Home >Documents >Language planning and education of adult immigrants in ... · Furthermore, 21.3 per cent of...

Language planning and education of adult immigrants in ... · Furthermore, 21.3 per cent of...

Date post:29-Jun-2018
Category:
View:212 times
Download:0 times
Share this document with a friend
Transcript:
  • London Review of Education DOI:10.18546/LRE.14.2.10Volume14,Number2,September2016

    Language planning and education of adult immigrants in Canada: Contrasting the provinces of Quebec and British Columbia, and the cities of Montreal and Vancouver

    CatherineEllysonBem & Co.

    CarolineAndrewandRichardClment*University of Ottawa

    Combiningpolicyanalysiswithlanguagepolicyandplanninganalysis,ourarticlecomparativelyassessestwomodelsofadultimmigrantslanguageeducationintwoverydifferentprovincesofthesamefederalcountry.Inordertodoso,wefocusspecificallyontwoquestions:Whydogovernmentsprovidelanguageeducationtoadults?andHow is itprovidedintheconcretesettingof twoof thebiggestcities inCanada?Beyonddescribing the twomodelsofadultimmigrants language education in Quebec, British Columbia, and their respective largestcities,ourarticleponderswhetherandinwhatsensedemography,languagehistory,andthecommonfederalframeworkcanexplainthesimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenthetwo.Thesecontextualelementscanexplainwhycitiescontinuetohavesofewresponsibilitiesregardingthesettlement,integration,andlanguageeducationofnewcomers.Onlysuchunderstandingwilleventuallyallowforproperreformsintermsofcitiesresponsibilitiesregardingimmigration.

    Keywords: multilingualcities;multiculturalism;adulteducation;immigration;languagelaws

    Introduction

    Canada is a very large country with much variation between provinces and cities in manydimensions.Onesuchaspect,whichremainsacurrenthottopicfordemographicandhistoricalreasons, is language;morespecifically,whyandhow languageplanningandpolicyareenactedthroughoutthecountry.WhereastheprovinceofQuebecanditsmostimportantcityMontrealhasFrenchastheonlyofficiallanguage,thefederalgovernmenthasbothEnglishandFrench,andmostprovincesandcitieshaveEnglishastheironlyofficiallanguage.Furthermore,21.3percentofCanadians,78.1percentofQubcois,and1.3percentofBritishColumbianshaveFrenchastheirmothertongue(StatisticsCanada,2011a).

    LinguisticdiversityacrossCanadaisfurtherincreasedasaresultofcontinuinghighratesofimmigration.Indeed,duringthepastdecade,Canadahasmaintainedoneofthehighestpercapitaimmigrationratesintheworld(CIC,2012).Closeto250,000immigrantsarriveeachyear,settlingmostlyintheprovincesofOntario(42percentin2012),Quebec(19percentin2012),andBritishColumbia(16percentin2012)(ibid.);andinthecitiesofToronto(32percentin2010),Montreal(17percentin2010),andVancouver(14percentin2010)(FCM,2011).Asof2011,more thanone infiveCanadians (20.6percent)were foreign-born, aproportionwellaboveotherG8countrieslikeGermanyandtheUnitedStates(botharound13percentin2010)(StatisticsCanada,2011b).

    * Correspondingauthoremail:[email protected] Copyright2016Ellyson,Andrew,andClment.This isanOpenAccessarticledistributedunderthetermsoftheCreativeCommonsAttributionLicence,whichpermitsunrestricteduse,distribution,andreproductioninanymedium,providedtheoriginalauthorandsourcearecredited.

  • London Review of Education 135

    Such high rates of immigration imply that important efforts and resources need to beinvestedinthesettlementandintegrationofnewcomers,includinginprovidingeducationinthelocallanguage.Indeed,manystudiesemphasizehowlocallanguageproficiencyisacrucialpartofintegrationinthevariousspheresoflife(e.g.seeAdamuti-Trache,2012),includinginrelationtotransportationandhousing(Kilbrideet al.,2011),tothejobmarket(DerwingandWaugh,2012;Chiswick,2008),andtohealthcare(Nget al.,2011;Battagliniet al.,2007;GagnonandSaillant,2000;Olazabalet al.,2010;SouliresandOuellette,2012).

    WhileCanadianprovincesoperatewithinonesinglerelativelyinfluentialfederalstructure,theirdemographyandlinguistichistoryvaryinsuchawaythatonewouldconfidentlyexpectimportant variation inprovinces languagepolicies and inwhy andhow languageeducation isprovided to adult immigrants. Moreover, the Canadian constitution allocates education as aprovincialjurisdictionandimmigrationasasharedjurisdictionbetweenthefederalandprovincialgovernments.

    Takingintoconsiderationthecontextualelementsatplay,ourarticledescribesandtriestounderstandthesimilaritiesanddifferencesastowhyandhowlanguageeducationisprovidedtoimmigrantsintwoverydifferentprovincesandtheirbiggestcitiestheprovinceofQuebecandthecityofMontreal,andtheprovinceofBritishColumbiaandthecityofVancouver.

    Comparing adult immigrants language education: Framework, approach, and context

    Inthisfirstsection,wepresenttheanalyticalframework,ourapproachtotheresearchquestions,andthemaincontextualelementsatplaytounderstandvariationsinlanguagepolicyandplanninginCanada.

    The analytical framework

    Adultimmigrantslanguageeducationsitsatthecrossroadsofvariouspolicydomains:citizenshipandimmigration,education,economicpolicy,andemployability.AsGazzolaandGrinputit,justlikepublicpoliciesarearesponsetopublicproblems, languagepoliciescanbeviewedasaresponse tolanguageproblems (2010:5).Asonecomponentofabroader languagepolicy,adultimmigrantslanguageeducationcanbeassessedasanyotherpublicpolicy;thatis,inrelationto thedifferentphasesof thepolicyprocess:policy formulation, implementation,compliance,reaction, evaluation,modification (Morris, 2010: 37983). Similarly, researchers in the fieldoflanguage policy and planning ask:What actors attempt to influencewhat behaviour ofwhichpeopleforwhatendsunderwhatconditionsbywhatmeansthroughwhatdecision-making processwithwhateffects?(Cooper,1989:8).Amongthemainandcentralgoalsofusingcomparativeapproachesisthatofassessingrivalexplanationsonagivenpublicpolicy(Collier,1993:105).

    The approach

    Inordertoassessthetwomodelsofadultimmigrantslanguageeducation,ourarticlefocusesspecificallyontwoquestions:Whydogovernmentsprovidelanguageeducationtoadults?andHowisitprovidedintheconcretesettingoftwoofthelargestcitiesinCanada?

  • 136 Catherine Ellyson, Caroline Andrew, and Richard Clment

    Why?

    AreportbytheOttawaLocalImmigrationPartnershipdefinessettlementandintegrationasacontinuumthatinvolves:meetingtheneedsoftheimmigrants(i.e.housing,education,nutrition,andhealthcare);fullandgratifyingparticipationinthelabourmarketand/orlocaleconomy;civicandcommunityparticipation; anda senseofbelonging in thecommunity (Murphy,2010:11).Similarly, Omidvar and Richmond (2003) define social integration as the realization of fullandequalparticipationintheeconomic,social,culturalandpoliticaldimensionsoflifein[theimmigrants]newcountry(DerwingandWaugh,2012:3).Inevaluatingresearchonwhylanguageeducation isprovided to immigrants,weprimarilynote thatproficiency in the local languageisonevery importantaspectofsettlementand integration. Indeed,thelackofknowledgeofone ofCanadas official languageswas still themost serious problem faced by refugees andothereconomicimmigrants4yearsafterlanding(Xue,2007,asquotedbyDerwingandWaugh,2012:7).Moreover,acriticalingredientofnewcomersactiveparticipationinthehostsocietyaretheirlanguageskills(Adamuti-Trache,2012:103).Inshort,threemainstreamsofreasonsastowhylanguageeducationisprovidedtoadultimmigrantsarefoundintheliteraturethatis,reasonsrelatingto:(1)citizenshipandnationalism;(2)jobs,industry,andeconomicbenefitsofimmigration;and(3)socialwelfareandintegration(Cleghorn, 2000).

    First, local language competency is often amarker of national identity and/or belonging(Clarkson,2014), and thusproficiency in the local language is conceivedas aprerequisite inordertounderstandthenormsofthehostsociety[andto]likelygrowasenseofattachmentto[thehostsociety](Adamuti-Trache,2012:109).AsSimpsonandWhitesideput it,theonenation,onelanguageideologyisinterlacedwithotherbeliefsaboutnationalidentity,forexamplethe ideal that thenation state shouldbe ashomogeneous aspossible, and that adimensionof that homogeneity ismonolingualism (2015: 2). Following this ideology, proficiency in thelocal language alonewould allow full belonging and participation in the community. Further,immigrationandthuslocallanguageeducationisrelatedtocitizenshipandnationalisminthecontextofdecliningfertilityandcurrentpopulationageing.Abodyofliteratureoftenwrittenby francophones fromQuebec, Ontario, and New Brunswick stresses the importance offrancophoneimmigrationandoflinguisticandsocialintegrationofimmigrantsintofrancophonecommunitiesinstoppingthesteadydemographicdeclineofthesecommunitiesinCanada(e.g.seeBelkhodja,2008;Bursteinet al.,2014;Ferron,2008;Fourot,2016;FraserandBoileau,2014;MarmenetCorbeil,1999;VatzLaaroussi,2008).Inordertoachievethisobjective,however,notonlydoimmigrantshavetochooseFrenchastheirpreferredofficiallanguageandeventuallyfortheirlinguistictransferbuttheyhavetostayinQuebecorinotherfrancophonecommunities.Learningthelocallanguagewouldthusbeafirststepforimmigrantstocontributeinthisgrandcollectiveobjective.Forotherauthors,adesiretolearnCanadastwoofficiallanguagesmaybegroundedinimmigrantspursuitofastrongersenseofbelonging(BurtonandPhipps,2010,asquotedbyMadyandTurnbull,2012:132),orofgreatereconomicwellbeing(PicotandSweetman,2005,ibid.).

    Second, adult immigrants language education is often justified as crucial in achievingimmigrantsfulleconomicpotential.Integrationonthejobmarkethasoftenbeensingledoutasthemostimportantaspectofimmigrantsintegrationintotheirnewsociety.Studiesshowthatimmigrantsgreaterlocallinguisticskillsareassociatedwithfewerdifficultiesfindingajobandhigherearningsandproductivity(Chiswick,2008).Anotherreportstatesthat,in2003inCanada,theemploymentratesforindividualswithpoorandweakliteracyinthelocallanguagewere57percentand70percent,respectively,comparedto76%forthedesiredlevelofliteracy(TDBankFinancialGroup,2009:11).Finally,economistsarguethatgreaterlocallinguisticskillsare

  • London Review of Education 137

    associatedwithincreasedproductivityofotherinvestmentinhumancapital,includingeducationandtraining(Chiswick,2008).

    Thethirdmainsetofreasonsforproviding languageeducationtoadult immigrants isasaprerequisiteforgreatersocialwelfareandintegrationinthecommunity.Oneelementoftenemphasized in the literature ishowa lackofknowledgeorproficiency in the local languageis connected to smaller and less diversified personal networks (Rose, 2006;Thomas, 2011).Thesenetworksconveypoorer information, leading todisadvantages in a varietyof spheres.DamarisRose(2006)argues,forexample,thatimmigrantswithsmallerandmoreundiversifiednetworkshavegreaterdifficultiesfindingsuitablehousing.Proficiencyinthelocallanguagealsohaspositivebenefitswithregardtoeducation.Parentslinguisticskillshavebeenassociatedwitha similar levelof successat school in theirchildren (GouvernementduQubec,2014;TCRI,2011). Further, a higher level of language proficiency is associatedwith greater engagementinpost-secondaryeducationuponarrival(Adamuti-Trache,2012:109),whichinturnprovidesgreaterjobsandsocialintegrationopportunities(DerwingandWaugh,2012:7).Lowlevelsoflocallanguageskillsalsohavenegativeimpactsonself-reportedhealth(Nget al.,2011:19)andonimmigrantsaccesstothehealthcaresystem(Battagliniet al.,2007;GagnonandSaillant,2000;Olazabalet al.,2010;SouliresandOuellette,2012).Lowlanguageproficiencyisalsoidentifiedasariskfactoroffamilyviolenceamongimmigrantwomen(Ahmadet al.,2004;Rinfret-Raynoret al.,2013:6).Finally,studiesshowthatimmigrantsgreaterlocallinguisticskillsareassociatedwithgreaterpoliticalinvolvement(Chiswick,2008).

