficiency and selecting low NOx burners for new furnaces and when existing

    furnace burners are upgraded. We will continue to manage our particulate emissions.

    Supplying Clean Fuels

    We are committed to playing a role in improving Perth air quality by supplying the

    cleanest possible fuels consistent with market expectations. We will continue to

    work with our environmental regulator and other stakeholders to move the fuel

    quality agenda forward in this state.

    Des Gillen

    March 2010

    Business Unit Leader

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    3.2 Legal and other requirements

    It is a requirement of ISO 14001 to identify, and have access to, the legal and other

    requirements that the Refinery believes are applicable to the environmental aspects

    of its activities, products and services. The sources of these requirements include

    legislation, agreements with regulators, international agreements and voluntary

    commitments.

    All legal and other requirements for BP Refinery (Kwinana) are compiled in the

    Environmental Legal Register, and responsibilities to meet these requirements are

    allocated to members of the leadership team.

    3.3 Environmental Aspects

    An Environmental Aspect is defined by the ISO 14001 Standard as an element of an

    organizations activity, product or service which can have a beneficial or adverse

    impact on the environment.

    BP Refinery (Kwinana) has environmental aspects relating to air emissions, solid

    wastes, wastewater discharges, soil and groundwater contamination, resource

    usage (water and energy), nuisance (odour and noise), product quality and

    biodiversity.

    3.4 Objectives and Targets

    BP Refinery (Kwinana) annually sets objectives and targets for environmental

    performance based on legal and other requirements, technology options, financial,

    operational and business requirements and the views of the local community and the

    regulators.

    All Significant Environmental Aspects have objectives and targets that reflect the

    policy of the Refinery. There are three types of objectives and targets; business as

    usual targets that are achieved by managing day-to-day activities, investigation

    targets that are set when there is not enough information to make a change and

    improvement targets that are set when a change can be implemented.

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    3.5 Environmental Management Program

    This is the part of the Environmental Management System that outlines how it

    should be run.

    3.5.1 Action Plans for targets

    The Environment Management Program requires the Senior Leadership Team to

    develop action plans to meet improvement and investigation targets.

    3.5.2 Operational Control

    Operations and activities related to significant environmental aspects have been

    identified, and the engineering and operational control used to manage each

    significant environmental aspect have been documented. Each of the identified

    operations and activities are required to have a working procedure that sets

    operating envelopes for emission control.

    3.5.3 Emergency Management

    All personnel must be aware of their function in an emergency situation, as set out

    in the Emergency Management Plan, which provides the structure, process and

    information to respond to emergencies onsite.

    3.5.4 Training

    The environmental training requirements for each role in the Refinery have been

    determined and new appointees are required to complete their environmental

    training before acting in the position.

    3.5.5 Environmental Duties and Responsibilities Matrix

    A duties and responsibilities matrix is maintained so the training requirements and

    responsibilities for each position are recorded.

    3.5.6 Communication

    Internal and external communication is an important part of the Environmental

    Management System. Internal reporting is required to understand the environmental

    performance and successfully manage the significant environmental aspects.

    External reporting provides transparency and demonstrates good citizenship.

    3.5.7 Performance monitoring

    The Refinery has established procedures to monitor and measure the key

    characteristics of its operations and activities that may have a significant impact on

    the environment.

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    3.5.8 Records

    The Refinery has established an Environmental Records Procedure to ensure records

    are securely stored and maintained. This is done by many teams within the Refinery,

    not only the Environmental Team.

    3.6 Audits

    An essential component of the ISO 14001 Standard for Environmental Management

    System is the process of auditing. Internal audits are conducted by the Refinery to

    ensure the program is working effectively and to correct any non-conformances.

    Surveillance audits and re-certification audits are carried out six-monthly and three-

    yearly respectively by an accredited third party organization (NATA Certification

    Services International) to ensure compliance with the standard.

    3.7 Non-conformance Reporting and Incident Investigation

    A non-conformance occurs when a requirement of the Environmental Management

    System is not fulfilled, for example failure to follow a procedure.

    When an environmental incident is identified it is reported and investigated with the

    actions arising from the investigation tracked to ensure adequate completion within

    the nominated time frame.

    The Refinery has established a procedure defining the responsibility and authority for

    handling and investigating incidents. The Senior Leadership Team will determine the

    level of investigation required and will appoint Investigation Team Leaders. The

    recommendations resulting from the investigation will be assigned to relevant areas

    and dates for completion set.

