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Leadership Styles

Date post:14-Nov-2014
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A 2 hour session on leadership skills prepared for team leaders of aid projects in developing countries. Suited to people with some exposure to management education.Can be used as module 1 of an 11 part course on project cycle and team management for NGO middle managers and team leaders in aid and development contexts.
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Leadership StylesLeading and working with teams

Ground RulesWhat are our rules?

Phones Time and breaks Joining in

Overview of this session

What is Leadership ? Motivation Power Leadership Tips Meetings

What is Leadership ?

Leadership is about behaviour first, skills second. Good leaders are followed because people trust and respect them, not for the skills they possess. Leadership is different to management. Leadership needs management skills, plus integrity, honesty, humility, courage, commitment, sincerity, passion, confidence, positivity, wisdom, determination, compassion, sensitivity and personality.

What is Leadership Style? the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people.

Kurt Lewin (1939) led a group of researchers to identify different styles of leadership. This early study has been very influential and set three major leadership styles.

3 StylesThe three major styles of leadership are:

Authoritarian or autocratic - Boss Participative or democratic - Teamwork Delegative or Free Reign - Multidisciplined

Although good leaders use all three styles, with one of them normally dominant, bad leaders tend to stick with one style.

Authoritarian (autocratic)I want both of you to...

This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want done and how, without getting the advice of their team. It can be used when you have all the information to solve the problem, you are short on time, and your employees are well motivated. Some people think of this style as yelling, using bossy language and threats and abusing their power. This is not the authoritarian style, it is an abusive, unprofessional style called bossing people around. It has no place in a leader's work. The authoritarian style should normally only be used on rare occasions. If you have the time and want to gain more commitment and motivation from your employees, then you should use the participative style.

Participative (democratic)Let's work together to solve this

This style involves the leader including one or more employees in decision making (decide what to do and how to do it). However, the leader maintains the final decision-making authority. Using this style is not a sign of weakness, rather it is a sign of strength that your employees will respect. This is best used when you have part of the information, and your employees have other parts. A leader is not expected to know everything -- this is why you employ knowledgeable and skilful employees. Using this style is of mutual benefit -- it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions.

Delegative (free reign)You two take care of the problem while I go

In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made. This is used when employees are able to see the situation and what needs to be done and how to do it. You cannot do everything! You must set priorities and give out certain tasks. This is not a style to use so that you can blame others when things go wrong, rather this is a style to be used when you fully trust and have confidence in the people below you. Do not be afraid to use it, however, use it wisely!

Where are we ?

What is the system used in this country most often? What about in your type of organisation?

When?A good leader uses all three styles - depends on the situation and the ability of followers and leader.Some examples include:

Authoritarian style - new employee learning the job. The leader is competent and a good coach. The employee is motivated to learn. The situation is new for the employee. Participative style - a team of workers who know their job. The leader knows the problem, but does not have all the information. The employees know their jobs and want to become part of the team. Delegative style - a worker who knows more about the job than you. The employee needs to own her job. Also, you might need to be doing other things. Use all three: Tell your employees that a procedure is not working correctly and a new one must be established (authoritarian). Ask for their ideas on creating a new procedure (participative). Give tasks in order to implement the new procedure (delegative).

Things that decide the style to use include:

How much time you have. Are relationships based on respect and trust or on disrespect? Who has the information - you, your employees, or both? How well your team is trained and how well you know the task. Internal conflicts. Stress levels. Type of task. Is it structured, unstructured, complicated, or simple? Laws or procedures (such as safety or training plans).

What style will you use next week?

What sort of work is planned? Why will you choose this style?

Positive and Negative ApproachesDifferent ways leaders approach their team:

Positive leaders use rewards, such as education, independence, etc. to motivate employees, while negative employers use penalties. The negative approach has a place in a leader's tools, but it must be used carefully because it hurts morale.

Positive and Negative Approaches

Negative leaders act bossy and above people. They think the only way to get things done is through penalties, such as loss of job, days off without pay, reprimand employees in front of others, etc. They think their authority is increased by frightening everyone. But when this approach is used badly morale falls; and also productivity. Note that most leaders do not use one or the other, but are somewhere in the middle. People who always work by negatives are bosses while those who mostly work by positives are real leaders.

Motivation

Wanting to do something Demotivator: makes you not want to do it These can start and stop good work

Stoppers and Starters

Herzberg (1966) developed a list of factors like Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, but more closely related to work.

Things that demotivateYou need to get these right: Working conditions Policies and administrative practices Salary and Benefits Supervision Status Job security Co-workers Personal life

MotivatorsThese encourage staff: Recognition Achievement Advancement Growth Responsibility

Job challenge

Get it right

The right conditions must be there in the job before motivators can be used to stimulate people. That is, you cannot use motivators until all the stoppers are fixed. Building on this, Herzberg used the term "job enrichment" about redesigning work to build in motivators.

Consideration and StructureTwo related approaches that leaders use are:

Consideration (care for employee) - Leaders are concerned about the human needs of their employees. They build teamwork, help employees with their problems, and provide psychological support. Structure

Consideration and StructureTwo related approaches that leaders use are:

Consideration Structure (task orientation) - Leaders believe that they get results by consistently keeping people busy and urging them to produce. Leaders who are considerate in their leadership style are higher performers and are more satisfied with their job consideration and structure are separate, and not opposites. For example, a leader who becomes more considerate, does not become less structured.

PaternalismPaternalism is confused with leadership.But most definitions of leadership talk about influencing.

Leadership is influencing people - by providing purpose, direction, and motivation - while doing the job and improving the organization." Influence is a means of getting people to do what you want them to do. It is more than passing along orders. The example you set is just as important as the words you speak. You set an example - good or bad - with every thing you do and word you say. With your words and example, you must communicate purpose, direction, and motivation.

PaternalismPaternalism is confused with leadership.

Paternalism" is: a system under which an authority undertakes to supply needs or regulate conduct of those under its control ... So paternalism supplies needs for those under its protection or control, while leadership gets things done.

Power DifferencePower Difference is the amount of inequality, between people in a group. It shows how much the less powerful members of organisations (for example, the family) accept and expect that power is unequal. The inequality is accepted by the followers as much as by the leaders.

Power Difference Index (PDI)Geert Hofstede (1977) studied culture within organisations. He developed a Power Difference Index (PDI) for 53 countries; scores ranged from 11 to 104 and averaged 55.

Power Difference Index (PDI)Geert Hofstede (1977) studied culture within organisations. He developed a Power Difference Index (PDI) for 53 countries; scores ranged from 11 to 104 and averaged 55. The higher the number, the more autocratic and/or paternalistic the usual leadership is, which means employees are afraid or unwilling to disagree with their bosses. Lower numbers mean a more consultative style of leadership, and employees who are not as afraid of their bosses. Malaysia has the highest PDI score, 104, while Austria has the lowest with 11. As the story before shows, Sweden has a low score (31), while France is higher (68). The USA's is 40.

Where are we?What do you think Cambodias score is?

Malaysia France USA Sweden Austria

104 68 40 31 11

Where are we?

Cambodia has a high PDI. Most Western countries have a low PDI. Leadership styles show this.

Big Power Difference

Big Power Difference

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