+ All Categories
Home > Documents > Lecture 27: Metallization and polishing - NPTELnptel.ac.in/courses/113106062/Lec27.pdfLecture 27:...

Lecture 27: Metallization and polishing - NPTELnptel.ac.in/courses/113106062/Lec27.pdfLecture 27:...

Date post: 24-Jun-2018
Category:
Upload: doanthu
View: 240 times
Download: 1 times
Share this document with a friend
18
Lecture 27: Metallization and polishing Contents 1 Metallization basics 1 2 Metallization materials 5 2.1 Aluminum ............................. 5 2.2 Al-Si alloys ............................ 7 2.3 Al-Cu alloys ............................ 7 2.4 Pure Cu .............................. 8 3 Metallization techniques 8 3.1 Physical vapor deposition (PVD) ................ 8 3.2 CVD ................................ 11 3.3 Electroplating ........................... 12 4 Planarization 12 5 Copper dual-damascene process 14 1 Metallization basics Integrated circuit fabrication is traditionally divided into two segments, that follow one after the other in the fab. 1. FEOL (Front end of the line) - these refer to the fabrication of the active and passive elements of the circuit. These are the resistors (or conductors), capacitors, diodes, and transistors that make up the var- ious elements of the IC. 1
Transcript
Page 1: Lecture 27: Metallization and polishing - NPTELnptel.ac.in/courses/113106062/Lec27.pdfLecture 27: Metallization and polishing Contents 1 Metallization basics 1 ... of material from

Lecture 27: Metallization andpolishing

Contents

1 Metallization basics 1

2 Metallization materials 52.1 Aluminum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52.2 Al-Si alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72.3 Al-Cu alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72.4 Pure Cu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

3 Metallization techniques 83.1 Physical vapor deposition (PVD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83.2 CVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113.3 Electroplating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

4 Planarization 12

5 Copper dual-damascene process 14

1 Metallization basics

Integrated circuit fabrication is traditionally divided into two segments, thatfollow one after the other in the fab.

1. FEOL (Front end of the line) - these refer to the fabrication of theactive and passive elements of the circuit. These are the resistors (orconductors), capacitors, diodes, and transistors that make up the var-ious elements of the IC.

1

Page 2: Lecture 27: Metallization and polishing - NPTELnptel.ac.in/courses/113106062/Lec27.pdfLecture 27: Metallization and polishing Contents 1 Metallization basics 1 ... of material from

MM5017: Electronic materials, devices, and fabrication

2. BEOL (Back end of the line) - these are the metallic layers that areused to make the interconnections between the various componentsfabricated in FEOL and also to the connections for the external devices.

With increase in device complexity, the separation of the IC processing intotwo segments is also important in terms of device fabrication. Current metal-lization in the IC industry is based on copper, which is a deep defect formingimpurity in Si. Thus, Cu contamination in Si can destroy device functional-ity. By separating the fabrication into two segments, it is possible to isolatethe Si processing from the metals (primarily Cu) and prevent contamina-tion. There are strict process and physical separation between the FEOLand BEOL.Metallization refers to the “wiring” of the various components together toget a functioning circuit. In the first IC fabricated (by Jack Kilby) metal con-nections were made by external wiring (aluminum). Future devices, startingfrom the modifications made by Robert Noyce, had metal lines that werefabricated along with the IC. Typical steps in patterning a metal layer areshown in figure 1. There are a variety of techniques for depositing metallayers in a IC.

1. Sputtering is a physical vapor deposition process mainly used for Aland its alloys e.g. Al-Cu alloys

2. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is mainly used for poly Si (forgate in MOSFET) and tungsten (metal plugs for trench filling). It isalso used for depositing barrier layers (silicides and nitrides) betweenSi and Cu.