    How?

    Differences and similarities in the reasons why language education is provided to adultimmigrantsdonotnecessarily translate intocorrespondingdifferencesandsimilarities in thewaythiseducationisprovidedontheground.Indeed,whilethesereasonsmaydiffer(andcanbeexplainedpartlybythedifferencesindemographyandlanguagehistory), it ispossiblethatmanycomponentsremainthesameatthelevelofserviceprovision(andcanbeexplainedinlargepartbyacommonhistoryofsettlementservicesandfederalframework).Thus,whatlevelofgovernmentamongthefederal,provincial,andlocallevelsisresponsibleforprovidinglocallanguageeducationtoadultimmigrants?Whatactorsareconsultedinelaboratingandmakingdecisions over service provision?What language is taught? Finally,what actors are providinglanguageeducationtoadultimmigrants?

    In sum, beyond exploring to what extent reasons andmotivations to provide languageeducationtoadultimmigrantsvarybetweenprovinces,weexplorewhetherthesevariationsareaccompaniedbycorrespondingvariationsinhowthiseducationisprovided.

    The context

    InadditiontodescribingthemodelsofadultimmigrantslanguageeducationinQuebec,BritishColumbia,andtheirbiggestcities,ourarticleponderswhetherandinwhatsensedemography,languagehistory,andthecommonfederalframeworkcanexplainthesimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenthetwoprovinces.

    Demography and language history

    Asmentionedintheintroduction,demographyandlanguagehistoryvarygreatlyfromonepartof the country to another, potentially impactingon languagepolicy andplanning, andon the

  • 138 Catherine Ellyson, Caroline Andrew, and Richard Clment

    language education provided to adult immigrants.Table 1 outlines the linguistic compositioninCanada,Quebec (and its largest city,Montreal), andBritishColumbia (and its largest city,Vancouver)intermsofmothertonguesin2011.

    Table1:Mothertonguebyprovincesandcensusmetropolitanarea(CMA)

    Mother tongues

    English French Other Multiple

    Quebec Total 7.7% 78.1% 12.3% 1.9%

    Montreal(CMA) 11.6% 63.3% 22.0% 3.1%

    BritishColumbia Total 70.3% 1.3% 26.5% 1.9%

    Vancouver(CMA) 56.0% 1.1% 40.3% 2.7%

    Canada Total 56.9% 21.3% 19.8% 2.0%

    StatisticsCanada(2011d)Table 2 shows that it is not only the proportionof people having French and a non-officiallanguageastheirmothertonguethatvariesacrossCanadaandbetweencities,butalsothenon-officiallanguagesspokenthemselves.

    Table2:MostspokenmothertonguesinMontrealandVancouver

    CMA Montreal Vancouver

    English 2(11.6%) 1(56.0%)

    French 1(63.3%) 11(1.1%)

    Spanish 4(2.9%) 9(1.4%)

    Italian 5(2.9%)

    Chinese(nototherwisespecified) 7(1.0%) 4(4.9%)

    Cantonese 3(5.6%)

    Mandarin 5(3.9%)

    Punjabi 2(6.1%)

    Tagalog 6(2.1%)

    Arabic 3(3.4%)

    Creoles 6(1.3%)

    StatisticsCanada(2011d)

    Indeed,whileChineselanguagesandPunjabiarebyfarthemostfrequentinVancouver,theyrankmuchlowerinMontreal.Conversely,Arabic,Spanish,andItalianarethemostspokennon-officiallanguagesinMontreal.

    Behind these numbers come important variations in terms of the linguistic history ofCanada.First,theoriginalsettlersandcolonizersofCanadacameverylargelyfromtwoEuropeancountries speaking different languages: French and English. Although aboriginal people andlanguagesarenotdiscussedinourarticle,itisusefultoberemindedthatCanadawasestablishedbyEuropeansettlersonalandinhabited,priortocolonization,byindigenouspeople.Oneimpactof European colonization of theCanadian territory beyond the dramatic decrease of theaboriginalpopulationitselfhasbeentheneardisappearanceofmostindigenouslanguages.In2011,only63,000personsdeclaredanindigenouslanguageastheirmothertongueinCanada,andonly17.2percentofindigenouspersonsreportedbeingabletoconverseinanindigenous

  • London Review of Education 139

    language.Further,theproportionofindigenouspersonsabletodosodecreasedby2percentbetween2006and2011,while theirpopulation grewby awhole20.1per cent in the sameperiod(StatisticsCanada,2011c).

    TheBritishconquestofFrenchNorthAmericain1760wasfollowedbymultipleattemptsat assimilating French-speaking residents.Whereas the pursuit of the linguistic and culturalassimilationoftheFrenchCanadianslessenedonceCanadawascreatedin1867,thedemographicweightofFrenchasamothertongueamongtheCanadianpopulationhasbeensteadilydeclining.Forexample,a1912regulationbannedelementaryschoolteachersfromspeakingFrench,forwhichOntariospremierKathleenWynneissuedaformalapologytofrancophonesthroughtheprovinciallegislatureinFebruary2016:Regulation17showedadisregardforFranco-Ontarianidentityandequality,andonbehalfofthegovernmentofOntarioIofferanapology(The Canadian Press,2016).

    Frenchspeakersrepresented29percentofthepopulationin1951and21.7percentin2011.ForthecityofMontrealalone(notthemetropolitanarea),themajorityofresidentswithFrenchasamothertonguehasbeendecliningaswell,from68percentin1951to52.4percentin2011(DominionBureauofStatistics,1953;VilledeMontral,n.d.)withtheproportionbeing63.5percentfortheentiremetropolitanarea(StatisticsCanada,2016).ThedemographicweightofQuebecamongallCanadianprovinceshasalsobeendeclining,from27.9percentin1971,to23percentin2015(ISQ,2015:23).Asaconsequence,Quebecseatsinthefederalparliamentdecreasedfrom26.6percentin1976to23.3percentin2015(ElectionsCanada2010;ElectionsCanada,2012).

    InadditiontoahistoryofconquestandasteadydemographicdeclineofbothfrancophonesacrossthecountryandofQuebecsweightamongtheprovinces,thehistoryofsocioeconomicinequalities experienced by francophones even in Quebec must be mentioned. Indeed,untilthe1960s,despiteamajorityoffrancophonesintheprovinceofQuebec,thelanguageofcommerceandofworkwasmainlyEnglish.Indeed,francophoneswerelessinstructed,under-representedamonghigherprofessionallevels,andgainedsmallerrevenues(DickinsonandYoung,2008;PCO,1970).

    Finally,asafrancophoneprovincewithinnotonlyamajorityEnglish-speakingcountry,butanevenlargermajorityEnglish-speakingNorthAmericancontinent,QuebecstrugglestoconveytoitsnewcomerstheimportanceofpreservingFrenchasthecommonlanguage.Untilthe1970s,90percentofnewcomerstoQuebecchoseto integrate intotheminorityEnglishspeakingcommunity(Bouffard,2015:50).TheappealofEnglishremainsunderstandabletoday,inacountryandinacontinentwheretheoverwhelmingmajorityspeaksnotonlyadifferentlanguagebut thelanguageofglobalization(ibid.:49).

    In sum, the history of conquest and of socioeconomic inequalities, the harsh reality oflinguisticdemographicdecline,andthehistoricaltendencyofimmigrantstointegrateintotheanglophonecommunityhavehad verydeep impacts inQuebec. In thatprovince, the fearofEnglishandtoacertainextentofotherlanguageshasbeenquitestrong,particularlyregardingitsmostpopulatedcityandmainreceiverofimmigration:Montreal.

    TheBritishColumbian linguistichistory isverydifferent.TheFrenchminorityhasalwaysbeenverysmallinnumber.Itaccountedfor1percentofthepopulationin1951andstilldoestoday.TheFrenchEnglish strugglehas thusbeenmuchquieter if not absent.Whereas thepercentageofBritishColumbianswithEnglishastheirmothertonguehasdeclinedsubstantially,most notably inVancouver (from 86 per cent in 1951 to 56 per cent in 2011), the Englishlanguage has never been fundamentally threatened.Compared to French inQuebec, Englishremains incontestably thefirstofficial language learnedby immigrants inBritishColumbia. IntermsofdemographicweightamongCanadianprovinces,BritishColumbiasgrewfrom10.2per

  • 140 Catherine Ellyson, Caroline Andrew, and Richard Clment

    centin1971,to13.1percentin2015(ISQ,2015:23).Asaconsequence,BritishColumbiasseatsinthefederalparliamentincreasedfrom7percentin1976to12.5percentin2015(ElectionsCanada,2010;ElectionsCanada,2012).

    In sum, we observe extremely different demographic and language histories inQuebecandBritishColumbia.Thesemajordifferencescanclearlybeexpectedtohaveimpactsoneachprovinceslanguagepolicyandplanning.

    The federal framework and immigration

    InCanada,being a federationofprovinces, jurisdictions are allocated toone levelor sharedbetween two. Immigration is shared, whereas education and municipal affairs come underprovincialjurisdiction.

    MajortransformationshavetakenplacewithregardtoimmigrationinCanadainthelastdecades.First,theimmigrantselectionprocesswasalteredfollowingtheadoptionoftheBillofRights1960,whichmade inevitabletheremovalof immigrationregulationsrestrictingaccessofnon-Europeans(CardozoandPendakur,2008:23).Referencestoraceorregionsoforiginwerethusreplacedintheselectioncriteriawithskillsandqualificationsand, incertaincases,languages spoken (ibid.). Second, the ideaofmulticulturalismemerged in the1960s andwasformalizedintheCanadianMulticulturalismAct adoptedin1971.AllCanadianprovinceshavesinceembracedimmigrationasasourceofhumananddemographic,aswellasfinancial,capital(Paquet,2016).Further,thefederalgovernmentandseveralofitsprovincialcounterpartshaveplaced a priority on immigrationmatters in recent years, linking it to amultitude of otherprominent policy areas (Tolley et al., 2011: 3, as quoted byGunn, 2012: 3). In otherwords,questions relating to immigration were introduced in many policy domains outside that ofcitizenshipandimmigrationperse,includingeducation,work,andeconomy.Mostimportantly,whereasprovincialgovernmentshadbeenquiteshytoundertakeresponsibilitiesregardingtheshared jurisdiction of immigration, they have becomemore interested in the field since the1970s(Gunn,2012:3)andincreasinglyactivesincethe1990s.Indeed, ledbytheinterventionof the province ofQuebec, all Canadian provinces have since,with the federal government,signed bilateral agreements regarding immigration, adopted immigration policies, taken partintheselectionof immigrants,andcontributedtotheestablishmentofvariousorganizationspromotinggreaterintegrationamongnewcomers(Paquet,2016).

