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LED CUBE DISPLAY

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3D LED CUBE DISPLAY (8x8x8 PIXELS)

Mini Project Report

Submitted by

RANDEEP KUMAR

SHARUK K.A

UNNI V.S

VISHNU PRASAD C.V

Focus on Excellence

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

FEDERAL INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (FISAT) Angamaly-683577, Ernakulam

Affiliated to

MAHATMA GANDHI UNIVERSITY

Kottayam-686560

May 2011

3D LED CUBE DISPLAY (8x8x8 PIXELS)

Mini Project Report

Submitted by

RANDEEP KUMAR

SHARUK K.A

UNNI V.S

VISHNU PRASAD C.V

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for award of the degree of Bachelor of

Technology in Electronics & Communication Engineering

Focus on Excellence

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

FEDERAL INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (FISAT) Angamaly-683577, Ernakulam

Affiliated to

MAHATMA GANDHI UNIVERSITYKottayam-686560

May 2011

FEDERAL INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (FISAT) Mookkannoor (P.O), Angamaly-683577

Focus on Excellence

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the mini project report titled 3D LED CUBE DISPLAY (8x8x8 PIXELS) submitted by Randeep Kumar, Sharuk K.A, Unni V.S, Vishnu Prasad C.V, towards partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and Communication Engineering is a record of bonafide work carried out by them during the academic year 2010 2011

Staff in chargeHead of the Department

Place:

Date:

Internal Examiner:External Examiner

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We express our deep sense of gratitude to our principal Dr. K.V Sundaresan who extended all resources for the successful completion of our project. Mrs. P.R Mini our

HODs well wishes, whole hearted co-operation and contribution one form or another has helped us throughout this venture.

Weare greatly indebted to our project guides Mrs. Hima Mary John,

Mr.Nandakumar, Mrs. Shamseena M.A for this scholarly assistance, kind treatment encouragement and timely help in every possible manner. We feel it due mentioning the dedication, sincerity and whole hearted co-operation that they extended to us. We hereby extended our sincere thanks to the laboratory staff Mrs. Bini T Abraham and all others as well for giving their support in realizing the goal.

Our sincere gratitude is expressed and extended to all our friends and to all those who have contributed directly or indirectly to make this endeavour a success. Above all, we express our overwhelming gratitude to the almighty for the success of our project. Without the divine grace, our dream project wouldnt have materialized.

ABSTRACT

The project is a 3D LED CUBE DISPLAY (8x8x8 PIXELS) which displays different patterns stored in the microcontroller. This LED cube is like a LED screen, but it is special in that it has a third dimension, making it 3D. Think of it as many transparent low resolution displays. In normal displays it is normal to try to stack the pixels as close as possible in order to make it look better, but in a cube one must be able to see through it, and more spacing between the pixels (actually it's voxels since it is in 3d) is needed. The spacing is a trade-off between how easy the layers behind it are seen, and voxel fidelity. Since it is a lot more work making a LED cube than a LED display, they are usually low resolution. A LED display of 8x8 pixels are only 64 LEDs, but a LED cube in 8x8x8 is 512 LEDs, an order of magnitude harder to make! This is the reason LED cubes are only made in low resolution. A LED cube does not have to be symmetrical; it is possible to make a 7x8x9, or even oddly shaped ones. Here we have an 8x8x8 shaped one. The code is written in the C language using AVR studio and it is burned into the microcontroller using the pony prog 2000.The circuit needs to be mounted on the mechanical structure or platform where it displays the patterns that are stored in the microcontroller as indicated in the codes. The patterns are displayed on a 3D structure which is made up of stainless steel rods. The messages can be changed as per user need by rewriting the microcontrollers in-built memory. The complete display system circuit is power supply run on 5V, 2A which is provided externally. This unique way of displaying messages is a very eye catching; therefore its uses can in the field of advertising, toys, etc

CONTENTS

Page No

Chapter 1INTRODUCTION1

Chapter 2BLOCK DIAGRAM AND EXPLANATION2

2.1Block diagram2

2.2Explanation3

Chapter 3CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS AND EXPLANATION 5

