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  • LED Street Lighting Trial Report 2019

  • LED Street Lighting Trial Report 2019

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    Contents 1 Disclaimer ...................................................................................................................... 3 2 Glossary ........................................................................................................................ 4 3 Executive Summary ....................................................................................................... 6 4 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 7 5 Scope and Objectives .................................................................................................... 8 6 Project Approach ........................................................................................................... 9 7 Installation .................................................................................................................... 11 8 Monitoring .................................................................................................................... 11 9 Community Engagement .............................................................................................. 12 10 Project milestones .................................................................................................... 12 11 Technical Assessment .............................................................................................. 13

    11.1 Electrical measurements ................................................................................... 13 11.2 Failures, Issues and Concerns .......................................................................... 14 11.3 Spill light ............................................................................................................ 14 11.4 Visual Assessment ............................................................................................ 15 11.5 Site Measurements ........................................................................................... 16 11.6 Correlated colour temperature and colour rendering index ................................ 17

    12 Community Feedback ............................................................................................... 18 13 Conclusion ............................................................................................................... 20 14 References ............................................................................................................... 21 Appendix A – Lighting Categories ....................................................................................... 22 Appendix B – Analysis of the 10 individual products used in the trial ................................... 23 Appendix C – Analysis of Technologies .............................................................................. 27 Appendix D – Meter Calibrations ......................................................................................... 28 Appendix E – Luminaire Classifications .............................................................................. 29 Appendix F – Semi cut-off and Aeroscreen Luminaires ....................................................... 29 Appendix G – Before and After Photos ............................................................................... 30

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    1 Disclaimer

    This report presents the findings of a street lighting trial testing the performance of LED street lighting technologies. The trial is not intended to test any specific product but is to test the suitability of LED technologies for the street lighting network in the Brisbane area. Manufacturers and models tested are not identified in this report to retain the integrity and independence of the trial method.

    The technologies tested in the trial may not be suitable for other applications or environmental conditions.

    The authors acknowledge the products tested may not be representative of all products available in the current market, therefore the results should be used as a guide only. Further, it is acknowledged that these products were purchased in 2015 and may have been further developed and improved upon since this time.

    The purpose of this trial is to test the appropriateness of LED technologies for use on minor roads with public lighting sub-categories P4 and P5.

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    2 Glossary

    Aeroscreen luminaire Diffuser is contained totally in the luminaire with the luminaire having a flat under surface (see Appendix F)

    AS/NZS Australian/New Zealand standard AS4282 : 2019 Control of the Obtrusive Effect of Outdoor Lighting AEMO Australian Energy Market Operator – Australian Federal Government

    energy regulator AFL Above Floor Level (a road in this report) Category P (pedestrian) lighting

    Lighting that is applicable to roads and other outdoor public spaces on which the visual requirements of pedestrians are dominant, i.e. minor roads, bikeways and pedestrian activity areas. Category P lighting consists of 12 subcategories (Appendix A)

    Category V (vehicular) lighting

    Lighting that is applicable to roads on which the visual requirements of motorists are dominant, i.e. arterial and sub-arterial roads. Category V lighting consists of five subcategories V1 to V5, with V1 being the highest of the lighting levels and V5 being the lowest

    CIE Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, the International Commission on Illumination

    CIE File Electronic file of intensities for a given luminaire, presented in the CIE 132 Format

    CCT Correlated Colour Temperature – A measure of the temperature (Kelvin) of a white light source when compared to a black body radiator of the same appearance. The temperature in Kelvin (SI Unit) is represented by “K”. Generally, the accepted appearance of light sources are: • 3000K – Warm White • 4000K – White (Or Neutral White) • 5000K – Cool White • 6500K – Daylight

    CFL Compact Fluorescent – This technology uses electronic ballasts CRI Colour Rendering Index – A measure of the reflection of a range of

    eight specific colours compared to an incandescent of the same CCT TMR Department of Transport and Main Roads E2PL Trial South East Queensland Energy Efficient Public Lighting Trial 2008 to

    2011 Glare Condition of vision in which there is discomfort or a reduction in

    ability to see, or both, caused by an unsuitable distribution or range of luminance, or to extreme contrasts in the field of vision