    Provinceshavefurtherdevelopedvariousprogrammesforthesettlementandintegrationofimmigrants.Asdiscussedbelow,adultimmigrantslanguageeducationisoneimportantaspectofthesemodels.Despiteallthis,thefederalagencyoverseeingsettlementandintegrationinthecountryisCitizenshipandImmigrationCanada(CIC).AlthoughQuebec,Manitoba,andBritishColumbiaareresponsibleforthedesign,delivery,andadministrationofsettlementservices,thisresponsibilityistransferredwiththeobjectiveofachievingcomparablenewcomerssettlementoutcomes (CIC,n.d.(a)).ThebilateralaccordshaveattributedQuebecaspecialright fortheintegrationofnewcomers in theprovince.Financialcompensationsareprovided forQuebectoprovideintegrationandsettlementservicesaslongastheycorrespondtothoseofferedbyCanadaintherestofthecountryandaslongasallpermanentresidentsoftheprovince,whethertheywereselectedbyQuebecornot,canhaveaccesstothem(HouseofCommonsofCanada,2010:1).

  • London Review of Education 141

    Municipal affairs

    In Canada, the 1867 Constitutional Act assigned to the provincial governments exclusivejurisdictionovermunicipalities.Thus,municipalitiesarenotconstitutionallyrecognizedanddonotat least formallyconstituteanorderofgovernmentof theirown inCanada (Young,2009: 106). One impact of this provincially exclusive jurisdiction is that provincial-municipalsystems vary considerably across the country.WhileCanadianmunicipalities have no formalresponsibilities, except in Ontario, regarding education, healthcare, and social services allprovincialjurisdictionstheyareoftenkeyactorsinimplementingfederalandprovincialpoliciesandprogrammes (ibid.: 115). Immigration is clearlyoneof thepolicydomains inwhich localgovernmentsandmunicipalitieshavebeenincreasinglyactive.Indeed,mostimmigrantstoCanadachoosetosettleinbigcities.TheFederationofCanadianMunicipalitiesstressedthatin2010,two-thirdsofimmigrantssettledinCanadasthreemostimportantmetropolitanareas:Toronto,Montreal,andVancouver.In2011,17percentofimmigrantstoCanada(FCM,2011)and76percentofimmigrantstoQuebecchosetosettleinMontreal(EmploiNexus,2016),makingup34.4percentoftheresidentsofthecityofMontreal.Inthesameyear,14percentofimmigrantstoCanadachosetosettleinVancouver(FCM,2011).

    Inpractice, itmeansthatday-to-day issuesofmulticulturalismare renegotiatedandsettledin only a few cities (Good, 2008: 1).Thus, Canadas biggest cities are active in the field ofimmigrationbecausetheyarethefirstpointofcontactbetweennewcomersandgovernmentdue to the day-to-day dependence of immigrants on various local public services (Gunn,2012:1).AccordingtoGood(2008),somemunicipalitieshavebeenveryresponsivetoincreasingnumbersofnewcomersintheirterritoriesforexample,throughcontributingtocommunitycapacitybuildingbyfundingcommunityorganizationsthatserveimmigrantsandethno-culturalminorities;throughestablishingseparateunitsintheircivilservicetofacilitateaccessandequityin governance and service delivery aswell as tomanage diversity; and through establishinggovernancerelationshipsthatsupporttheireffortsinequitypolicy,includingwiththebusinesscommunity(ibid.:7).

    Despitethefactthatmunicipalfront-lineserviceprovidersarekeyplayersinthesuccessfulsettlement,attraction,andretentionofimmigrants,municipalitieshavebeenleftonthesidelinesofimmigrantpolicyandfundingdecisions(Gunn,2012:45),withseniorlevelsofgovernmentsdealingmore frequentlywithspecial-purpose non-profit societies (Kataoka andMagnusson,2007:20).

    Finally,althoughmunicipalitiesareformallyajurisdictionoftheprovinces,thereisageneraltrend towardsmore direct relationships betweenmunicipalities and the federal government(Andrew, 2014; Stoney andGraham, 2009).Multiple reasons explain this trend, including theimportanceofcontemporaryurbanchallenges,andtheexplosionofmunicipalcostsasapartialconsequence of decentralization and of relatively low recent investments in infrastructure(Lalonde,2016).Reviewingtheliteratureonthetopicofmunicipal-federalrelationships,Lalondenotes that most federal funding transits in provincial hands before landing in municipalities.Furthermore,municipalitiesrolesandrelationshipwithfederalagencieslargelydependontherelationshipbetweentheirrespectiveprovincialgovernmentandthefederalgovernment(ibid.).

    Insum,whiletheCanadianfederalframeworkcanbeaunifyingfactor,itleavesroomforconsiderablevariation forexample, in thefieldsof immigrationandmunicipal affairsandevenforprovincialemulation.Thesepossibilitieshaveimpactsonlanguagepolicyandplanningand,mostimportantlyforus,intermsofwhyandhowlanguageeducationisprovidedtoadultimmigrants.

  • 142 Catherine Ellyson, Caroline Andrew, and Richard Clment

    The analytical framework: A summary

    Followingpolicyanalysisframeworksand,specifically,languagepolicyandplanning,ourenquiryintolanguageeducationforadultimmigrantscompareswhyandhowitisprovidedinQuebecandBritishColumbia,twoverydifferentprovincesofCanada,andintheirbiggestcities.Ourultimategoal istopondertheimpactsofdemography, languagehistory,andthefederalframeworkonthesepolicies.Table3summarizestheelementsaddressedhere.

    Table3:Analyticalframeworkandapproach

    Describing and comparing Pondering the impacts of vectors of differences and similarities

    Why?Whatarethemainreasonsforprovidinglanguageeducationtoadultimmigrants?

    Citizenshipandnationalismreasons

    Jobs,industry,andeconomicbenefitsreasons

    Socialwelfareandintegrationreasons

    Demography and language history

    Languagesminorityormajoritystatusinthecountryandcontinent

    Languagespowerofattractionasfirstofficiallanguagelearned

    LanguagesgrowthordeclineinCanada ProvincesgrowthordeclineinCanada Otherhistoricalelements(historyofconquestandofsocio-

    economicdomination)

    Federalism as vector of differences

    Inrelationtoimmigration:o Increasedprovincialinterventiono Bilateralaccordsbetweenprovincesandthefederal

    governmento Provincialchoiceofcriteriafortheselectionof

    immigrants(levelandtypeofskills,languagesspoken,etc.)

    Inrelationtomunicipalaffairso Municipalitiesascreaturesoftheprovinces

    Federalism as vector of similarities

    Inrelationtoimmigration:o Billofrightso MulticulturalismActo CICinterventions

    Inrelationtomunicipalaffairs:o Municipal-federalrelationshipo Municipalitiesconceivedasalevelofgovernmento Municipalitiesexclusionofpolicydesign

    How?Whatarethemaininternalfeaturesofadultimmigrantslanguageeducation?

    Languagetaught Responsiblelevelof

    government Languageeducationservice

    providers

    Language education for adult immigrants in Quebec, British Columbia, and their respective largest cities

    Withtheaboveframeworkandapproachinmind,wenowturntodescribingandcomparingwhyandhowlanguageeducationisprovidedtoimmigrantsinQuebec,BritishColumbia,Montreal,andVancouver.

  • London Review of Education 143

    Language laws and official languages

    InordertoprotectFrenchoutsideofQuebec,andEnglishwithinQuebec,thefoundinglawofCanada,the1867ConstitutionalAct,alreadycontainedlanguageprovisions,thebulkofwhichrelatestochildrenseducation.TheActalsorecognizedbothFrenchandEnglishasformallyequalinCanada.However,theconclusionofthereportoftheRoyalCommissiononBilingualismandBiculturalism(alsocalledtheLaurendeau-DuntonCommission)heldbythefederalgovernmentofCanadainthe1960semphasizedthatbilingualismhadbeenmostlysymbolic(stamps,banknotes,etc.)andmeretranslationoflawsandcertainadministrativedocuments(SLMC,n.d.(a)).Respondingdirectlytothecommissionsrecommendation,theOfficialLanguagesActof1969 statesthat:

    TheEnglishandFrench languagesare theofficial languagesofCanada forallpurposesof theParliamentandgovernmentofCanada,andpossessandenjoyqualityofstatusandequalrightsandprivilegesastotheiruseinalltheinstitutionsoftheParliamentandgovernmentofCanada.

    (SLMC,n.d.(a))

    Coherentwith the notionof a federation, theOfficial LanguagesAct appliesonly to federaljurisdictions and institutions. Provinces can also be active in the accessory field of language,insofarastheyareinterveningwithinthescopeoftheirjurisdiction.

    The province of Quebec and the city of Montreal

    Montreal is theeconomicandcultural centreof theprovinceofQuebecandalso themostpopulousfrancophonecityintheAmericas.Itspopulationisapproximately1.6million,andthatofGreaterMontreal,3.8million.QuebecistheonlyprovincetohaveFrenchasitssoleofficiallanguage.The second articleof the cityofMontreals charter categorically states that it is afrancophonecity(GouvernementduQubec,2000).

    InresponsetoincreasinglyvocalandorganizedgroupsinfavourofvalorizingandprotectingtheFrenchlanguagewithinQuebec,thegovernmentadoptedin1974Quebecsfirstlanguagelaw:theLoi sur la langue officielle(LawoftheOfficialLanguage,Bill22).However,thisbill,requiringpublic signs tobe in French andpromotingbilingualism,was consideredunable tomeet thelinguisticchallengesthatQuebecincreasinglyfaced(BourhisandLandry,2002).ThegovernmentoftheseparatistPartiQubcoisthusadoptedin1977themuchmorepowerfulCharte de la langue franaise du Qubec (Bill101).Thechartersmainobjectiveswere:(1)tohalttheassimilationofFrenchspeakerstoEnglish;(2)toensurethesocioeconomicpredominanceofthefrancophonemajority; and (3) to promote the assertion of the French fact (i.e. all that concerns French;SLMC,n.d.(b)).Today,thecharterrequirescommercialsignstobepredominantlyinFrenchandimmigrantchildreninQuebectoattendFrenchschools,reversingtheimmigrantstendencytosendtheirchildrentoEnglishschools(McAndrew,2002:70).Manyother lawsinQuebecaresignificantintermsoflanguage,includingafewregardingmunicipalitieswithMontrealamongthemandimmigration(SLMC,n.d.(c)).

    The province of British Columbia and the city of Vancouver

    VancouveristheeconomiccentreofthewesternprovinceofBritishColumbia.Whilethecityitselfwashome toonly603,502people in2011 (theeighth largest city inCanada),GreaterVancouver was home to over 2.3 million residents (the third largest metropolitan area inCanada).Between2006and2011,thepopulationofVancouvergrewby4.4percent,whilethatofGreaterVancouvergrewby9.3percent(MetroVancouver,2012).Likemostotherprovinces

  • 144 Catherine Ellyson, Caroline Andrew, and Richard Clment

    andcities,andcoherentwiththeverylowproportionoffrancophonesinboththeprovinceandcity,BritishColumbiaandVancouverhaveEnglishastheironlyofficiallanguage.

    British Columbias laws and programmes relevant to languages have been scarce, if notwhollyabsent.Infact,thelegislaturehasneveradoptedalanguagelaw.Theprovinceslegislation,however,doescontainasmallnumberoflanguageprovisionsandreferencestolanguage.MostofthesedealwiththerequirementforpeopletounderstandandexpressthemselvesinproperEnglishandthepossibilityofusingatranslator.Otherreferencesareinsimpledeclarationsofnon-discriminationonthegroundsof language,placeoforigin,andsoon.Theonlyreferencetolanguageinwhichthestatemakesacommitmentinvolvesaboriginal languages.Indeed,theFirstPeoplesHeritage,LanguageandCultureAct ismeant tosupport andadviseministriesof governmenton initiatives, programs and services related toNativeheritage, language andculture(SLMC,n.d.(d)).

