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Lecture 4: Bipolar Junction Transistors

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Lecture 4: Bipolar Junction Transistors
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Page 1: Lecture 4: Bipolar Junction Transistors

Lecture 4: Bipolar Junction Transistors

Page 2: Lecture 4: Bipolar Junction Transistors

Outline

• Basic construction and operation of BJT transistors

• Proper biasing

• Characteristics of npn and pnp transistors

• Testing a transistor and identifying terminals

Page 3: Lecture 4: Bipolar Junction Transistors

There are two types of

Bipolar Junction Transistors:

pnp and npn

The terminals are labeled:

E - Emitter

B - Base

C - Collector

Transistor Construction

Page 4: Lecture 4: Bipolar Junction Transistors

With the external sources, VEE and VCC, connected as shown:

The emitter-base junction is forward biased

The base-collector junction is reverse biased

Transistor Operation

One p-n junction of a transistor is reverse-biased whereas the other is forward biased.

BI

CI

EI

Page 5: Lecture 4: Bipolar Junction Transistors

The collector current is comprised of two currents:

BI

CI

EI

(minority) COI

majority CI

CI

)(

The emitter current is the sum of the collector and base currents:

Currents in a Transistor

Page 6: Lecture 4: Bipolar Junction Transistors

The base is common to both input (emitter–base) junction and output (collector–base) junction of the transistor.

Common-Base Configuration

The arrow in the graphic symbol defines the direction of emitter current through the device

NPN PNP

Page 7: Lecture 4: Bipolar Junction Transistors

Input Characteristics

This curve shows the relationship between of input current (IE) to input voltage (VBE) for three output voltage (VCB) levels.

Common-Base Amplifier

Two sets of characteristics are required to describe a three terminal device: one for the driving point or input parameters and the other for the output side.

Page 8: Lecture 4: Bipolar Junction Transistors

This graph demonstrates the output current (IC) to an output voltage (VCB) for various levels of input current (IE).

Common-Base Amplifier

Output Characteristics

The output or collector set of characteristics has three basic regions of interest: active, cutoff and saturation.

Page 9: Lecture 4: Bipolar Junction Transistors

Active:- Operating range of the amplifier.- Base-emitter junction is forward-biased whereas the collector base junciton is reverse-biased.- 𝐼𝐶 ≅ 𝐼𝐸

Cutoff:- The amplifier is basically off. There is voltage, but little current.- Base-emitter and collector-base junctions are both reverse biased.

Saturation:- The amplifier is fully on. There is current, but little voltage.- Base-emitter and collector-base junctions are both forward

biased.

Operating Regions

Page 10: Lecture 4: Bipolar Junction Transistors

EC II

Emitter and collector currents: a first approximation to the relationship between 𝐼𝐸 and 𝐼𝐶

Base-emitter voltage: once a transistor is in the on state, the base-to-emitter voltage will be assumed

Approximations

𝑉𝐵𝐸 ≅ 0.7𝑉

(for Silicon)

Page 11: Lecture 4: Bipolar Junction Transistors

Ideally: = 1

In reality: falls somewhere between 0.9 and 0.998

DC mode: levels of 𝐼𝐸 and 𝐼𝐶 due to majority carriers are related by a quantity called alpha:

EI

CIα dc

AC mode: for ac situation where the point of operation moves on the characteristic curve, an average ac alpha is defined by:

EI

CIα

Δ

Δ

ac

Alpha ()

Page 12: Lecture 4: Bipolar Junction Transistors

The emitter is common to both input (base-emitter) and output (collector-emitter) circuits.

The input is applied to the base and the output is taken from the collector.

Common-Emitter Configuration

Page 13: Lecture 4: Bipolar Junction Transistors

IE = IC + IB IC = IE

Actual Currents

When IB = 0 A the transistor is in cutoff, but there is some minority current flowing called ICEO.

μA0 ICBO

CEO Bα

II

1

where ICBO = minority collector current

ICBO is usually so small that it can be ignored, except in high power transistors and in high temperature environments.

Ideal Currents

IC = IE + ICBO

Common-Emitter Amplifier Currents

Page 14: Lecture 4: Bipolar Junction Transistors

In DC mode:

In AC mode:

ac is sometimes referred to as hfe, a term used in transistor modeling calculations

B

Cdc

I

constantVB

C

ac CEI

I

represents the amplification factor of a transistor.

Beta ()

Page 15: Lecture 4: Bipolar Junction Transistors

Determining from a graph

108

A

mA.β V .VDC CE

57

25

72

100

10

1

2030

2223

57

V .V

AC

CEA

mA

A) A (

mA). mA.(β

Beta ()

Page 16: Lecture 4: Bipolar Junction Transistors

Relationship between amplification factors and :

βα

αβ

Relationship between Currents:

BC βII BE )I(βI 1

Beta ()

Page 17: Lecture 4: Bipolar Junction Transistors

The input is on the base and the output is on the emitter.

Common-Collector Configuration

Primarily used for impedance matching purposes.

Page 18: Lecture 4: Bipolar Junction Transistors

The characteristics are similar to those of the common-emitter amplifier, except the vertical axis is IE.

Common-Collector Configuration

Page 19: Lecture 4: Bipolar Junction Transistors

The transistor operates in the active region between saturation and cutoff.

VCE is maximum and IC is minimum in the cutoff region.

IC is maximum and VCE is minimum in the saturation region.

CEOC II (max)

CEOsatCECE VVV )((max)

Operating Limits

Page 20: Lecture 4: Bipolar Junction Transistors

Common-collector:

CCBCmax IVP

CCECmax IVP

ECECmax IVP

Common-base:

Common-emitter:

Power Dissipation

Page 21: Lecture 4: Bipolar Junction Transistors

Transistor Specification Sheet

Page 22: Lecture 4: Bipolar Junction Transistors

Curve Tracer Provides a graph of the characteristic curves.

DMM Some DMMs measure DC or hFE.

Ohmmeter

Transistor Testing


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