    HID High Intensity Discharge – Technologies include High Pressure Sodium, Metal Halide and MV street lighting. For the purposes of this report only, HID will also refer to Fluorescent and Compact Fluorescent luminaires

    I-Table A light intensity distribution table typically provided in an electronic file. Normally provided in an IES or CIE format

    IES Illuminating Engineering Society IES File Electronic file of intensities for a given luminaire, presented in the

    North American Format LM-63-02 Illuminance The total luminous flux incident on a surface per unit area. SI Unit

    (lux) LED Light Emitting Diode – A solid state electronic light source device LTP Light Technical Parameters – The parameters required in AS/NZS

    1158 for compliance to be achieved

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    Luminaire An artificial light fitting consisting of one or more electric light sources, reflectors, lenses and associated electrical components

    Luminance The physical quantity corresponding to the brightness of a surface when viewed from a specific direction. SI Unit: candela per square metre (cd/m²)

    Lumen/Luminous flux The total perceived power of visible radiation, the total power of electromagnetic radiation adjusted for the photopic response of the human eye. SI Unit (Lumen)

    Minamata Convention The Minamata Convention on Mercury – A global treaty to protect human health and the environment from the adverse effects of mercury

    MF Maintenance factor – Ratio of the luminous flux at some point in time to the initial luminous flux. Generally taken at three years. The MF is applied to lighting designs to de-rate the initial lumen output

    MV Mercury Vapour Nadir The vertical angle directly below the luminaire NATA National Association of Testing Authorities Australia Obtrusive Light Light that, because of quantitative, directional or spectral attributes in

    a given context, gives rise to excessive annoyance, discomfort, distraction or a reduction in the ability to see essential information

    Public lighting Lighting that is provided for the purposes of safety and security on public roads, cycle paths, footpaths and pedestrian movement areas. The performance criteria for public lighting schemes can include any or all of the three basic aims of: - a) facilitation of safe movement b) the discouragement of illegal acts and c) contributing to the amenity of an area through increased

    aesthetic appeal PE Cell Photoelectric cell which acts as a light switch Road Lighting/street Lighting

    Public lighting for road reserve, which is the focus of this trial. Where the report alternates between road and street the meaning is unchanged

    Single sided arrangement Luminaires installed on the same side of the road Spill light Light emitted by a lighting installation that falls outside the design

    area, e.g. for the purposes of this report, outside of the road reserve. Spill light may or may not be obtrusive depending on what it affects

    Staggered arrangement Luminaires installed alternatively on each side of the road Semi cut-off luminaire Diffuser is positioned under the luminaire and protrudes out

    (Appendix F) The Trial LED Street Lighting Trial Upcast Angle The angle the luminaire is tilted above horizontal. The upcast is

    normally in the bracket/outreach, not the luminaire. Standard Upcast Angle 5°

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    3 Executive Summary

    The uptake of LED technology for public lighting has increased significantly in the last 10 years worldwide. In response to rapid advancement in LED street lighting technology, Energex and Brisbane City Council (Council) have conducted a trial of minor road LED street lighting. 42 vendors were approached to participate in the trial, and 10 LED luminaire models were selected to be trialled on 17 minor streets across Brisbane.

    100 LED luminaires (10 different LED luminaire models and 10 of each model) were trialled for a two-year period between 2016 and 2018 to gain an understanding of the performance, suitability, reliability and maintenance requirements of the products as well as to inform product specification decisions for future procurement.

    The trial demonstrated that LED luminaire technology and production has matured to a point where it is a good, viable alternative to conventional public lighting technology. The use of LED luminaires will improve street lighting in the city and reduce energy consumption and its associated carbon footprint. The new LED technology can address spill light.

    During the trial some LED luminaires did encounter faults and luminance issues. Of the 100 LED luminaires, four malfunctioned or failed over the trial period and three spill light concerns were received during the trial. Several LED luminaires were observed to be more glary when compared to other LED luminaires in the trial, however, were still acceptable as public lighting luminaires. The trial also noted some sites where the LED luminaire produced quite vivid bands of light/dark across the road surface as well as on the facades of abutting properties.

    While these issues were encountered during the trial it was observed that the manufacturers now have the ability to address these concerns and LED public lighting technology is a robust product for future use.