    Immigrants settlement, integration, and adult language education

    The federal government of Canada has provided language instruction for newcomers since1947,atthesametimeastheCitizenshipActwasadopted(CIMSS,2012:7;Cleghorn, 2000).The focusof languageeducationwasthuscitizenshipand,toacertainextent,assimilationtotheAnglo-SaxonandEnglish-speakingmajority(Ciccarelli,1997;Cleghorn,2000).AsCleghornnotes,priortoQuebecscontroloverimmigrationbeginninginthe1960s,languagetrainingforadultimmigrantswasEnglishonly(2000:28).From1965tothemid-1980s,languageeducationevolvedfromafocusoncitizenshipintotwodifferentstreamsofclassesfortwodifferenttypesofimmigrants.TheDepartmentofManpowerandImmigrationprovidedlanguageeducationtoimmigrantsinthelabourforcewhiletheCitizenshipBranchoftheDepartmentofSecretaryofStatewithamuchsmallerbudgetprovidedlanguageclassestoimmigrantsnotplanningtojointhelabourforce(ibid.:2730).Althoughthefederalgovernmenthadbeenactiveinlanguageeducationsince1947,itextendeditsinterventiontosettlementservicesonlyin1979,withitsImmigrantSettlementandAdaptationProgram.Untilthen,thesettlementandintegrationneedsofimmigrantsweremetifsobyvoluntaryorganizationssuchascommunitycentres,ethnicorganizations,churchgroups,andwomensorganizations(ibid.:32).Alongwiththisprogramme,and the current merged settlement and integration programme, CIC has been overseeingimmigrantssettlementandintegration.Itspreferredpatternofserviceprovisionhasbeen,andremains,outsourcingtocommunityserviceproviders.

    The province of Quebec and the city of Montreal

    Asmentioned,Quebecbecamemoredirectlyinvolvedinthefieldofimmigrationinthe1970sand was then followed by the other Canadian provinces.The first bilateral agreement onimmigrationbetween thegovernmentofCanadaandaprovincewas signedwithQuebec in1971.WiththecurrentagreementImmigration:TheCanadaQuebecAccordsignedin1991,Canadacommitsitself:

    towithdrawfromthedeliveryofservicesforthereceptionandlinguisticandculturalintegrationandplacementsofimmigrants.CanadaprovidescompensationtoQuebecforsuchservices,aslongastheycorrespondtothoseofferedbyCanadaintherestofthecountry.

    (Bchard,2011:3)

  • London Review of Education 145

    TheyearlygrantassignedtothegovernmentofQuebecfortheseservicesamountedto$320millionin201314.Whilesimilaragreementsexistwitheachprovince,noneismoreextensiveandmatchedwithasmuchfederalgrantsastheonewithQuebec(Bchard,2011).

    AdultimmigrantslanguageeducationiscalledfrancizationinQuebec,suggestingaprocessthroughwhichapersonappropriatesprogressivelytheFrenchlanguageuntilitbecomespartofherorhisidentity.OnlyFrenchlanguageclassesandnoEnglishonesareprovidedforfreetoimmigrantsinQuebec.Francizationclassesareavailabletoimmigrantsinvariousformatsandtheymayqualifyforallowancesthat,incertaincases,evencovertransportationandchildcarecosts(MIDI, 2015a).No comparable programme exists outside ofQuebec to support immigrantswhileattending languageclasses(CIC,2012).Quebecssettlementandintegrationframeworkincludes two programmes of language education and of financial aid for adult immigrants(Programme dintgration linguistique pour les immigrants and Programme daide financire pour lintgration linguistique des immigrants);andtwoprogrammesforsettlement,perse(Programme daccompagnement des nouveaux arrivantsandProgramme rgional dintgration).

    TheproportionofnewcomersknowingFrenchupontheirarrivalgrewfrom36.8percentinthe19948periodto62.3percentforthe200913period(MIDI,2014a).Itwas58.6percentin2015(MIDI,2014b:24).AnewimmigrationpolicywasadoptedbyQuebecinMarch2016(MIDI,2015b),andthepreparatorydocumenttothepolicymadeclearhowmuchofapriorityfrancizationwasamongthevariousinterventionsinsettlementandintegration:

    InadditiontotherecentincreaseofFrenchimmigration,thefrancizationofimmigrantpeople...isoneofthestrategiesthattheGovernmentofQuebecimplementstoensuretheperennialityoftheFrenchfactonitsterritory,aswellasthesuccessfulintegrationofimmigrantpeople.

    (MIDI,2014a:15,ourtranslation)

    ThefirsttenetofthepolicyisthatimmigrationplaysanimportantroleinboostingQubecsprosperityandinthevitalityoftheFrenchlanguage(MIDI,2015b).Francizationismeanttomakethese two priorities and objectives of the policy overlap. Indeed,immigrants ability to fullyparticipateinQubecsocietyisdeeplyintertwinedwiththelanguageissue(ibid.:5).

    InQuebeclikeintherestofCanadamostcontactsrelatingtoandservicesregardingsettlement and language education areprovidedby communityorganizations.Outof the51service providers listed on CICS website in Montreal, 43 (84 per cent) were communityorganizations. The services they most frequently provided were: general French languageeducation(72.5percent);servicesforfrancophonenewcomers(54.9percent);andhelpwithdaily life (31.4 per cent).Nomunicipal organizationwas, however, listed as service provider,includinglanguageeducationservices(CIC,n.d.(b)).

    WhileevaluatingtheoutcomesoftheimmigrantssettlementandintegrationprogrammesinQuebec,inrelationtosimilarservicesavailableacrossCanada,CICwrites:

    TohelpindividualsprepareforlifeinCanadaandthecitizenshiptest,informationisoftenprovidedthrough settlement services, particularly via language training curricula. Language curricula inQuebecalsofollowsthisapproach;however,thefocusisonprovidinginformationaboutQuebecculture.

    (CIC,n.d.(c))

    Inretrospect,Paquet(2016)suggeststhatQuebecsapproachtoimmigrationhasbeenholistic,seenasacollectiveprojectinselectingimmigrantsovereconomicaswellassocialcriteria.

    ThecityofMontreal,likemostregionsinQuebec,concludesimmigrationagreementswiththeprovincesMinistryofImmigration,DiversityandIntegration(Ministre de lImmigration, de la Diversit et de lInclusion,MIDI)andthuscontributestoassessingneedsandplanninginterventioninthisfield.MunicipalitiesincludingMontrealarerarelymentionedinprogrammesregarding

  • 146 Catherine Ellyson, Caroline Andrew, and Richard Clment

    immigrantssettlementandintegration.TherearenomentionsofMontrealandmunicipalitiesintheImmigration:CanadaQuebecAccord.TheonlyreferencetothecityofMontrealintheMIDIannualreportof201415isrelatedtotheobjectiveofregionalizingimmigration;thatis,reducingthe proportion of immigrants settling inMontreal. MIDIs (2008) adult immigrants languageeducationactionplan,Pour enrichir le Qubec: Franciser plus, intgrer mieux(To enrich Quebec: Make more French, integrate better),makesnomentionofmunicipalitiesorofMontreal.Oneopeningtocities and regions roles in thefieldof immigration is, however, found in thepreparatorydocumenttothenewQuebecimmigrationpolicy.Itstatestheirrolein:(1)buildingwelcomingandinclusivecommunities;(2)gatheringconcreteinformationandknowledgeonactualneedsandchallengesasmetinday-to-dayactivities;and(3)workingagainstracismanddiscrimination(MIDI,2014a:54).

    Inabriefon immigrationmanagementsubmittedtothegovernmentofQuebec in2011,thecityofMontrealaskedfor:(1)anofficialrecognitionof itsroleinimmigrantssettlementandintegration;(2)anincreasedbudgetforthefrancizationofimmigrantsinMontreal;(3)theautomatic transfer toMontreal of 10 per cent of federal grants for immigrants settlementand integration; and (4) increased budgets for immigrants social housing (Ville deMontral,2011:6).DespitethegovernmentofQuebecsrarementionofMontrealinimmigrationpoliciesandprogrammes,thecityhasbeenrelativelyresponsivetoimmigrationinthesensediscussedbyGood (2008). First, the city ofMontreal has contributed to community capacity-buildingthrough:fundingvariouscommunitygroups;beinganactivememberofvariouscollaborationsonimmigration;adoptingacharterofrightsandresponsibility;andcreatinganinterculturaladvisorycouncil.Second,thecityhasaPlandaccs lgalit lemploi(PA).Third,thecityhascreatedtheNexusprogramme,whichisamunicipalprogrammeinMontrealthatprovidesbusinesseswithinformation,tools,support,andreferencesregardingtherecruitmentandsustainedemploymentofprofessionalstrainedabroad(EmploiNexus,2016).Hence,thecityintervenesthroughnotonlycollaboratingwithserviceproviders,butalsobyfundingthem(VilledeMontral,2011).

    The province of British Columbia and the city of Vancouver

    The first bilateral agreement on immigration between the governments of BritishColumbiaandofCanadawassignedin1998andthecurrentagreementtheCanadaBritishColumbiaImmigrationAgreementwassignedin2015.ContrarytotheprevalentmodelintherestofCanada(exceptQuebecandManitoba),theaccordoperatesatransferofresponsibilityinthefieldofsettlementandintegrationservices(Paquet,2016).However,whereastheImmigration:CanadaQuebecAccord stipulates the federal governmentswithdrawal from thedeliveryofservices for the reception, linguistic and cultural integration, and placements of immigrants,the CanadaBritish Columbia ImmigrationAgreement emphasizes collaboration, negotiation,consultation,andcooperation,ratherthanstrictdivisionofauthoritybetweentheprovinceandthefederalgovernment.Forexample,collaboration/tocollaborateisusedseventimes(nonein theQuebec accord);negotiation/to negotiate is used seven times (once in the accord);consultation/to consult is used sixteen times (none in the accord); and cooperation/tocooperateisusedfivetimes(fiveintheaccordaswell).

    TheyearlygrantassignedtothegovernmentofBritishColumbiaforthedeliveryofservicesforthereception,linguisticandculturalintegration,andplacementsofimmigrantsamountedto$114millionin201011(DerwingandWaugh,2012:4)aroundhalfofwhichwasallocatedto language education. In addition, federal funds were also allocated to Enhanced LanguageTraining, a smaller language education initiative (ibid.).WelcomeBC and the Settlement andIntegrationProgram arethemainprogrammesthroughwhichsettlementintegrationhappensin

  • London Review of Education 147

    BritishColumbia.TheWelcomingandInclusiveCommunitiesandWorkplacesProgram,andtheVulnerableImmigrantPopulationsProgramcompletethepicture.

    TheproportionofnewcomersspeakingeitherFrenchorEnglishwas73percentin201112(GovernmentofBritishColumbia,2013),muchhigherthantheproportionofnewcomersspeakingFrenchinQuebec.Initsannualreportof201112,WelcomeBCwritesthatlanguageabilityiscriticaltothesuccessofimmigrantsintheprovinceslabourmarketandcommunities.Accordingtotheprogramme,thoughmostnewcomersarehighlyskilledandeducated,alackofEnglishlanguageabilitycorrelateswithimmigrantunemploymentandunderemploymentwhichcosts theeconomy inproductivityandeconomicgrowth, and impacts immigrants successfulsocialandeconomic integration(ibid.:10).Furthermore,theyestimatethata1%increase inliteracyproducesa2.5%increaseintheleveloflabourproductivityandthatevery1%comparativeincreaseinnationalliteracyscoreswouldboostnationalincomeby$32billion(ibid.:8).Inthisexplanationofwhylanguageproficiencyisimportant,wenoticeaphrasingthatisfinancialandeconomic,ratherthansocialorcitizenship-related.

    English language services for adults (deliveredmostly by community organizations) andEnglishasasecondlanguage(deliveredbypubliclyfundedpost-secondaryinstitutions)arethemain vehicles of adult immigrant training in the province (Government of BritishColumbia,2013).Ofthe36serviceproviders inVancouver listedontheCICwebsite, fourwere intheeducationsector,onewasaprivatecompany,andtheremaining31(84percent)werecommunityorganizations.Theservices theyprovidedmost frequentlywere:helpwithdaily life (72.2percent);helpfindingjobs(41.7percent);mentoring(38.9percent);andgenerallanguageeducation(30.6percent).Afewmunicipallibrarieswerealsolistedassettlementandintegrationserviceproviders(CIC,n.d.(b)).WenoticeherethatamuchlowerproportionofserviceprovidersofferlanguageeducationthanisthecaseinQuebec.