    3.8 Management Review

    The Annual Management Review allows the Senior Leadership Team to evaluate the

    performance of the EMS and establish the EMS future direction, including the

    objectives and targets for the coming year.

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    4 ENVIRONMENTAL NOTIFICATIONS

    4.1 The Structure of Environmental Enforcement

    The enforcement guidelines of the Environmental Protection Act 1986 describe thestructure of the tiered offences and penalties regime. There are three levels of

    offence under the Act reflecting the relative seriousness of offences.

    Tier one offences are committed intentionally, or with criminal negligence, resulting

    in actual damage to the environment or a serious breach of trust.

    Tier two consists of statutory offences, such as a breach of licence condition. There

    is an option to deal with a Tier two offence with a modified penalty if the Chief

    Executive Officer of the DEC has the opinion it is more appropriate than a

    prosecution.

    Tier three offences consist of minor technical offences, and may be dealt with by an

    infringement notice and the payment of a fine.

    A licence exceedance is defined as exceeding a numerical threshold. Licence non-

    compliance relates to any other requirements within the Licence. Please note

    Licence non-compliances are only included in this document where they are

    considered to have impacted on the environment.

    A DEC inspector or authorized officer may also issue an Environmental Field Notice,

    which is essentially a warning. Warnings may be issued in cases of minimal

    potential/actual environmental damage, of a minor technical breach of instrument or

    regulation, or if the matter can be quickly corrected.

    4.2 BP Refinery (Kwinana) Environmental Regulatory Notices

    BP Refinery (Kwinana) received two Infringement Notices and two Environmental

    Field Notices between 2007 and 2009.

    The first infringement notice was from the 11th November 2007 when 70L of

    hydrocarbon was released from a pipeline on the Kwinana Bulk Berth #2 (formally

    the AIS jetty), north of BP Refinery. This release occurred from a disused bunkerline,

    not used by BP Refinery since the early 1990s. The hydrocarbon release resulted in

    an oil slick of 100m by 10m in Cockburn Sound. This oil was subsequently broken up

    by boat.

    The DEC issued an infringement notice of $250 based on the risk being known tothe Refinery. The Refinery had attempted to access the jetty on previous occasions

    to remove any remaining oil but was unable to do so due to the owner activities.

    An investigation into the incident highlighted that the pipeline had been blanked

    without allowing for a thermal relief valve. This resulted in a boxed in line and a

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    resulting valve leak. To reduce the risk of reoccurrence the investigation ensured

    internal procedural changes. These changes involved formal reviews for all activities

    that modify a process or instrumentation and a review of all Kwinana Bulk Berth jetty

    pipelines to assess their status and remove any residual oil.

    The second infringement notice related to the discharge of firefighting foam

    concentrate from the Refinery jetty on 19th October 2008. This resulted in 800L of

    firefighting foam entering Cockburn Sound. This release occurred due to a hole in the

    jetty foam concentrate line. The concentrate entered the water beneath the pipeline

    and dissipated without foaming. The leak was stopped by relieving pressure in the

    line and isolating it prior to repairs to reinstate it.

    The DEC issued an infringement notice of $500 for the release of concentrate

    containing zinc oxide into Cockburn Sound.

    An investigation into the incident found that the pipeline had some areas of corrosion

    and that the timeframe for assessment of the line was too long. To prevent such

    incidents reoccurring procedural changes were implemented for improved inspectionwithin shorter timeframes and improved risk assessment and notification.

    The two field notices issued between 2007 and 2009 were both related to an

    inspection on the 10th July 2008;

    1) in breach of Regulation 8 of the Environmental Protection (Abrasive Blasting)

    Regulations 1998 for not removing abrasive blasting waste from the blasting area

    as required by the Regulations (this was rectified through an update to the

    appropriate procedure).

    2) in breach of Regulation 10 of the Environmental Protection (Metal Coating)

    Regulations 2001 for not using compliant storage for chemicals/paints (rectifiedthrough moving the chemicals/paint into the bunded, compliant storage area that

    was already present and updating the procedure to ensure this becomes mandatory

    within 24 hours of delivery).

    BP Refinery (Kwinana) had four Licence limit exceedances and one Licence Target

    exceedance during the peroid 2007 to 2009. All Licence exceedances were

    attributed to Particulate emissions from the Residue Cracker Unit (RCU), these are

    discussed in Section 6.2. The Licence target exceedance was attributed to Bio-

    chemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) from treated process wastewater, this is

    discussed further in Section 7.22.