    On site observations and measurements of the light output during the trial duration show that the trial luminaires performed at an acceptable standard for street lighting. The quality of in service light distribution was generally very good and residents of streets where the trial was conducted also had a positive experience.

    Energex and Council will continue to operate trial LED luminaires to gather further information on performance and failure rates over the life of the luminaire.

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    4 Introduction

    The purpose of the project was to undertake a trial of LED street lighting technologies for pedestrian lighting on minor roads (Category P) to better understand their performance and the available products at the time of the trial. The two-year trial commenced with the installation of trial lights from October to November 2016. Final measurements were undertaken in November 2018.

    The trial has been a joint initiative between Council and Energex. The outcomes will inform product specification decisions for the future procurement of LED street light luminaires.

    Prior to this trial, Energex had undertaken an E2PL trial between 2008 and 2011.

    In the E2PL trial, five light source technologies were trialled, namely CFL, Linear Fluorescent lamps, MV lamps, Metal Halide lamps and LED luminaires. Based upon findings from the E2PL trial, Energex adopted CFL technology as a preferred minor road lighting solution at the time. The E2PL trial report acknowledged that continued improvements in LED technology overtime would make LED technology more suitable for street lighting.

    Consequently, Council was successful in obtaining funds under the Community Energy Efficient Program in 2013 to replace approximately 26,500 minor road luminaires in Brisbane. The use of energy efficient CFL luminaires reduced Council’s carbon footprint, improved energy efficiency, and reduced Council’s electricity costs.

    However, the use of energy efficient CFL luminaires was considered an interim measure until LED technology matured. LED technology has been developing at a very fast pace since 2011 and has been adopted in large quantities by local authorities and public distribution bodies over the last 10 years.

    Council and Energex agreed in 2014 that LED street lighting products had matured enough for a joint trial to be undertaken to better understand the performance of the available Category P LED street lighting products and assess residents’ perception. In March 2015 Energex and Council identified suitable products to be trialled for this purpose and the trial was initiated in 2016.

    The objective of the LED trial is consistent with Energex and Council’s principles for management of public lighting, including: • improving performance and reducing the cost of providing public lighting amenity • delivering energy efficient solutions • reducing maintenance and improving reliability • understanding the environmental impacts of LED street lighting technologies.

    One objective of the trial has been to inform Energex with findings to refine its Technical Specifications for LED luminaires. Additionally, the Minamata Convention on Mercury comes into effect in 2020. MV lamps will no longer be available and manufacturing will either cease or be significantly reduced internationally.

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    Observations and findings from the trial will inform knowledge of failure rates and luminaire depreciation. An understanding of maintenance charges is also important for public lighting providers, designers and customers. The trial luminaires will remain in-situ for operation and observations to continue to enable a comprehensive assessment of reliability and maintenance characteristics of LED street lighting technology over their life. This information can influence the tariff structure, rates and charges for subsequent Electricity Pricing Regulatory Periods.

    5 Scope and Objectives

    This trial focuses on lighting for minor roads in road reserve within Brisbane and utilises Energex’s infrastructure. The trial did not include lighting for major roads as the Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads (TMR) are taking a lead role in developing specifications for LED luminaires on major roads.

    The trial considered the two most common types of luminaires that Council almost exclusively nominates in their design categories P4 and P5 for minor roads (P5 being the lower light level of the two). P4 is designed to achieve a minimum of 0.85 lux average horizontal illuminance and P5 is designed to achieve a minimum of 0.5 lux average horizontal illuminance on the surface of the road reserve, i.e. road and verge. Achieving this level of lighting was a key objective of the trial.

    Council and Energex also assessed the technologies with regard to the performance of different white colour appearances for lighting the road reserve. It is known that under Category P4 and P5 light levels, the eye is predominantly utilising mesopic vision. The human eye has evolved to optimise the ability for an individual to see under very low (e.g. moonlit) conditions. A range of products with different CCT were selected to investigate the perceived visual effects of CCT under category P4 and P5 light levels for users of the road reserve and adjacent residents.