    British Columbias settlement and integration policies and programmes refer morefrequentlytoVancouverandmunicipalitiesthandoesQuebecstoMontreal.Forexample,theimportance of consultingmunicipalities and local governments ismentioned in theCanadaBritish Columbia Immigration Agreement: The Parties agree to cooperate to work withLocalGovernmentsinBritishColumbiatoexploreissuesrelatedtotheirrespectiveinterestsin immigration and pursue opportunities related to communities interests in immigration(Government ofCanada, 2015).Whereas the city ofVancouver is not directlymentioned intheBritishColumbiaImmigrationTaskForcereport,oneofitsrecommendationsistoengageindustry, local governments, and non-governmental organizations in settling and integratingimmigrants(MinisterofStateforMulticulturalism,2012:20).Furthermore,BritishColumbiasWelcoming and InclusiveCommunities andWorkplacesProgramhas actively recognized theroleandparticipationofmunicipalgovernmentsintheimmigrantsettlementprocess(Dicksonet al.,2013:23).MunicipalitieshavethusfeltthatacloserpartnershipbetweenBCandmunicipalgovernmentsofsomemajorimmigrantreceptioncitieshasbeenestablished(ibid.).

    In2014,VancouverfinallyenteredintoanagreementwiththegovernmentofCanadasCICtoundertakeaLocal ImmigrationPartnership (LIP) (CityofVancouver,n.d.).TheVancouverImmigrationPartnership(VIP,2016)isafirststeptowardsestablishingwiththecollaborationofdozensoflocalorganizationsandcommunityleaderstheveryfirstVancouverImmigrantSettlement and Integration Strategy. TheVIPs main focuses are: (1) the strengthening ofinterculturalandcivicengagement;(2)thecreationofwelcomingandinclusiveworkplaces;and(3)theassessmentofnewcomersneedsinareassuchashousing,health,andaccesstolocalandmunicipalservices.

    Vancouverhasbeenresponsive to immigration (CityofVancouver,2014:14):first, ithascontributedtothecommunitythroughactivelyconsultingcommunitygroupsandleaders,funding

  • 148 Catherine Ellyson, Caroline Andrew, and Richard Clment

    settlement and integration service providers, and creating the citys MulticulturalAdvisoryCommittee(2014).Second,thecitycreatedtheEqualEmploymentOffice,Vancouver.Third,itestablishedtheHastingsInstitute,acommunitycity-ownedcorporationthatprovidesemploymentequityanddiversitytrainingtoprivate-andpublic-sector(non-municipal)organizationsbasedonprogrammesdevelopedforthecity(Good,2008).Furthermore,Vancouverdescribesitselfas one of themost ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada.Mayor Sam Sullivanorganizedin2007animmigrationtaskforceandelaboratedavisionaboutitsroleforthefuture,toensurethat:Vancouver,workingwithotherlevelsofgovernmentandkeystakeholders,willplayavitalroleinthedevelopmentofbestpoliciesandpracticesrelatedtoimmigrationissuesatalocallevel(Sullivan,2007).

    Similarities and differences in why and how language education is provided to adult immigrants

    Wehavenoticed that,whileCanadian citizenshipobjectives are notwholly absent from thediscourseonadultimmigrantslanguageeducation,thesecitizenshipandnationalismreasonsareabsolutelycentralinwhyfrancizationisenactedinQuebec.Inthefrancophoneprovince,andinfrancophonecommunitiesacrossCanada,immigrationisseenasawaytoreversedemographicdeclineand torevitalize theFrench language.Thus francization alongwith the selectionofFrench-speakingcandidatestoimmigrationisessentialtoattaintheseobjectives.Conversely,thefinancial andeconomicdiscourse iswhat is central inBritishColombiasexplanationsofthebenefitsofbothimmigrationandlanguageeducationtoimmigrants.Theeconomicandjob-relatedreasonsarealsoincreasinglypresentinQuebecsdiscourseonimmigrationandlanguageeducation.

    Similarities anddifferences are alsonoticeablewith regard to serviceprovision. First,onlyFrench istaughtto immigrants inQuebec.Conversely, inBritishColumbia,classesare formallyofferedinbothofficiallanguageswhileinreality,Englishclassesaremuchmorereadilyavailable.Bothprovinceshavebenefited,throughbilateralagreementsin immigrationconcludedwiththefederalgovernment,fromthetransferofresponsibilitiesandgrants.Quebecsagreementis,however,phrasedintermsofstrictdivisionofauthority,ismuchmoreextensive,andismatchedwithmoregrantsthantheonesignedbyBritishColumbia.Bothprovinceshavetheirownadultimmigrantlanguage education programmes.Municipalities in bothQuebec and BritishColumbia have noformalroleregardingimmigrationandlanguageeducation.ThegovernmentofBritishColumbia,however,appearsindiscourseandactionmoreopenthanthatofQuebectorecognizetheroleofmunicipalitiesinrelationtoimmigration.BritishColumbiaisalsolessopposedtotheestablishmentof a direct relationship between the city ofVancouver and the federal government. Similar tothe pattern of service provision preferred by CIC,most settlement, integration, and languageeducationservicesareprovidedinbothprovinces(andbothcities)bycommunityorganizations.Wenonethelessnotethatwhile languageeducationisprovidedbythevastmajorityofserviceproviders inQuebec, it is employment services that are available through thevastmajorityofserviceprovidersinBritishColumbia.Finally,whilenoMontrealmunicipalagenciesarelistedbyCICasofficialserviceproviders,theserolesareundertakenbyafewVancouverpubliclibraries.

    Conclusion

    Aswehaveseen,bothsimilaritiesanddifferencesexistbetweenQuebecandBritishColumbiaintermsoftheirrespectivelanguagepoliciesandplansand,inparticular,thelanguageeducationgiventoadultimmigrants.

  • London Review of Education 149

    Citizenshipandnationalismreasonsaremoreobviouslycentralinexplainingwhylanguageeducation is provided inQuebec compared to British Columbia.This difference can largelybe accounted for by the differences in demography and language history. Indeed, whereasthedemographicweightofQuebec(andofFrench)inthecountryisdeclining,thatofBritishColumbiaisontherise.ThepowerofattractionoflearningEnglishisalsomuchhigherthanthatoflearningFrenchamongimmigrants.Further,immigrantstoQuebechavehistoricallybeenveryeagertojointheanglophonecommunity,whereasnocomparablephenomenonwasexperiencedin BritishColumbia. In away, demography and language history have prompted theQuebecgovernment to build a strict linguistic framework explaining, for example, why immigrantchildrenarerequiredtoattendFrenchschoolsandimmigrantadultsarenotofferedthechoiceofwhichofficiallanguagetolearnuponarrival.Incomparison,languageissueshavehadverylittleimportanceinBritishColumbiawhereEnglishhasbeen,andremains,uncontested.ImmigrantsarethusconceivedasasolutiontoQuebecsandFrenchdemographicdeclineinCanada,butinthegovernmentofQuebecsperspectivethebenefitscanonlybecashedinifimmigrantsspeakFrenchorgothroughfrancizationuponarrival.Bothprovinces,however,claimthatimmigrationandofferinglanguageeducationtoimmigrantsarebeneficialtothejobmarketandtheeconomy.

    ThefederalframeworkcanaccountforbothsimilaritiesandvariationsastowhyandhowlanguageeducationisprovidedtoimmigrantsinQuebecandBritishColumbia.First,theadoptionbythefederalgovernmentoftheBillofRightsandoftheMulticulturalismActhavehaddeepimpactson immigrationpolicies across thecountry, aswell ason thediscourse surroundingimmigration, settlement and integration, and language education. Second, CICs involvementin settlement and integration services and preferred patterns of service provision that is,outsourcingtocommunityorganizationsseemtohavehadunifyingimpactsonthewaytheseservicesarestillprovidedtodayinbothBritishColumbiaandQuebec.

    Thefederalframeworkcanalsoexplaincertainvariations.Indeed,theallocationofjurisdictiontoprovincesforexample,municipalaffairsandthesharingofotherssuchasimmigrationhaveallowed forvariationandevenemulationamongprovinces.Quebecs interventions inimmigrationhavethuspromptedalltheotherCanadianprovincestobecomeactiveinthisfield.LinguisticcontroversiesandtenseQuebecCanadarelationshavealsohadanimpactoncitiesinvolvementinthefieldofimmigrantsettlementandintegrationintheprovince.Asimmigrantsestablishmostly inCanadas big cities, they are in the prime locationswhere adult languageeducationisprovided.Formally,municipalitiesare,however,provincialjurisdictionsandhavenoofficial role in immigrantsettlementand integration.Thus,MontrealandVancouver intervenemainly in this field through their collaborationswith service providers mostly communityorganizationsandseniorlevelsofgovernment.IncomparisonwithBritishColumbiawhichhasallowedVancouvertodeveloptheVIP,ofwhichCICisapartnerQuebechasseemedmuchlesseagertorecognizetheroleandresponsibilitiesofMontrealwithregardtoimmigration,ortoallowdirectmunicipal-federalrelationsinimmigrationissues.

    Thus, the Canadian experience in matters of language policy and planning andmorespecifically,ofadult immigrants languageeducation illustrateshowmuchthesepoliciesareinformedbycontext;inourcase,bydemography,languagehistory,andthefederalframework.Whilethereislittledissentaboutthenecessityandpositiveoutcomeoflanguageinstruction,thewhyandhowaresubjectedtolocalcircumstances.Furthermore,whereasmostimmigrantsland,learn,andworkinCanadasbiggestcitiesamongthem,MontrealandVancouverthesecontextualelementscanexplainwhycitiescontinuetohavesofewresponsibilitiesregardingthesettlement,integration,andlanguageeducationofnewcomers.Onlysuchacontextualunderstandingwillallow forproperreforms in termsofcities responsibilities regarding immigration.Given the

  • 150 Catherine Ellyson, Caroline Andrew, and Richard Clment

    importanceofimmigrationforthedevelopmentandthrivingofcommunities,astronger,moreconcertedactionatthelevelsofgovernmentandofcitiesisindicated.

    Notes on the contributors

    Catherine Ellyson studied political science atUniversit Laval, University ofOttawa, andUniversity ofBritishColumbiainCanada.Sinceco-foundingtheresearchandevaluationfirmBem&Co.in2012,shehasworkedwithcities,communityorganizations,andprivatebusinesseson localdevelopment, immigration,womenmenequality,citizensparticipationinpublicdecisions,multilingualisminCanadiancities,andothertopics.ShehascollaboratedwiththeLUCIDEnetwork(LanguagesinUrbanCommunitiesIntegrationandDiversityforEurope)since2012.

    CarolineAndrewistheDirectoroftheCentreonGovernanceattheUniversityofOttawa.Herresearchinterestscentreonthefunctioningofpartnershipsthatbringtogethercommunity-basedequity-seekinggroups,localsocial-servicedeliveryagencies,municipalgovernments,anduniversity-basedresearchers.ShesitsontheexecutivecommitteeoftheOttawaLocalImmigrationPartnership,ontheboardoftheCatholicCentre for Immigrants, and on theViolenceAgainstWomen standing committee ofCrime PreventionOttawa.

    RichardClmentisProfessorofPsychologyaswellasDirectorandAssociateDeanoftheOfficialLanguagesandBilingualismInstituteattheUniversityofOttawa.Hiscurrentresearchinterestsincludeissuesrelatedtobilingualism,secondlanguageacquisition,andidentitychangeandadjustmentintheacculturativeprocess,topicsonwhichhehaspublishedextensively.HeisanelectedFellowofboththeCanadianandtheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationsaswellasoftheRoyalSocietyofCanada.