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    5 SIGNIFICANT ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

    An Environmental Aspect is defined by the ISO 14001 Standard as an element of an

    organizations activity, product or service which can have a beneficial or adverse

    impact on the environment.

    The general categories of environmental aspects of BP Refinery (Kwinana) are air

    emissions, solid wastes, wastewater discharges, soil and groundwater

    contamination, resource usage (water and energy), nuisance (noise and odour),

    product quality and biodiversity. BP Refinery (Kwinana) has developed a ranking

    system that classifies each aspect in Categories One through to Four. The aspects

    that qualify as a Category One are the most Significant Environmental Aspects and

    are typically regulated, have a high profile and have a licence limit on emissions.

    The Refinery must consider its activities, products and services, present and relevant

    past activities, direct and indirect impacts, and normal, abnormal and emergency

    conditions when identifying environmental aspects. Once identified, EnvironmentalAspects are assigned to a category using a number of rules specific to if it is an

    air/water/soil and groundwater, solid waste or historical contaminated sites aspect.

    Examples of rules that determine the category level are the licence conditions or

    regulations that apply to the aspect, the potential to cause external complaints and

    the potential to cause impacts on human health.

    The environmental aspects for 2009 are shown in Table 1: The Environmental

    Aspects for BP Refinery in 2009.

    Significant Environmental Aspects have objectives and targets set for performance

    each year. Some of the significant environmental aspects are also licensed by DEC.

    This report compares the performance for significant environmental aspects againstlicence limits and objectives and targets where appropriate.

    Some additional Environmental Aspects that are of public interest are also included

    to provide a complete picture of the Refinery environmental performance, however

    many of these additional Environmental Aspects do not have set formal objectives

    and targets. These have been identified in Table 1: The Environmental Aspects for

    BP Refinery in 2009.

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    Table 1: The Environmental Aspects for BP Refinery in 2009.

    AIR EMISSIONS

    Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4

    SOX CO Toluene H2

    NOX Benzene Xylene Organic Pb

    VOCs Heavy metals 1, 3 Butadiene

    CO2 PAHs 1, 2 Dibromoethane

    Particulates Chlorine Acetaldehyde

    Odours Acid gases Cumene

    Odours (COS) Dioxins Cyclohexane

    H2S F Ethyl Benzene

    CS2 Halons Formaldehyde

    HF Ammonia n-Hexane

    Smoke Phenolics

    Noise Styrene

    Methane

    WATER EMISSIONS

    Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4

    Oil MBAS PAHs

    Sulphides Halogenated Organics Benzene

    Fluoride Chlorine/ Bromine Total Dissolved Solids

    Phenols Phosphorous Toxicity

    Nitrogen Dioxins Toluene

    Arsenic Aluminium Xylene

    Cadmium Iron Hexane

    Chromium Manganese Cumene

    Cobalt Selenium Styrene

    Copper Ammonia Ethyl Benzene

    Lead MTBE Ethylene Glycol

    Nickel Cyanide

    Vanadium Metals (other than those

    individually listed)

    Zinc

    pH

    Temperature

    total Suspended Solids

    COD/BOD

    Refinery Water Use

    Mercury

    SOLID WASTE

    Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4Alky Holding Basin Sludge Alky Cooling Tower Scrap

    Wood

    Alky Cooling Tower Sludge Bitumen Waste

    CDU 1 Desalter Sludge Bitumen Hotmix

    CDU 2 Desalter Sludge CDU Filter Salt

    SGA Cooling Tower Sludge Alky Feed Drier Alumina

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    Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4