    In the past Council have almost exclusively used semi cut-off HID luminaires for Category P lighting. This is because these luminaires generally allow approximately 20% increased spacing when compared with a HID aeroscreen luminaire. In addition, Council have found that applying an internal adhesive shielding to the inside of the perspex bowl of a semi cut-off HID luminaire is a viable and economic option to reduce spill light into residents’ habitable rooms while continuing to illuminate the required space, which is not available with HID aeroscreen luminaires.

    Council and Energex investigated the suitability of semi cut-off and aeroscreen LED luminaires. I-Tables provided by manufacturers and suppliers indicated minimal difference in terms of allowable spacing between aeroscreen and semi cut-off LED luminaires. As a number of new LED luminaire manufacturers were continuing to develop, it was decided to also validate actual luminaire performance data against manufacturers’ performance claims.

    Images of HID and LED semi cut-off and aeroscreen luminaires are shown at Appendix F.

    The trial did not include: • all other Category P scenarios • non public safety lighting e.g. art and decorative • Major Roads, Category V lighting noting that TMR and Queensland University of

    Technology (QUT) are independently investigating Category V LED Lighting.

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    The trial period of two years is only 10% of the expected 20-year life of the luminaires. This relatively short trial period has provided only a snapshot of the useful life performance information for the lights.

    The trial sites were selected for a range of scenarios in Brisbane however the range selected may not provide suitably diverse environmental conditions to enable an objective understanding of performance over the range of environmental conditions across the Energex supply area.

    6 Project Approach

    In preparation for this trial, performance criteria were considered for selection of appropriate LED luminaire products. There was no industry guideline available that identified technical specifications for the purchase of LED luminaires for the lighting public spaces. Through this trial a number of technical and performance criteria were identified as being appropriate specifications to support decision making including: • I-Tables in absolute photometry • electrical power consumption (actual) • Power Factor • CCT • CRI • Presence of 7 Pin NEMA receptacle • upcast adjustment function.

    Key stakeholders across Energex and Council were identified and information that was provided by 42 various manufacturers and suppliers were evaluated. Out of the 42, 14 manufactures/suppliers offered products that were not suitable for the trial of Category P street lighting and 28 manufacturers/suppliers were identified as having products that potentially met the trial’s Category P street lighting requirements and scope requirements of the trial.

    24 manufacturers/suppliers provided information about their product and four withdrew from the process. Three were assessed as not having compliant products, resulting in products from 17 manufacturers/suppliers being considered for the trial. Across these 17 manufacturers/suppliers, a total of 49 luminaires meeting the criteria were presented for evaluation and comparison.

    The products were assessed by the project team against the following criteria.

    Technical • Absolute maximum weight of 4.9 kg • Provision for PE Control – 4200hrs/year burning – On/Off at ~30 lux +/- 25% (although

    not necessarily D2/NEMA type) • 240V/50Hz electrical supply • Power Factor ≥ 0.85 • Surge protection to around 320 joules • I-Tables in both “.IES” and “.CIE” format, and provided by a NATA accredited

    laboratory or a laboratory recognised by NATA under the mutual recognition scheme • Further I-Tables with available shielding or shading fitted • UV stabilised external components • Any form of shielding or shading available to manage spill light and concerns.

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    Performance • 20 m road reserves • One quarter road reserve offset • 6.5m (P5) and 7.5m (P4) mounting height • Both Category P5 and/or Category P4 compliance • Side entry mount, suited to fit onto a 34 mm diameter/5° upcast spigot.

    Following the assessment against technical criterial an analysis was undertaken to demonstrate if luminaire products would satisfactorily perform in Brisbane minor street situations with a direct replacement of existing luminaires. This was undertaken through a comparison of maximum allowable spacings under single-sided and staggered arrangements for a 20 m wide road reserves. Luminaires were assumed to be positioned at a one quarter road reserve width offset from the property boundary and using a 6.5 m mounting height for Category P5 schemes and a 7.5 m mounting height for Category P4 schemes.

    The product I-Tables were analysed to confirm a minimum of 60 m spacing in staggered and single sided arrangements was achievable. This confirmed that the LED products could be used as a direct replacement for the existing HID street lighting being used across the various typical street lighting configurations to be looked at during the trial.

    Further consideration of energy efficiency was considered. Only products with power consumption less than the most efficient existing Category P product in the Energex network (i.e. 32 watt CFL street light – actual consumption 36.5 watts) were considered.