    References

    Adamuti-Trache, M. (2012) Language acquisition among adult immigrants in Canada: The effect ofpremigrationlanguagecapital.Adult Education Quarterly,63(2),10326.

    Ahmad,F.,Riaz,S.,Barata,P.,andStewart,D.E.(2004)PatriarchalbeliefsandperceptionsofabuseamongSouthAsianimmigrantwomen.Violence Against Women,10(3),26282.

    Andrew,C.(2014)Federalpoliciesonimmigrantsettlement.InGraham,K.,andAndrew,C.(eds)Canada in Cities: The politics and policy of federal-local governance.Montreal:McGill-QueensUniversity Press,22749.

    Battaglini,A.,Dsy,M.,Dorval,D.,Poirier,L.-R.,Fournier,M.,Camirand,H.,andFecteau,D.(2007)Lintervention de premire ligne Montral auprs des personnes immigrantes: Estim des ressources ncessaires pour une intervention adquate.Montreal:Directiondesantpublique.Online.http://publications.santemontreal.qc.ca/uploads/tx_asssmpublications/978-2-89494-571-1.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    Bchard, J. (2011) Immigration: The CanadaQuebec Accord. Background paper, publication no. 2011-89-E.Ottawa:LibraryofParliament.Online.www.parl.gc.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-89-e.pdf (accessed1March2016).

    Belkhodja,C.(2008)Introduction:Immigrationetdiversitdanslescommunautsfrancophonesensituationminoritaire. In Belkhodja,C. (ed.) Immigration et diversit au sein des communauts francophones en situation minoritaire. Thmes canadiens/Canadian Issues.Montreal:AssociationforCanadianStudies,36.

    Bouffard,P.(2015)Frenchlanguageeducationpolicyforadult immigrants inQuebec. InSimpsonJ.,andWhiteside,A. (eds)Adult Language Education and Migration: Challenging agendas in policy and practice.Abingdon:Routledge,4965.

    Bourhis,R.,andLandry,R.(2002)Laloi101etlamnagementdupaysagelinguistiqueauQubec.Officede la langue franaise du Qubec. Online. www.oqlf.gouv.qc.ca/ressources/bibliotheque/ouvrages/amenagement_hs/ral01_charte_bourhis_vf_1.pdf(accessed6April2016).

    Burstein,M., Clement, G., and Petty, S. (2014) Pratiques dintgration prometteuses dans les communauts francophones en situation minoritaire.Ottawa:CIC.

    http://publications.santemontreal.qc.ca/uploads/tx_asssmpublications/978-2-89494-571-1.pdfhttp://publications.santemontreal.qc.ca/uploads/tx_asssmpublications/978-2-89494-571-1.pdfhttp://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-89-ehttp://www.oqlf.gouv.qc.ca/ressources/bibliotheque/ouvrages/amenagement_hs/ral01_charte_bourhis_vf_1.pdfhttp://www.oqlf.gouv.qc.ca/ressources/bibliotheque/ouvrages/amenagement_hs/ral01_charte_bourhis_vf_1.pdf

  • London Review of Education 151

    Canadian Press(2016)PremierWynneapologizesfor1912regulationbanningFrenchinOntarioschools.Online.www.thecanadianpress.com/english/online/OnlineFullStory.aspx?filename=DOR-MNN-CP.d2732aaf15964e269a42e66a46cec9da.CPKEY2008111303&newsitemid=36470080&languageid=1(accessed1March2016).

    Cardozo,A.,andPendakur,R.(2008)Canadas Visible Minority Population: 19672017.Workingpaperseries.Vancouver: Metropolis British Columbia. Online. http://mbc.metropolis.net/assets/uploads/files/wp/2008/WP08-05.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    CentreforInternationalMigrationandSettlementStudies(CIMSS)(2012)Introduction:Stateoftheartandfuturedirectionsinsettlementlanguagetraining.International Settlement Canada:Special issue on settlement language training, Spring.Online.www3.carleton.ca/cimss/inscan-e/v24_se.pdf (accessed1March2016).

    Chiswick,B.R. (2008)The Economics of Language: An introduction and overview.Discussionpaperno.3568. Bonn:InstitutefortheStudyofLabor.Online.http://ftp.iza.org/dp3568.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    Ciccarelli, S.B. (1997)ESL for nation-building:The origins of federally-funded ESL inCanada.MA diss.,OntarioInstituteforStudiesinEducation/UniversityofToronto.

    Citizenship and ImmigrationCanada (CIC) (2012)Canada: Faits et chiffres 2012. Aperu de limmigration: Rsidents permanents et temporaires. Ottawa: CIC. Online. http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2013/cic/Ci1-8-2012-fra.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    (n.d.(a)) Strategic outcomes and program activity architecture. Online. www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/paa/activity-05.asp(accessed6April2016).

    (n.d.(b)) Findings. Online. www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/evaluation/grant-quebec/section4.asp(accessed1March2016).

    (n.d.(c)) Language classes funded by the Government of Canada. Online. www.cic.gc.ca/english/newcomers/live/language.asp(accessed1March2016).

    CityofVancouver(2014)CulturalCommunitiesAdvisoryCommittee. Online.http://vancouver.ca/your-government/cultural-communities-advisory-committee.aspx(accessed1March2016).

    (n.d.) Vancouver City Local Immigration Partnership.Vancouver: Community Services. Online. http://vancouver.ca/files/cov/vancouver-city-local-immigration-partnership-overview.pdf (accessed 6 April2016).

    ,MulticulturalAdvisoryCommittee (2014)Committee Term Summary.Online.http://vancouver.ca/files/cov/council-of-councils-presentation-mac-2014.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    Clarkson,A. (2014)Belonging: The paradox of citizenship.CBCMasseyLecture Series.Toronto:HouseofAnansiPress.

    Cleghorn,L.(2000)ValuingEnglish:Anethnographyofafederallanguagetrainingprogramforadultimmigrants.MA diss., University ofToronto. Online. https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/14699/1/MQ49781.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    Collier,D.(1993)Thecomparativemethod.InFinifter,A.W.(ed.)Political Science: The state of the discipline II.Washington,DC:AmericanPoliticalScienceAssociation,10520.

    Cooper,R.L.(1989)Language Planning and Social Change.Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress.Derwing,T.M.,andWaugh,E.(2012)Language Skills and the Social Integration of Canadas Adult Immigrants.

    Montreal: Institute forResearchonPublicPolicy.Online. http://irpp.org/wp-content/uploads/assets/research/diversity-immigration-and-integration/language-skills-and-the-social-integration-of-canadas-adult-immigrants/IRPP-Study-no31.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    Dickinson, J.A., andYoung, B. (2008) Brve histoire socio-historique du Qubec. Montreal: BibliothqueQubcoise.

    Dickson,H.,Lindquist,E.,Pollard,B.,andYan,M.C.(2013)Devolving Settlement Funding from the Government of Canada: The British Columbia experience, 19982013.Edmonton:WesternCanadianConsortiumonIntegration, Citizenship and Cohesion. Online. www.amssa.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/BC_CIC_Settlement_Report_July_23rd_20131.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    DominionBureauofStatistics(1953)Table61:Immigrantpopulationbymothertongue,periodofimmigrationandsex,forcitiesof30,000andover,1951.InPopulation. Cross-classifications of Characteristics.Ottawa:DBS.

    http://www.thecanadianpress.com/english/online/OnlineFullStory.aspx?filename=DOR-MNN-CPhttp://mbc.metropolis.net/assets/uploads/files/wp/2008/WP08-05.pdfhttp://mbc.metropolis.net/assets/uploads/files/wp/2008/WP08-05.pdfhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp3568.pdfhttp://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2013/cic/Ci1-8-2012-fra.pdfhttp://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2013/cic/Ci1-8-2012-fra.pdfhttp://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/paa/activity-05.asphttp://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/paa/activity-05.asphttp://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/evaluation/grant-quebec/section4.asphttp://www.cic.gc.ca/english/newcomers/live/language.asphttp://www.cic.gc.ca/english/newcomers/live/language.asphttp://vancouver.ca/your-http://vancouver.ca/files/cov/council-of-councils-presentation-mac-2014.pdfhttp://vancouver.ca/files/cov/council-of-councils-presentation-mac-2014.pdfhttp://irpp.org/wp-content/uploads/assets/research/diversity-immigration-and-integration/language-skills-and-the-social-integration-of-canadas-adult-immigrants/IRPP-Study-no31.pdfhttp://irpp.org/wp-content/uploads/assets/research/diversity-immigration-and-integration/language-skills-and-the-social-integration-of-canadas-adult-immigrants/IRPP-Study-no31.pdfhttp://irpp.org/wp-content/uploads/assets/research/diversity-immigration-and-integration/language-skills-and-the-social-integration-of-canadas-adult-immigrants/IRPP-Study-no31.pdfhttp://www.amssa.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/BC_CIC_Settlement_Report_July_23rd_20131.pdfhttp://www.amssa.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/BC_CIC_Settlement_Report_July_23rd_20131.pdf

  • 152 Catherine Ellyson, Caroline Andrew, and Richard Clment

    ElectionsCanada(2010)HistoryofrepresentationintheHouseofCommonsofCanada.Online.www.elections.ca/content.aspx?section=res&dir=cir/red/book&document=rep1&lang=e (accessed 6April2016).

    (2012)Rpartitiondessiges laChambredescommunesparprovince. Online.www.elections.ca/content.aspx?section=res&dir=cir/red/allo&document=index&lang=f(accessed6April2016).

    EmploiNexus(2016)Online.www.emploinexus.com/(accessed1March2016).FederationofCanadianMunicipalities(FCM)(2011)Starting on Solid Ground: The municipal role in immigrant

    settlement. Ottawa: FCM. Online. www.fcm.ca/Documents/reports/Starting_on_Solid_Ground_Municipalities_and_Immigration_EN.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    Ferron,C. (2008)Les immigrants: une sourcede vitalitpour les communautsde langueofficielle ensituationminoritaire.InBelkhodja,C.(ed.)Immigration et diversit au sein des communauts francophones en situation minoritaire.Thmes canadiens/Canadian Issues.Montreal:AssociationforCanadianStudies,1519.

    Fourot,A.-C.(2016)Redessinerlesespacesfrancophonesauprsent:LapriseencomptedelimmigrationdanslarecherchesurlesfrancophoniesminoritairesauCanada.Politiques et Socits,35(1),2548.

    Fraser, G., and Boileau, F. (2014) Agir maintenant pour lavenir des communauts francophones: Pallier le dsquilibre en immigration. Rapport conjoint.Toronto:CommissariatauxlanguesofficiellesduCanada/CommissariatauxservicesenfranaisdelOntario.

    Gagnon, ., and Saillant, F. (2000)De la dpendance laccompagnement: Soins domicile et liens sociaux.Quebec:PressesdelUniversitLaval,LHarmattan.

    Gazzola,M.,andGrin,F.(2010)Criteria-basedcomparisoninlanguagepolicy:Principlesandmethodology.Working Papers of the DYLAN Project: Working Paper no.5 (Deliverable1.5),1045.

    Good,K.R.(2008)Cities of and for Pluralism: The role of Canadian municipalities in multiculturalism initiatives.ExpertRoundtableonCanadasExperiencewithPluralism.Ottawa:GlobalCentreforPluralism.Online.www.pluralism.ca/images/PDF_docs/pluralism_papers/good_paper_pp7.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    GouvernementduQubec(1977)CharteroftheFrenchlanguage.Online.www2.publicationsduquebec.gouv.qc.ca/dynamicSearch/telecharge.php?type=2&file=/C_11/C11_A.html(accessed1March2016).

    (2000)ChartedelaVilledeMontral.Online.www2.publicationsduquebec.gouv.qc.ca/dynamicSearch/telecharge.php?type=2&file=/C_11_4/C11_4.html(accessed6April2014).

    (2014) Communauts culturelles. Online. www.education.gouv.qc.ca/enseignants/aide-et-soutien/communautes-culturelles(accessed1March2016).