3. Electroplating is used for Cu deposition (dual-damascene process)

With increase in level of integration, the metallization materials have changed.At the same time, the number of metal layers required have also increased(due to decrease in available area between the components). In MSI (mediumscale integration), a single layer of metallization was sufficient, as shown infigure 1. But with increase in integration level, the number of metal layershave also increased.A two level metallization scheme is shown in figure 2. The first level of metalsprovides the connection to the semiconductor i.e. the source, drain, and gatesof a transistor. This is done by creating contact holes, using a photomask,a process called contact masking. Then, metal lines are vapor deposited andthe excess metal is removed during lift-off. Usually, there is also a post an-nealing step for alloying. The metal lines are then further connected to eachother, to form circuits, and then to the external devices by using a second

2

Page 3: Lecture 27: Metallization and polishing - NPTELnptel.ac.in/courses/113106062/Lec27.pdfLecture 27: Metallization and polishing Contents 1 Metallization basics 1 ... of material from

MM5017: Electronic materials, devices, and fabrication

Figure 1: Sequence of steps in metallization. Here, the metal line connects adoped region to the rest of the wafer. For this, (a) the wafer is (b) patternedusing a soft lithography mask. (c) The metal layer is deposited uniformlyand (d) the mask, with the rest of the metal is removed. Adapted fromMicrochip fabrication - Peter van Zant.

3

Page 4: Lecture 27: Metallization and polishing - NPTELnptel.ac.in/courses/113106062/Lec27.pdfLecture 27: Metallization and polishing Contents 1 Metallization basics 1 ... of material from

MM5017: Electronic materials, devices, and fabrication

Figure 2: A two level metallization scheme. The first layer of metal makescontact with the junctions in the device, while the second layer of metalmakes contact with the first layer and also with the external circuit. Theconnections are made by defining trenches, called vias, which are separatedby dielectrics. Adapted from Microchip fabrication - Peter van Zant.

4

Page 5: Lecture 27: Metallization and polishing - NPTELnptel.ac.in/courses/113106062/Lec27.pdfLecture 27: Metallization and polishing Contents 1 Metallization basics 1 ... of material from

MM5017: Electronic materials, devices, and fabrication

Figure 3: A four level metallization scheme. With increase in integrationthe number of metal layers also increases. This is because the individualcontacts are spaced closer and hence there is not enough area to make allthe electrical connections in one level. Adapted from Microchip fabrication -Peter van Zant.

level of metallization. The two levels are separated by interlayer dielectricsto prevent shorting. This is called intermetallic dielectric layer (IML). Thelevels can be extended to more than two, depending on the integration level.A four layer scheme is shown in figure 3. Current IC technology (28 nmtechnology) has eleven layers of metallization. A cross sectional image ofthe metal layers is shown in figure 4.

2 Metallization materials

2.1 Aluminum

The original metal used for wiring was pure Al. In the first circuit designproposed by Robert Noyce, pure Al was used for fabricating the wires. Themain advantage of using Al is that it can be easily vapor deposited (simplethermal evaporation will work since Al has a low melting point). It also hasgood adhesion to SiO2, low contact resistance, and it is easy to pattern since

5

Page 6: Lecture 27: Metallization and polishing - NPTELnptel.ac.in/courses/113106062/Lec27.pdfLecture 27: Metallization and polishing Contents 1 Metallization basics 1 ... of material from

MM5017: Electronic materials, devices, and fabrication

Figure 4: Eleven layers of metallization. The Si transistor is right at thebottom and in terms of scale much smaller than the top metal layers. Thetop layer makes contact with the leads for connections to external devices.Source http://electroiq.com/chipworks real chips blog/2012/12/11/intel-details-22nm-trigate-soc-process-at-iedm/

6

Page 7: Lecture 27: Metallization and polishing - NPTELnptel.ac.in/courses/113106062/Lec27.pdfLecture 27: Metallization and polishing Contents 1 Metallization basics 1 ... of material from

MM5017: Electronic materials, devices, and fabrication

Figure 5: Contact issues in Al-Si contacts. (a) Excess alloying leads tomelting of the Al(b) Silicide formation in the metal layer, by using a Al-Sialloy (c) Barrier metal is usually deposited to prevent reaction between Aland Si. Adapted from Microchip fabrication - Peter van Zant.

thermal evaporation can be integrated with resist lithography technology.