    Energex had concerns about the weight of luminaires exceeding 4.9 kg as existing infrastructure has a limited ability to carry higher loads. The selection analysis considered the efficiency and weight as a metric.

    Based on scoring results, products were prioritised and a range was selected to have a diverse representation to include: • different CCT • aeroscreen characteristics • semi cut-off (bowl) characteristics • linear light source characteristics.

    Each of the 10 LED luminaires selected were then assessed per: • Energex’s ‘Acceptance Testing’ procedure, as undertaken by Energex’s Network

    Standards team • Testing using UQ’s laboratory facilities to measure and test against absolute system

    load, operating power factor, harmonics and Electro Magnetic Compliance in accordance with AS/NZS – CISPR.15:2011.

    By applying these selection criteria, it was determined that eight manufactures had 10 suitable products for the trial. Category P4 (two manufacturers) and Category P5 (seven manufactures). Some manufacturers had products suitable for both the Category P4 and P5 trial.

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    7 Installation

    Following the selection of 10 different luminaires for the trial, it was proposed to install 10 units of the 10 selected Category P street lighting products, totalling 100 luminaires.

    The locations for the trial luminaires were selected by Council to enable evaluation of LED technologies at diverse localities such as: • localised road environments linking to major roads • road and pedestrian usage such as the inner-city • land use with trees, linked to parks, behind shopping centres • streets with medians and local area traffic management.

    17 streets were selected for the trial, seven in northern Brisbane, five in inner Brisbane, and five in southern Brisbane. Installation was complete by November 2016.

    Table 1 - List of trial streets and suburbs Suburb Street Number of LED

    Luminaires Category

    Bracken Ridge Playford Street 10 P5 Brisbane Howard Street 3 P4 Brisbane Macrossan Street 2 P4 Carindale Weekes Road 5 P5 Sandgate Third Avenue 5 P5 Clayfield Union Street 5 P5 Holland Park West Emma Street 5 P5 Jamboree Heights Galleon Street 10 P5 Eight Mile Plains Malbon Street 15 P4 Geebung Weenga Street 5 P5 Hawthorne Dutton Street 5 P5 Norman Park Hipwood Street 5 P4 Banyo Gaynor Road 5 P5 Petrie Terrace Cricket Street 5 P5 West End Drake Street 5 P5 Bardon Lilley Road 5 P5 St Lucia Brisbane Street 5 P4 100

    8 Monitoring

    A methodology was established for the assessment of LED light performance to evaluate design requirements.

    As per design criteria (AS/NZS1158.3.1) the illuminance was measured in the following ways: • horizontal on the road surface • vertical (1.5 m AFL, i.e. road surface) at five predefined locations.

    In November 2016, after a 100-hour burn-in period, the first in-service monitoring of the LED luminaires was conducted to establish a benchmark against which subsequent measurements could be compared. Measurements were taken at three-monthly intervals over the two-year trial period.

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    Illuminance measurements were recorded using a calibrated Topcon IM-2D hand held illuminance meter. See Appendix D.

    A visual assessment of the LED luminaires was also performed at all sites at three-month intervals. The main observations referred to: • uniformity of light • glare • spill light and throw (distribution) • visual colour appearance.

    The project also monitored perception and concerns raised regarding a luminaire fault or light spill by the community.

    9 Community Engagement

    The project was communicated publicly to support community input where relevant. Communications on the trial included: • a citywide announcement via media release of the collaboration between Energex and

    Council to undertake the LED street lighting trial • local community letters to the trial streets to announce the streets that would be used

    for the trial • a community survey to gauge residents’ perception prior to and one year into the trial • a Council webpage was maintained with trial updates • all streets included in the trial were temporarily signed indicating that the trial luminaires

    were in place.

    Council and Energex were also presented to the Brisbane Astronomical Society on 7 June 2017 on the trial.