3.1Circuit Diagrams6

3.1.1Schematic Controller Board6

3.1.2Wiring 3x3x3 LED Cube7

3.2Explanation8

Chapter 4PCB10

4.1PCB Component Layout10

4.2Jumper Layer11

4.3Soldering Layer12

4.4PCB Fabrication13

Chapter 5HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE SECTION15

5.1Hardware section15

5.2Software platforms used16

5.3Flow chart19

Chapter 6RESULTS21

Chapter 7CONCLUSION & FUTURE SCOPE22

Components List23

References24

Appendix25

1. INTRODUCTION

3D LED CUBE DISPLAY (8x8x8 PIXELS)

1. INTRODUCTION

A microcontroller is a computer. All computers whether talk about a personal desktop computer or a large mainframe computer or microcontrollers have several things in common like the CPU (central processing unit), execution of programs, presence of RAM (random-access memory) etc Microcontrollers are special purpose computers.

Microcontrollers are often low- power devices. A desktop computer is almost always plugged into a wall socket and might consume 50 watts of electricity. A microcontroller has a dedicated input device and often (but not always) has a small LED or LCD display for output. A microcontroller is often small and low cost. Today the technology has advanced to such an extent that has come a need to display electronic messages to satisfy all purposes, whether it is business or domestic use. The solution found to satisfy this need is the matrix display systems using LEDs and LCDs. Different kinds of matrix systems are available today which are capable of displaying messages, graphics, logos and moving animation that are sure to capture and hold the attention of any audience. It provides instantaneous, flexible communications when and where theyre needed most. This LED cube has 512 LEDs. Obviously, having a dedicated IO port for each LED would be very impractical. We would need a micro controller with 512 IO ports, and run 512 wires through the cube. Instead, LED cubes rely on an optical phenomenon called persistence of vision (POV).If we flash a led really fast, the image will stay on our retina for a little while after the led turns off. By flashing each layer of the cube one after another really fast, it gives the illusion of a 3d image, when in fact we are looking at a series of 2d images stacked onto one another. This is also called multiplexing. With this setup, we only need 64 (for the anodes) + 8 (for each layer) IO ports to control the LED cube. The main purpose of our project is to build a 3D LED cube display using an ATMEGA32, high performance, low power Atmel AVR 8-bit Microcontroller. It has advanced RISC architecture and 131 powerful instructions with most single clock cycle execution and 32 x 8 general purpose working registers. Its function is to display the different patterns in 3D using 512 LEDs.

By moving them fast enough, the output will be a human identifiable pattern or character.

Electronics & Communication Engineering, FISAT1

2. BLOCK DIAGRAM AND EXPLANATION

3D LED CUBE DISPLAY (8x8x8 PIXELS)

2. BLOCK DIAGRAM AND EXPLANATION

2.1 Block Diagram

230 V, 50 Hz AC Supply

Fig 2.1 Block Diagram

Electronics & Communication Engineering, FISAT2

3D LED CUBE DISPLAY (8x8x8 PIXELS)

2.2 Explanation

2.2.1 Power Supply

Power supply is used to provide a +5 volt, 2A from 230V 50Hz ac supply with the use of bridge rectifier and regulator.

2.2.2 Microcontroller

Microcontroller ATMEGA32 is used to control the D latch and MOSFET. The ATMEGA32 is a low power, high performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 32K bytes of Flash programmable and 1K bytes of EEPROM .The on chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. It has 32x8 general purpose working registers with 131 powerful instructions.

2.2.3 Mosfet (Irfz44)

IRFZ44 is an N-channel (MOSFET) enhancement mode standard level field-effect power transistor in a plastic envelope using trench technology. The device features very low on-state resistance and has integral zener diodes giving ESD protection up to 2kV. It is intended for use in switched mode power supplies and general purpose switching applications.

2.2.4 D Latch (74HC573)

The 74HC/HCT573 are high-speed Si-gate CMOS devices and are pin compatible with low power Schottky TTL (LSTTL). They are specified incompliance with JEDEC standard no.7A.The 74HC/HCT573 are octal D-type transparent latches

Electronics & Communication Engineering, FISAT3

3D LED CUBE DISPLAY (8x8x8 PIXELS)

featuring separate D-type inputs for each latch and 3-state outputs for bus oriented applications. A latch enable (LE) input and an output enable (OE) input are common to all latches.

2.2.5 3d Led Cube Structure

This 3D led cube is made up of stainless steel rods with 512 leds. There are

64 anodes 8 cathodes. The LED cube is made up of columns and layer

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