2.2 Al-Si alloys

The problem with pure Al is that it has a low melting point of 660 ◦C. WhenAl in contact with pure Si is heated, it forms an alloy with an eutectic pointof 577 ◦C. This leads to dissolution of metal, especially in the formation ofshallow junctions, and can lead to shortening of the contacts, as shown infigure 5.

There are two solutions to this. One is to use a barrier metal that doesnot alloy with Al or Si and separates the two. The barrier metal shouldnot significantly reduce the conduction through the channel. Typically, hightemperature metals like Ti and W or compounds like TiN are used. Theseare sputter deposited on the wafer. Another option is to use Al with 1-2%Si as the contact material. This minimizes Al alloying with the Si wafer butdoes not eliminate it completely. Thermal evaporation of Al-Si might nowwork due to the large difference in the melting points of the two elementsand other techniques like sputtering or e-beam evaporation are needed tomaintain compositions of the contact.

2.3 Al-Cu alloys

With increase in device integration (from MSI to LSI and VLSI), the thick-ness of the metal layers decreases. This leads to the problem of electro-migration, especially in thin Al layers. This is because thin films with anelectrical field gradient, due to the applied voltage, also develop a thermalgradient due to resistive heating. The thermal gradient is acute for thinner

7

Page 8: Lecture 27: Metallization and polishing - NPTELnptel.ac.in/courses/113106062/Lec27.pdfLecture 27: Metallization and polishing Contents 1 Metallization basics 1 ... of material from

MM5017: Electronic materials, devices, and fabrication

layers since their resistance is higher. This causes local heating and migrationof material from thinner areas of the wire, which can cause an open circuit.To reduce electromigration, 0.5-4% Cu is usually added to Al. Cu alloyswith Al, to form CuAl2 precipitates (GP zones). These precipitates pin thegrain boundaries and reduce electromigration. Sometimes Si is also addedto prevent Si dissolution from the wafer. The typical alloy composition for ametal layer is Al-1.5%Si-4%Cu.

2.4 Pure Cu

With smaller metal layers, Al-Cu has a high resistance (high resistivity ofAl alloy) and hence to increase wire conductance pure Cu replaced Al as themetallization layer. Pure Cu contacts were introduced by IBM in 1990s andthe standard was quickly adopted across the industry. Cu can be easily met-allized. It can be deposited by thermal evaporation, but more importantly, itcan be electroplated on the wafer, which decreases the cost, since expensivevacuum chamber equipment is not needed. The biggest problem is that Cudiffuses into Si and SiO2. These form deep level defects in Si which can ‘kill’the device. Hence, a barrier metal, usually TiW or TiN or TaN or metal sili-cides, is needed. These can be deposited by sputtering or for deep trenches,can be deposited by chemical vapor deposition. As mentioned earlier, theuse of Cu separates the wafer manufacturing into FEOL and BEOL, withstrict physical separation between the two to prevent contamination. Usu-ally, equipment involved in FEOL and BEOL are placed in different locationsin the fab and special clothing is used for people working with BEOL tools.

3 Metallization techniques

3.1 Physical vapor deposition (PVD)

There are a variety of physical vapor deposition techniques. As the nameimplies, atoms/molecules (vapor) of the desired material are directly de-posited on to the substrate from the vapor phase. There are different PVDtechniques, which differ on the how the ‘vapor’ is obtained. PVD is a line-of-sight deposition technique, so that the substrate must be in front of thesource. The deposition rate depends on the distance between the two. Thesimplest PVD technique is thermal evaporation. A schematic of the processis shown in figure 6. The material to be evaporated is heated (by resistiveheating) and the atoms are then deposited on the substrate.E-beam evaporation, is a deposition technique, where instead of using resis-

8

Page 9: Lecture 27: Metallization and polishing - NPTELnptel.ac.in/courses/113106062/Lec27.pdfLecture 27: Metallization and polishing Contents 1 Metallization basics 1 ... of material from