    Government of British Columbia (2013) 201112 Annual Report.WelcomeBC Settlement and Integration Services. Online. www.llbc.leg.bc.ca/public/pubdocs/bcdocs2011/471785/2011_2012.pdf (accessed 1March2016).

    GovernmentofCanada(1960)Canadian Bill of Rights.Online.http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/c-12.3/page-1.html(accessed1March2016).

    (1985)Official Languages Act (4th Supp.).Online.http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/PDF/O-3.01.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    (1991)CanadaQuebec Accord Relating to Immigration and Temporary Admission of Aliens.Online.www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/laws-policy/agreements/quebec/can-que.asp(accessed1March2016).

    (2015)CanadaBritish Columbia Immigration Agreement.Online.www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/laws-policy/agreements/bc/bc-2015.asp(accessed1March2016).

    Gunn,A. (2012) Immigration and Multi-level Governance in Canada and Europe: The role of municipalities as integration policy innovators. PolicyPaper.CanadaEuropeTransatlanticDialogue:Seekingtransnationalsolutionsto21stcenturyproblems.Online.http://labs.carleton.ca/canadaeurope/wp-content/uploads/sites/9/2012-12-paper-gunn-uvic-immigrantintegration-municipalities.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    HouseofCommonsofCanada(2010)Best Practices in Settlement Services. Report of the Standing Committee on Citizenship and Immigration.Ottawa:GovernmentofCanada.Online.www.parl.gc.ca/content/hoc/Committee/403/CIMM/Reports/RP4388396/cimmrp02/cimmrp02-e.pdf(accessed6April2016).

    InstitutdelaStatistiqueduQubec(ISQ)(2015)Le bilan dmographique du Qubec. dition2014.Quebec:ISQ. Online.www.stat.gouv.qc.ca/statistiques/population-demographie/bilan2014.pdf (assessed6April2016).

    http://www.elections.ca/http://www.emploinexus.com/http://www.fcm.ca/Documents/reports/Starting_on_Solid_Ground_Municipalities_and_Immigration_EN.pdfhttp://www.fcm.ca/Documents/reports/Starting_on_Solid_Ground_Municipalities_and_Immigration_EN.pdfhttp://www.pluralism.ca/images/PDF_docs/pluralism_papers/good_paper_pp7.pdfhttp://www.education.gouv.qc.ca/enseignants/aide-et-soutien/http://www.llbc.leg.bc.ca/public/pubdocs/bcdocs2011/471785/2011_2012.pdfhttp://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/c-12.3/page-1.htmlhttp://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/c-12.3/page-1.htmlhttp://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/PDF/O-3.01.pdfhttp://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/laws-policy/agreements/quebec/can-que.asphttp://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/laws-policy/agreements/quebec/can-que.asphttp://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/laws-policy/agreements/bc/bc-2015.asphttp://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/laws-policy/agreements/bc/bc-2015.asphttp://labs.carleton.ca/canadaeurope/wp-content/uploads/sites/9/2012-12-paper-gunn-uvic-immigrantintegration-municipalities.pdfhttp://labs.carleton.ca/canadaeurope/wp-content/uploads/sites/9/2012-12-paper-gunn-uvic-immigrantintegration-municipalities.pdfhttp://www.parl.gc.ca/content/hoc/Committee/403/CIMM/Reports/RP4388396/cimmrp02/cimmrp02-e.pdfhttp://www.parl.gc.ca/content/hoc/Committee/403/CIMM/Reports/RP4388396/cimmrp02/cimmrp02-e.pdfhttp://www.stat.gouv.qc.ca/statistiques/population-demographie/bilan2014.pdf

  • London Review of Education 153

    Kataoka,S.,andMagnusson,W.(2007)Settling the Unsettled: Migrants, municipalities and multilevel governance in British Columbia. Paper prepared for the Annual Meeting of the Urban Affairs Association,Seattle,WA, 26April 2007.Victoria, BC: University ofVictoria. Online. http://ppm-ppm.ca/Papers/KataokaMagnusson2007.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    Kilbride,K.M.,Farrell,P.,DiSanto,A.,andSadeghi,S.(2011)Speaking with Senior Immigrant Women and Sponsoring Families: A first-language investigation of the needs for holistic approaches to service.Toronto:CERISTheOntarioMetropolisCentre/RyersonUniversity.Online.www.ahrni-irras.ca/index.php?option=com_sobipro&task=download.file&fid=269.8165&sid=102&Itemid=115(accessed1March2016).

    Lalonde,C.(2016)LesrelationsentrelespaliersfdraletmunicipalauCanada.Rseau Ville Rgion Monde.Online. www.vrm.ca/les-relations-entre-les-paliers-federal-et-municipal-au-canada/ (accessed 6April2016).

    Mady,C.,andTurnbull,M.(2012)OfficiallanguagebilingualismforallophonesinCanada:Exploringfutureresearch. TESL Canada Journal, 29 (2), 13142. Online. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ981500.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    Marmen, L., and Corbeil, J.-P. (1999) Les langues au Canada: Recensement de 1996. Ottawa: Patrimoinecanadien/StatisticsCanada.

    McAndrew,M.(2002)Laloi101enmilieuscolaire:Impactsetrsultats.Revue damnagement linguistique. Hors srie (Autumn), 6982. Online. www.oqlf.gouv.qc.ca/ressources/bibliotheque/ouvrages/amenagement_hs/ral01_charte_mc_andrew_vf_%2009-22_1.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    MetroVancouver (2012)Census bulletins.Online.www.metrovancouver.org/services/regional-planning/data-statistics/census-bulletins/Pages/default.aspx(accessed1March2016).

    MinisterofState forMulticulturalism(2012)British Columbia Immigration Task Force. Finalreport. Online.www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/tourism-and-immigration/immigrating-to-bc/immigration_task_force_web.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    MinistredelImmigration,delaDiversitetdelInclusion(MIDI)(2008)Pour enrichir le Qubec: Franciser plus, intgrer mieux.Mesures pour renforcer laction du Qubec en matire de francisation des immigrants.Montreal:GouvernementduQubec.Online.www.midi.gouv.qc.ca/publications/fr/mesures/Mesures-Francisation-Brochure2008.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    (2014a)Limmigration au Qubec. Le rle du ministre de lImmigration, de la Diversit et de lInclusion et de ses partenaires. Document de rfrence.Montreal:MIDI.Online. www.midi.gouv.qc.ca/publications/fr/dossiers/DOC_RoleQuebecImmigration.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    (2014b)Vers une nouvelle politique qubcoise en matire dimmigration, de diversit et dinclusion. Document synthse.Montreal:GouvernementduQubec.Online.www.midi.gouv.qc.ca/publications/fr/dossiers/SYN_CahierConsult_Politique.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    (2015a)Programme daide financire pour lintgration linguistique des immigrants20152016.Montreal:GouvernementduQubec.Online.www.midi.gouv.qc.ca/publications/fr/divers/Pafili.pdf (accessed1March2016).

    (2015b)Politiquequbcoiseenmatiredimmigration,departicipationetdinclusion.Gouvernementdu Qubec. Online. www.midi.gouv.qc.ca/fr/dossiers/consultation-publique.html (accessed 6 April2016).

    Morris,M.A. (ed.) (2010)Canadian Language Policies in Comparative Perspective.Montreal:McGill-QueensUniversityPress.

    Murphy,J.(2010)The Settlement & Integration Needs of Immigrants: A literature review.Ottawa:TheOttawaLocalImmigration Partnership. Online. http://olip-plio.ca/knowledge-base/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Olip-Review-of-Literature-Final-EN.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    Ng, E., Pottie, K., and Spitzer, D. (2011) Official language proficiency and self-reported health amongimmigrants to Canada. Health Reports, 22 (4), 1524. Online. http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2011/statcan/82-003-X/82-003-x2011004-eng.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    Olazabal,I.,LeGall,J.,Montgomery,C.,Laquerre,M.-E.,andWallach,I.(2010)Diversitethnoculturelleetpersonnesgesimmigrantes.InCharpentier,M.,Guberman,N.,Billette,V.,Lavoie,J.-P.,GrenierA.,andOlabazal,I.(eds.),Vieillir au pluriel: Perspectives sociales.Quebec:LesPressesdelUniversitduQubec.

    http://ppm-ppm.ca/Papers/KataokaMagnusson2007.pdfhttp://ppm-ppm.ca/Papers/KataokaMagnusson2007.pdfhttp://www.ahrni-irras.ca/index.php?option=com_http://www.vrm.ca/les-relations-entre-les-paliers-federal-et-municipal-au-canada/http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ981500.pdfhttp://www.oqlf.gouv.qc.ca/ressources/bibliotheque/ouvrages/amenagement_hs/ral01_charte_mc_andrew_vf_%2009-22_1.pdfhttp://www.oqlf.gouv.qc.ca/ressources/bibliotheque/ouvrages/amenagement_hs/ral01_charte_mc_andrew_vf_%2009-22_1.pdfhttp://www.metrovancouver.org/services/regional-planning/http://www.midi.gouv.qc.ca/publications/fr/mesures/Mesures-Francisation-Brochure2008.pdfhttp://www.midi.gouv.qc.ca/publications/fr/mesures/Mesures-Francisation-Brochure2008.pdfhttp://www.midi.gouv.qc.ca/publications/fr/dossiers/DOC_RoleQuebecImmigration.pdfhttp://www.midi.gouv.qc.ca/publications/fr/dossiers/DOC_RoleQuebecImmigration.pdfhttp://www.midi.gouv.qc.ca/publications/fr/dossiers/SYN_CahierConsult_Politique.pdfhttp://www.midi.gouv.qc.ca/publications/fr/dossiers/SYN_CahierConsult_Politique.pdfhttp://www.midi.gouv.qc.ca/publications/fr/divers/Pafili.pdfhttp://www.midi.gouv.qc.ca/fr/dossiers/consultation-publique.htmlhttp://olip-plio.ca/knowledge-base/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Olip-Review-of-Literature-Final-EN.pdfhttp://olip-plio.ca/knowledge-base/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Olip-Review-of-Literature-Final-EN.pdfhttp://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2011/statcan/82-003-X/82-003-x2011004-eng.pdfhttp://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2011/statcan/82-003-X/82-003-x2011004-eng.pdf

  • 154 Catherine Ellyson, Caroline Andrew, and Richard Clment

    Omidvar,R., andRichmond,T. (2003) Immigrant Settle ment and Social Inclusion in Canada.Workingpaperseries:Perspectivesonsocialinclusion.Toronto:TheLaidlawFoundation.Online.http://library.bsl.org.au/jspui/bitstream/1/626/1/Immigrant_Settlement_and_Social_Inclusion_in_Canada.pdf (accessed 1March2016).

    Paquet,M.(2016)La fdralisation de limmigration auCanada.Montreal:PressesdelUniversitdeMontral.PrivyCouncilOffice(PCO)(1970)Report of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism.Book

    3.Ottawa:PCO.Online.http://publications.gc.ca/site/eng/9.699863/publication.html(accessed8April2016).

    Rinfret-Raynor,M.,Brodeur,N., Lesieux,., andDugal,N. (2013)Adaptation des interventions aux besoins des immigrants-es en situation de violance conjugale: tat des pratiques dans les milieux dintervention.Collection tudes et Analyses,45.Quebec:Centrederechercheinterdisciplinairesurlaviolencefamilialeetlaviolencefaiteauxfemmes.Online.www.criviff.qc.ca/upload/publications/pub_245.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    Rose,D.(2006)Housing Issues Facing Newcomers to Canada. BriefpresentedtotheParliamentofCanadaSenateSubcommitteeonCities.Montreal:InstitutNationaldelaRechercheScientifiqueCentreUrbanisationCultureSocit.Online.www.researchgate.net/profile/Damaris_Rose/publication/255624182_HOUSING_ISSUES_FACING_NEWCOMERS_TO_CANADA/links/542e95d00cf29bbc126f2c0c.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    SimpsonJ.,andWhiteside,A.(eds)(2015)Adult Language Education and Migration: Challenging agendas in policy and practice.Abingdon:Routledge.