    10 Project milestones

    Table 2 - Project Milestones Milestone Timing

    All LED trial products purchased and delivered December 2015

    Trial sites confirmed February 2016

    Energex acceptance testing finalised February 2016

    Communications plan finalised February 2016

    UQ laboratory testing to AS/NZS CISPR.15: 2011 March 2016

    Installation Construction completed November 2016

    Initial light measurement positions set-out, readings taken and Establishment Report completed

    November 2016

    12 Month ‘In-Service’ readings taken, data analysed and Mid-Term Report completed

    October 2017

    24 Month end-of-trial readings taken November 2018

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    11 Technical Assessment

    11.1 Electrical measurements

    Since the emergence of LED luminaires for minor roads, there have been a large number of new manufacturers entering the market. Many of these have little experience in road lighting and associated performance requirements. This has resulted in misinterpretation of technical values and a loss in confidence in manufacturers’ data on LED luminaires. The project therefore, undertook electrical measurements of the selected products in a laboratory environment before installation.

    Prior to installation, one of each luminaire product was selected and electrical measurements recorded for each product. This enabled some confidence in the manufacturers’ electrical data and established a baseline for cross checking against measured data.

    Table 3 summarises electrical measurements of the 10 luminaires chosen for the trial (performed at the UQ laboratory).

    There was little electrical data provided by manufacturers other than power consumption.

    Three manufacturers provided power factor measurements. These values were very close to the UQ laboratory measured values. All luminaires met minimum requirements of a power factor greater than 0.85, with one exception being a power factor of 0.83.

    The manufacturers provided electrical power values for the luminaires. Some luminaires had been extensively tested and the load registered on the AEMO Public Lighting Load Tables. Measured values were compared to the AEMO data where the information was available.

    As the I-Table data is measured in a photometric laboratory, the uncertainty in measurement is traceable to national and international standards. The data in the I-Table is therefore considered more accurate than the manufacturers’ data.

    When there is no AEMO data available, the electrical power consumption was calculated from electrical power consumption during UQ laboratory testing.

    Table 3 – Electrical characteristics Luminaire Measured

    Input Current

    (mA)

    Measured Power

    (W)

    Manufacturer Power (W)

    from AEMO where

    possible

    Difference (W) t

    Measured Power Factor

    THD (%)

    1 103 22.8 21.9 -0.9 (-3.9%) 0.92 13.3 2 81 17.4 16.9^ 0.5 (2.9%) 0.90 0.93s 23.4 3 107 21.2 20.6* 20^ 0.6 (2.8%) 0.83 11.8 4 88 18.9 18* 18^ -0.9 (-4.8%) 0.90 12.8 5 81 18.8 19.4 -0.6 (-3.2%) 0.96 10.6 6 79 18.4 18.01* 18^ 0.4 (2.2%) 0.97 10.5 7 99 21.3 17* 21^ 4.3 (20.2%) 0.90 >0.9s 13.1 8 103 22.9 22.1* 18^ -0.8 (-3.5%) 0.92 13.9 9 92

    96.13s 20.8 22.0

    21.8* 1.2 (5.8%) 0.95

    0.94426s 15.8

    15.68s 10 133 27.5 26.6 -0.9 (-3.3%) 0.86 15.5

    t Comparison is between measured values and those quoted in the IES Files * Indicates data from IES file ^ Indicates data from Manufacturer s Indicates Manufacturer data

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    Table 3 shows the manufacturers’ data correlates well with the electrical measurements taken by UQ laboratory with the exception of product seven which had a 20.2% variation (I-Table data), however, the manufacturers provided data is only 1.4% different.

    11.2 Failures, Issues and Concerns

    Over the two-year trial period there were four incidents of failure:

    • One luminaire had a partial failure mode – the centre row of a three row LED array stopped working reducing the light output immediately below the luminaire by approximately 37%. The levels to the side showed little appreciable reduction. This occurred approximately nine months into the trial.

    • Two luminaires failed completely – one had a very dull output, one started flashing on and off. Manufacturers were made aware of the failures and the failed lights were replaced with conventional HID lights.

    • One luminaire had rapid unexplained changes in light measurements about the fixture approximately 18 months into the trial. The luminance measurements increased at some measurement points while decreasing at others, suggesting a possible shift of the optics.

    The four faults experienced during the trial period are reflective of the maturity of the products chosen for the trial. Since the trial commenced, LED luminaires have continued to be improved and are now considered to be a more robust product than those produced in 2015.