MM5017: Electronic materials, devices, and fabrication

Figure 6: Thermal evaporator unit. The metal is vaporized by resistive heat-ing and then deposited on the wafers. The evaporation source is a tungstenfilament that can be heated by passing current. Multiple sources are possiblein a single chamber. Adapted from Microchip fabrication - Peter van Zant.

tive heating to form the vapor, an electron beam is used to melt the materialand form the vapor. The e-beam evaporation source is shown in 7. E-beamevaporator is useful for depositing materials with high melting points like Si,Ti, W, which cannot be easily deposited by thermal evaporation.Both, thermal evaporation and e-beam evaporation have deposition rates ofa few A per second. For depositing thick films (few hundred nm to µm),sputtering is used. The schematic of the sputter deposition process is shownin figure 8. In sputter deposition, the material to be deposited is made thetarget electrode. This can be a pure metal, alloy or even compounds. Sput-tering process can maintain the stoichiometry of the target electrode, unlikethermal or e-beam evaporation. An inert gas, like argon, is introduced in thevacuum chamber. They are ionized by using an electron beam and the accel-erated ions strike the target electrode and remove material, a process calledsputtering. Thus, the ‘vapor’ is created by the positively charged ions. Thevapor atoms are then deposited on the substrate. The advantage of sputter-ing is that deposition rates of a few nm per second can be easily obtained.There are three main sputtering techniques: DC, RF and magnetron sput-tering. Their difference lies in how the Ar ions are accelerated and madeto strike the target. In magnetron sputtering, magnetic fields are used to

9

Page 10: Lecture 27: Metallization and polishing - NPTELnptel.ac.in/courses/113106062/Lec27.pdfLecture 27: Metallization and polishing Contents 1 Metallization basics 1 ... of material from

MM5017: Electronic materials, devices, and fabrication

Figure 7: An e-beam evaporator unit. An electron beam is focused on thecrucible and used to melt the metal. The vapor formed is then depositedon the substrate. The advantage of e-beam evaporator is that high meltingpoint metals can be deposited and contamination minimized, since there isonly local melting of the source. Adapted from Microchip fabrication - Petervan Zant.

Figure 8: Schematic of the sputter deposition process. Energetic ions impingeon a target and remove atoms, which are then deposited on the substrate.High deposition rates and composition control can be achieved in sputtering.Adapted from Microchip fabrication - Peter van Zant.

10

Page 11: Lecture 27: Metallization and polishing - NPTELnptel.ac.in/courses/113106062/Lec27.pdfLecture 27: Metallization and polishing Contents 1 Metallization basics 1 ... of material from

MM5017: Electronic materials, devices, and fabrication

Figure 9: Schematic of the magnetron sputtering process. Magnetic field areused to direct the electron beam to ionize the gas in front of the target. Thisincreased deposition rate and greater contamination control. Adapted fromMicrochip fabrication - Peter van Zant.

confine the electrons in front of the target to increase the ionization of theAr gas and thus increase deposition rate. This also results in lower chamberpressure requirement, making this a cleaner process. The schematic of themagnetron sputtering process is shown in figure 9.

3.2 CVD

The CVD process was seen earlier in the context of deposited films. Inmetallization, CVD process is used for the deposition of the barrier layer thatseparates the metal from Si. This is good for large aspect ratio structures,as shown in figure 10. A typical reaction for depositing tungsten is by thereduction of tungsten hexaflouride.