    Acid Tank Bottoms Air Drier Alumina

    Caustic Tank Bottoms Chloride Treater

    PCB Reformer Catalyst

    Oily Sump SludgeReduction Gas Filter

    CartridgesHX Cleaning Solids Filter Clay

    Pyrophoric Scale Coalescer

    Refractory Brick Coalescer Cartridges

    TEL Scale Activated Alumina

    CPU Catalyst Isom Catalyst

    Hydrotreater Catalyst Merox Catalyst Charcoal

    White Oil Tank Bottoms Merox Filter Sand

    Dark Oil Tank Bottoms Activated charcoal

    Slops Recovery Basin

    Bottoms

    PPU Molecular Sieve

    WWTP Biosludge PPU Filter Sand

    BPRK Contaminated Soil PPU Amine Filter Cartridge

    RCU Coke

    Main Fractionator Sludge

    RCU Oily Catalyst

    RCU/Minalk Catalyst

    Air Drier Desiccant

    Water tank Bottoms

    Zeolite Resin

    Contaminated Sulphur

    SRU Amine Filter Activated

    Carbon

    SRU Amine Precoat Filter

    Sludge

    SRU Amine Storage Sludge

    SRU Catalyst

    Defluorinator Alumina

    Calcium Fluoride

    Spent Caustic Tank Bottoms

    Oily WWTP Algae Scum

    Polymer Sludge

    Combustion Soot and Ash

    Rubble - Bitumen/Concrete

    Support Balls

    Unit TAR Scale

    Unit TAR Sludge

    Garnet

    Asbestos

    General Waste - Non

    Recycleable

    General Waste RecycleableScrap Wood - General Waste

    Scrap Wood - Recycleable

    Pallets

    Used Empty Drums

    Scrap Metal - HF Service

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    SOLID WASTE cont-

    Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4

    Scrap Metal - TEL Service

    Clean Fill

    Vegetation

    Circular Bottom Sludge

    Polishing Pond Sludge

    RCU Spent E-Catalyst

    RCU Catalyst Fines

    CLEAN FUELS

    Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4

    Particulates (managed by

    sulphur concentration in

    diesel and petrol)

    VOC (managed by RVP)

    Benzene

    Lead

    AromaticsPhosphorous

    Olefins

    MTBE

    SOIL AND GROUNDWATER

    Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4

    Sub-surface Oil Sub-surface Chemicals

    BIODIVERSITY

    Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4

    Biodiversity

    HISTORICAL CONTAMINATED SITES

    Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4

    Old Drum Yard Old Sand Blast Yard*

    Old Scrap Metal Yard

    RCU Catalyst (600s)

    Old Flare Site*

    Old RCU Catalyst Disposal

    Area

    PB8 Area

    * Indicates that the site was remediated during 2007-2009

    Please note the historical contaminated sites are categorised by area and not by

    contaminants, this is due to the multiple analytes, above the assessment criteria.

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    6 AIR EMISSIONS

    6.1 Introduction

    At a Petroleum Refinery atmospheric emissions primarily result from the many

    combustion processes that are used in the processing of crude oils. Heaters

    (furnaces), sulphur recovery units and catalytic cracking are the main point sources

    of oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur; and particulates. On the other hand

    volatile organic compound emissions are sourced mainly from oil storage and

    handling facilities, flare systems and wastewater treatment. Oil refinery processes

    require a significant amount of energy; with typically more than 60% of refinery air

    emissions being related to the production of energy (IPPC 2003).

    The BP Refinery (Kwinana) has in place licence conditions associated withmaintaining emissions below certain thresholds as well as Continuous Emissions

    Monitoring equipment reliability limits. A licence exceedance is defined as exceeding

    a numerical threshold value, for example

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    6.2 Particulates

    6.2.1 What is it?

    Particulate matter is any solid or liquid airborne substance. There are two common

    size fractions for particulate matter; less that ten micrometers in diameter (PM10),and less than two and half micrometers (PM2.5). These definitions are not absolute,

    as thin longer flakes or fibres may be included in either classification. Currently the

    majority of attention on particulate issues is related to the PM10 size fraction

    although focus on the PM2.5 size fraction has significantly increased. The values in

    this report refer to total particulates which includes both size fractions.

    6.2.2 Impacts

    There are two issues to be considered for particulates, the impacts of the particulate

    itself and the chemical composition of the particulates. The impacts of the particulate

    itself on humans can include impeeding vision and irritating respiratory passages.

    Emissions can also affect the aesthetics and utility of an area.

    The chemical composition of the particulates can have a wider range of effects on

    humans depending on their nature, ranging from toxic effects, allergic effects,

    fibrosis (e.g. asbestos) or cancer. Environmental effects are also dependant on the

    chemical composition as the continual addition of particulates can raise the

    concentration of substances in water or soils.

    6.2.3 Why do we emit it?

    Particulates are produced in every combustion process. However, different fuels

    produce different types and amounts of particulates. The amount can be controlled

    through the conditions of combustion. As well as during combustion, particulatescan also be produced from the attrition of solid substances exposed to high wind

    velocities as small pieces are broken off and carried by the air.

    6.2.4 Sources

    There are many na


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