    SiteforLanguageManagementinCanada(SLMC)(n.d.(a))Federallegislationandlanguagerights(1969and1988).Online.https://slmc.uottawa.ca/?q=federal_legislation_1969_1988(accessed8April2016).

    (n.d.(b))CharteroftheFrenchlanguage.Online.https://slmc.uottawa.ca/?q=qc_linguistic_law(accessed8April2016).

    (n.d. (c)) Laws of linguistic significance in Quebec. Online. https://slmc.uottawa.ca/?q=qc_other_legislation(accessed8April2016).

    (n.d.(d)) Language legislation in British Columbia. Online. https://slmc.uottawa.ca/?q=prov_stat_bc(accessed8April2016).

    Soulires,M.,andOuellette,G.(2012)Lhbergement pour les personnes en perte dautonomie au Qubec: Des enjeux et des parcours difficiles pour les personnes concernes.Montreal:Regroupementprovincialdescomits des usagers. Online. www.rpcu.qc.ca/pdf/publications/rpcu_etat_de_situation_2012-12-04.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    Statistics Canada (2003) 2001Census: Analysis series. Canadas ethnocultural portrait: The changing mosaic.Ottawa:Ministryof Industry.Online.http://publications.gc.ca/Collection/Statcan/96F0030X/96F0030XIE2001008.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    (2011a)Languematernelledtaillepopulationtotalelexclusiondespensionnairesduntablissementinstitutionnel.Online. www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=F&Geo1=PR&Code1=01&Data=Count&SearchText=quebec&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&A1=All&B1=Language&Custom=&TABID=1#tabs2(accessed1March2016).

    (2011b) Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity in Canada. National Household Survey 2011. Ottawa:Ministry of Industry. Online. www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/99-010-x/99-010-x2011001-eng.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    (2011c)Aboriginal Peoples and Language. National Household Survey 2011. Ottawa:MinistryofIndustry.Online.www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/99-011-x/99-011-x2011003_1-eng.pdf (accessed 1March2016).

    (2011d)Populationbymothertongue,bycensusmetropolitanarea,excluding institutionalresidents(2011 Census). Online. www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/demo12a-eng.htm(accessed6April2016).

    (2016) Rgion mtropolitaine de recensement de Montral, Qubec. Online. www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/as-sa/fogs-spg/Facts-cma-fra.cfm?LANG=Fra&GK=CMA&GC=462(accessed6April2016).

    Stoney,C.,andGraham,K.A.H.(2009)Federal-municipalrelationsinCanada:Thechangingorganizationallandscape.Administration publique du Canada,52(3),37194.

    Sullivan,S.(2007)Report of the Mayors Task Force on Immigration.Vancouver:MTFI.

    http://library.bsl.org.au/jspui/bitstream/1/626/1/Immigrant_Settlement_and_Social_Inclusion_in_Canada.pdfhttp://library.bsl.org.au/jspui/bitstream/1/626/1/Immigrant_Settlement_and_Social_Inclusion_in_Canada.pdfhttp://publications.gc.ca/site/eng/9.699863/publication.htmlhttp://www.criviff.qc.ca/upload/publications/pub_245.pdfhttp://www.researchgate.net/profile/Damaris_Rose/publication/255624182_HOUSING_ISSUES_FACING_NEWCOMERS_TO_CANADA/links/542e95d00cf29bbc126f2c0c.pdfhttp://www.researchgate.net/profile/Damaris_Rose/publication/255624182_HOUSING_ISSUES_FACING_NEWCOMERS_TO_CANADA/links/542e95d00cf29bbc126f2c0c.pdfhttp://www.rpcu.qc.ca/pdf/publications/rpcu_etat_de_situation_2012-12-04http://publications.gc.ca/Collection/Statcan/96F0030X/96F0030XIE2001008.pdfhttp://publications.gc.ca/Collection/Statcan/96F0030X/96F0030XIE2001008.pdfhttp://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/demo12a-eng.htm

  • London Review of Education 155

    Tabledeconcertationdesorganismesauservicedespersonnesrfugiesetimmigrantes(TCRI)(2011)Lintgration des enfants et des jeunes immigrants de premire gnration au Qubec: Perspective des organismes communautaires au service des nouveaux arrivants.Rapport denqute.Montreal:TCRI.Online.https://jeunesimmigrants.files.wordpress.com/2013/03/rapport-denquc3aate-jeunes-immigrants.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    TD Bank FinancialGroup (2009) Literacy Matters: Helping newcomers unlock their potential.Toronto:TDBank Financial Group. Online. www.td.com/document/PDF/economics/special/ca0909_literacy.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    Thomas,D.(2011)Rseaux personnels et adaptation sur le plan conomique. StatisticsCanada.Online.www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11-008-x/2011002/article/11592-fra.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    Tolley,E.,Biles, J.,Andrew,C.,Esses,V.,andBurstein,M.(2011)Integrationand inclusion inOntario:Thesleeping giant stirs. In Biles, J., Burstein.M., Frideres, J.,Tolley, E., andVineberg, R. (eds) Integration and Inclusion of Newcomers and Minorities across Canada.MontrealandKingston,ON:McGill-QueensUniversityPress,195246.

    VancouverImmigrationPartnership(VIP)(2016)VIPpartners.Online.www.vancouverimmigrationpartnership.ca/vip-partners/(accessed1March2016).

    VatzLaaroussi,M.(2008)LimmigrationdanslesrgionsduQubecetdanslescommunautsfrancophoneshors Qubec: une volont partage, des contextes diffrents, des dfis communs, des pistes transfrer. In Belkhodja, C. (ed.) Immigration et diversit au sein des communauts francophones en situation minoritaire.Thmes canadiens/Canadian Issues.Montreal:AssociationforCanadianStudies,337.

    Ville de Montral (2011) Mmoire sur la planification de limmigration au Qubec pour la priode20122015. Online. http://ville.montreal.qc.ca/pls/portal/docs/page/d_social_fr/media/documents/MemoireVilleMai2011.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    (n.d.)Populationselonlaconnaissancedeslanguesofficielles,agglomerationdeMontreal,2011.Online.http://ville.montreal.qc.ca/portal/page?_pageid=6897,67887637&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL(accessed13June2016).

    Xue,L.(2007)Portrait of an Integration Process: Diffi culties encountered and resources relied on for newcomers in their fi rst 4 years in Canada. Evidence from three waves of the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC). Ottawa: CIC. Online. www.cic.gc.ca/english/pdf/research-stats/portrait-integr-process-e.pdf(accessed1March2016).

    Young,R.(2009)Canada.InSteytler,N.(ed.)Local Government and Metropolitan Regions in Federal Systems.Vol.6ofA Global Dialogue on Federalism.MontrealandKingston,ON:McGill-QueensUniversityPress,10635.

    Related articles published in the London Review of Education

    In this issue

    Thispaperwaspublishedinaspecial featureonMultilingualismineducationincosmopolitancities, editedbyDinaMehmedbegovic.Theother articles in the feature are as follows (linksunavailableattimeofpublication):

    Caporal-Ebersold,E.,andYoung,A.(2016)Negotiatingandappropriatingtheoneperson,onelanguagepolicywithinthecomplexrealityofamultilingualcrcheinStrasbourg.London Review of Education,14(2),12233.

    http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/external-references?article=1474-8460()14:2L.122[aid=10849718]http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/external-references?article=1474-8460()14:2L.122[aid=10849718]http://www.td.com/document/PDF/economics/special/ca0909_literacy.pdfhttp://www.vancouverimmigrationpartnershiphttp://ville.montreal.qc.ca/pls/portal/docs/page/d_social_fr/media/documents/MemoireVilleMai2011.pdfhttp://ville.montreal.qc.ca/pls/portal/docs/page/d_social_fr/media/documents/MemoireVilleMai2011.pdfhttp://ville.montreal.qc.ca/portal/page?_pageid=6897,67887637&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTALhttp://www.cic.gc.ca/english/pdf/research-stats/portrait-integr-process-e.pdf

  • 156 Catherine Ellyson, Caroline Andrew, and Richard Clment

    Mehmedbegovic, D. (2016) Editorial: Multilingualism in education in cosmopolitan cities: Insights intoLUCIDEnetworkresearch. London Review of Education,14(2),11921.

    Menghini,M.(2016)Multilingualismandlanguagelearning:TheRomecityreport.London Review of Education,14(2),15773.

    Nicolaou, A., Parmaxi, A., Papadima-Sophocleous, S., and Boglou, D. (2016) Language education in amultilingualcity:ThecaseofLimassol. London Review of Education,14(2),17485.

    Elsewhere in this issue

    Hamlin,D.,andDavies,S.(2016)Toronto:Anewglobalcityoflearning. London Review of Education,14(2),18698.

    http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/external-references?article=1474-8460()14:2L.186[aid=10850040]http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/external-references?article=1474-8460()14:2L.186[aid=10850040]http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/external-references?article=1474-8460()14:2L.186[aid=10850040]http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/external-references?article=1474-8460()14:2L.174[aid=10849715]http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/external-references?article=1474-8460()14:2L.157[aid=10849774]http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/external-references?article=1474-8460()14:2L.157[aid=10849774]http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/external-references?article=1474-8460()14:2L.119[aid=10849716]
of 23/23
London Review of Education DOI: 10.18546/LRE.14.2.10 Volume 14, Number 2, September 2016 Language planning and education of adult immigrants in Canada: Contrasting the provinces of Quebec and British Columbia, and the cities of Montreal and Vancouver Catherine Ellyson Bem & Co. Caroline Andrew and Richard Clément * University of Ottawa Combining policy analysis with language policy and planning analysis, our article comparatively assesses two models of adult immigrants’ language education in two very different provinces of the same federal country. In order to do so, we focus specifically on two questions:‘Why do governments provide language education to adults?’ and ‘How is it provided in the concrete setting of two of the biggest cities in Canada?’ Beyond describing the two models of adult immigrants’ language education in Quebec, British Columbia, and their respective largest cities, our article ponders whether and in what sense demography, language history, and the common federal framework can explain the similarities and differences between the two.These contextual elements can explain why cities continue to have so few responsibilities regarding the settlement, integration, and language education of newcomers. Only such understanding will eventually allow for proper reforms in terms of cities’ responsibilities regarding immigration. Keywords: multilingual cities; multiculturalism; adult education; immigration; language laws Introduction Canada is a very large country with much variation between provinces and cities in many dimensions. One such aspect, which remains a current hot topic for demographic and historical reasons, is language; more specifically, why and how language planning and policy are enacted throughout the country.Whereas the province of Quebec and its most important city – Montreal – has French as the only official language, the federal government has both English and French, and most provinces and cities have English as their only official language. Furthermore, 21.3 per cent of Canadians, 78.1 per cent of Québécois, and 1.3 per cent of British Columbians have French as their mother tongue (Statistics Canada, 2011a). Linguistic diversity across Canada is further increased as a result of continuing high rates of immigration. Indeed, during the past decade, Canada has maintained one of the highest per capita immigration rates in the world (CIC, 2012). Close to 250,000 immigrants arrive each year, settling mostly in the provinces of Ontario (42 per cent in 2012), Quebec (19 per cent in 2012), and British Columbia (16 per cent in 2012) (ibid.); and in the cities ofToronto (32 per cent in 2010), Montreal (17 per cent in 2010), and Vancouver (14 per cent in 2010) (FCM, 2011).As of 2011, more than one in five Canadians (20.6 per cent) were foreign-born, a proportion well above other G8 countries like Germany and the United States (both around 13 per cent in 2010) (Statistics Canada, 2011b). * Corresponding author – email: [email protected] ©Copyright 2016 Ellyson, Andrew, and Clément.This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium,provided the original author and source are credited.
Embed Size (px)
Recommended