2WF6 + 3Si → 2W + 3SiF4

2WF6 + 3H2 → 2W + 6HF(1)

11

Page 12: Lecture 27: Metallization and polishing - NPTELnptel.ac.in/courses/113106062/Lec27.pdfLecture 27: Metallization and polishing Contents 1 Metallization basics 1 ... of material from

MM5017: Electronic materials, devices, and fabrication

Figure 10: CVD process for growing conformal layers on deep trenches. De-position on large aspect ratio structures cannot be done by PVD techniques,since the method will cover the hole before depositing deep inside the trench.Source http://abelson.matse.illinois.edu/

3.3 Electroplating

The electroplating process is commonly used for the deposition of copper.The advantage is the low cost and temperature requirements, compared toother vacuum deposition techniques. High deposition rates can be obtained,compared to PVD processes. Electroplating requires a uniform seed layer.This is obtained by sputtering and the seed layer is 30-200 nm thick. Theelectroplating bath is shown in figure 11. The wafer, containing the seedlayer, is made the cathode. The copper to be deposited is the electrolyte (inthe form of CuSO4). This is reduced in the bath (equation shown in figure11) and the Cu is then plated on the wafer surface. The process leads toa copper overfill, creating a rough surface and the excess material is thenremoved by polishing.

4 Planarization

Planarization is a process of achieving a flat profile on the wafer surface.This is important for lithography, since a flat wafer is needed to avoid reg-istration errors when the mask is aligned with the wafer and to get proper

12

Page 13: Lecture 27: Metallization and polishing - NPTELnptel.ac.in/courses/113106062/Lec27.pdfLecture 27: Metallization and polishing Contents 1 Metallization basics 1 ... of material from

MM5017: Electronic materials, devices, and fabrication

Figure 11: Schematic of the electroplating process. Electroplating is usuallyused for copper deposition. A seed layer is first deposited by PVD process,usually sputtering. Then the material is dipped in the bath containing copperions. During electrochemical reaction, copper is deposited on the seed layer.Adapted from Microchip fabrication - Peter van Zant.

13

Page 14: Lecture 27: Metallization and polishing - NPTELnptel.ac.in/courses/113106062/Lec27.pdfLecture 27: Metallization and polishing Contents 1 Metallization basics 1 ... of material from

MM5017: Electronic materials, devices, and fabrication

Figure 12: Non planarized vs. planarized IC. The difference lies in the rough-ness of the various interfaces, which can lead to change in electrical properties.Source http://linx-consulting.com/Specialty-abrasives-CMP.html

focusing. Most deposition process produce a surface with a finite rough-ness which usually increases with increased deposition rate and thickness.Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is a technique to achieve globalplanarization, i.e. over the entire wafer. The difference between a planarizedand non-planarized wafer is shown in figure 12.In planarization, the wafer is mounted on a rotating platen. It is then pol-

ished using a polishing pad and a slurry containing abrasive particles. Theabrasive particles attack the wafer surface and remove small particles. Thepolishing pad and platen rotate in opposite directions and the slurry carriesaway the small particles. This removal is the mechanical polishing part. Theslurry material is chosen such that it can also dissolve or etch the surfacematerial away. This constitutes the chemical removal part and hence, thetechnique is called CMP. The schematic of the CMP process is shown in fig-ure 13. Typically, the polishing pad is made of polyurethane foam, while theslurry depends on the material to be removed. For metals, usually aluminais used, while etchants like KOH and NH4OH are used for silicon oxide pol-ishing. After CMP, there is a post cleaning step that involves cleaning thewafers with de-ionized water and then N2 blow drying. This removes anyexcess slurry particles from the wafer surface.

5 Copper dual-damascene process

Current IC fabrication uses the Cu metallization process that has replacedthe use of Al-Cu alloys. Cu has a lower resistivity and lower electromigration

14

Page 15: Lecture 27: Metallization and polishing - NPTELnptel.ac.in/courses/113106062/Lec27.pdfLecture 27: Metallization and polishing Contents 1 Metallization basics 1 ... of material from

MM5017: Electronic materials, devices, and fabrication

Figure 13: Schematic of a planarization setup. The wafer is help upsidedown on a rotating platen. A slurry is aupplied to the surface, that helpsin material removal. The platen can be heated/cooled, while both the waferand platen are rotated. It is also possible to move the wafer across the platensurface. Source https://www.crystec.com/alpovere.htm

effect as compared to Al. But copper has its own set of problems, in that,it is hard to remove by etching and can diffuse easily through the SiO2 layerand form deep defects in Si. Cu also has poor adhesion on SiO2 so this cancause structural issues, especially when used in multilayers. The damasceneprocess is a unique series of steps that was developed for copper metalliza-tion, for large scale production. It features a lithography process, followedby a low-k dielectric or barrier layer deposition, separating the metal layers,copper electroplating, and chemical mechanical polishing of the metal. Theprocess resembles the damascene process that was developed in the Middleages around Damascus in Syria, which was used for metal inlay work on ar-tifacts.In a multilayer metallization scheme, there are inter layer dielectrics (ILD)separating the various metal layers, see figures 2, 3, and 4. SiO2 can be usedas the dielectric layer but this has a problem for high performance circuitsdue to the RC constant of the circuit system, where R stands for the resis-tance and C for the capacitance. The main contributor to the capacitancecomponent is the dielectric constant of the of the ILD. SiO2 has a dielectricconstant of 3.9 and a lower value is preferable for faster circuit operation. Avariety of low k dielectrics (1.5-2.0 range) have been developed. These arebased on metal oxides or organic based. Some of the low k dielectrics arelisted in table 1.

15

Page 16: Lecture 27: Metallization and polishing - NPTELnptel.ac.in/courses/113106062/Lec27.pdfLecture 27: Metallization and polishing Contents 1 Metallization basics 1 ... of material from

MM5017: Electronic materials, devices, and fabrication

Table 1: List of low k dielectric materials for inter layer dielectrics. Adaptedfrom Microchip fabrication - Peter van Zant.

Metal system Low-k materialAluminum parylene

hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ)Methyl silsesquioxane

F-doped oxideF-doped amorphous C

Parylene-F (AF4)Xerogel

Gold polyimideBenzocyclobutene (BCB)

Xerogel

The schematic of the damascene process is shown in figure 14. The varioussteps involved in this process are

1. The dielectric layer is first deposited. In the case of organic low kdielectrics, it is spun on and patterned. For oxide layers, CVD is usedfor deposition though it is harder to integrate this with conventionallithography.

2. The metal layer is then deposited, by electroplating. A barrier layer(tungsten or metal silicide) is first deposited followed by the seed layer.Then electroplating is used to deposit the rest of the metal.

3. CMP process is used to remove the excess metal and achieve planarsurface.

4. The process is then repeated for multiple layers.

For multilayer metal connections, the metal from one layer needs to be con-nected to the metal layer from the preceeding layer and to any subsequentlayers. This is done using vias. For making electrical connections betweenmetals in the same layers, trenches are fabricated. In the damascene pro-cess, both the trenches and vias and filled together in one step, this is thereason it is called a dual damascene process. The patterning can be eithertrench first or via first. A via first process is shown in figure15. Here, the viasare first patterned and opened in the low k dielectric. Then, the trenches arepatterned. After that, both vias and trenches are filled with metal and thenexcess removed by CMP. In trench first, the trenches are first patterned anda second patterning opens the vias in them.

16

Page 17: Lecture 27: Metallization and polishing - NPTELnptel.ac.in/courses/113106062/Lec27.pdfLecture 27: Metallization and polishing Contents 1 Metallization basics 1 ... of material from

MM5017: Electronic materials, devices, and fabrication

Figure 14: The dual damascene process overview. (a) The interlayer dielec-tric is deposited and then patterned for the metal deposition. (b) Metal isdeposited, usually by electroplating. (c) Excess metal is removed by pla-narization. Adapted from Microchip fabrication - Peter van Zant.

17

Page 18: Lecture 27: Metallization and polishing - NPTELnptel.ac.in/courses/113106062/Lec27.pdfLecture 27: Metallization and polishing Contents 1 Metallization basics 1 ... of material from

MM5017: Electronic materials, devices, and fabrication

Figure 15: A via first dual damascene process (a) - (e). The lower levelinterconnects are already defined. After the ILD layer is deposited, viasare etched first and then trenches. Both are then filled with metal, andthen polished. The reverse process is also possible. Adapted from Microchipfabrication - Peter van Zant.

18


Recommended