    It is worth noting that the current failure modes of HID and CFL technology in the Energex network is typically failure of the lamp, PE Cell or ballast and these components are replaceable. When an LED fails the luminaire would normally require a full luminaire replacement as component replacement is either not possible or difficult to perform in an in-service environment (i.e. from an elevated platform). The replacement of the entire LED luminaire may at this time, be more costly than the replacement of the components of the HID or CFL luminaire. Good management of product warranties will address this concern. The labour component of maintenance is expected to remain the same for both HID and LED luminaires.

    11.3 Spill light

    There were three spill light concerns received during the trial.

    • Spill light concern from one luminaire was received for Cricket Street, Petrie Terrace. Measurements of vertical illuminance were taken in the plane of the two affected bedroom windows (front window received 0.9-1.2 lux and side window received 0.6 lux). At the time of the trial, the AS4282 recommends a maximum value of 1 lux. The manufacturer was contacted to determine options to reduce spill light to the impacted residence while maintaining lighting compliance. The manufacturer advised the original optics could be replaced with different optics. An I-Table was provided by the manufacturer which confirmed that compliance would still be achieved if the optics were replaced. The optics were replaced and the light levels measurements on the bedroom windows indicated the illuminance levels were reduced (front window 0.3-0.4 lux and side window to 0.2 lux). The customer was satisfied with the outcome.

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    • Second spill light concern was received for Cricket Street, Petrie Terrace. When Council contacted the customer, the customer advised they have installed thicker curtains which had resolved the issue.

    • The final spill light concern related to a linear luminaire for Malbon Street, Eight Mile Plains. This luminaire was replaced with a product with less back spill, as no solution was provided by the associated LED manufacturer. The customer was satisfied with the outcome.

    11.4 Visual Assessment

    The visual assessment of the LED luminaires was performed for all 17 locations every three months. The main observations referred to: • uniformity of light • glare • spill light and throw (distribution) • visual colour appearance.

    A summary of observations is shown in Table 4.

    Table 4 – Subjective observations (summarised by type of luminaire) Luminaire Uniformity Glare Spill light and

    throw Visual colour appearance

    Comments

    1 Good

    Slight A little backspill, good forward throw

    3500K – 4000K Some minor striations across road.

    2 Good, soft pools of light

    No Good back spill

    4000K 45° Toe In front and rear. Some minor dark striations across road.

    3 Average No Quite a bit of forward and back spill

    3000K – 3500K Low lumen output. 45° Toe In.

    4 Good, soft pools of light

    No Good front cut-off, a bit of back spill

    3500K – 4000K, slightly greenish

    5 Good, soft pools of light,

    No Good rear cut off but some forward throw

    3000K – 4000K Some minor striations on road radiating away from luminaire.

    6 Good, soft pools of light

    No 4000K High lumen output. Good forward and rear throw.

    7 Good Slight Good cut-off forward and rear

    4000K with slightly greenish appearance

    High Peak intensity.

    8 Good

    Slight 4000K Good cut-off front and rear

    9 Good

    Slight Good rear cut-off. Some forward throw.

    3500K – 4000K High peak intensity at approx. 45° creates a bright line across road on uphill side.

    10 Good, soft pools of light

    Slight but limited to property behind light

    Little forward throw

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    In summary, LEDs provide a more uniform and better quality of street lighting. The pools of light under the luminaires are softer than HID lamps. LED luminaires have a smaller light source and tend to appear glarier, however, the difference is not significant. Several luminaires appeared to be more glary then some of the other luminaire products used in the trial. LEDs tend to provide a better control of light spill forwards and backwards.

    11.5 Site Measurements

    Onsite technical measurements were recorded for two luminaires of each product used in the trial, with measurements taken every three months following the initial benchmark readings. Site measurements of horizontal and vertical illuminance were taken at a number of set points strategically located around each luminaire and directly underneath (at nadir – horizontal only). This data has been used to investigate the luminaire light output depreciation over time. It is a known characteristic of all light sources that the light output over time varies and gradually diminishes.

    Analysis of the relative average illuminance vs time, have been plotted for each type of LED luminaire product (average of two luminaires) and is shown in Appendix C. All results of readings are plotted for each individual luminaire. All graphs have used the same scale on both axes for direct comparison.

    Luminaire numbers 9 and 10 have only one set of data as one of the two luminaires has been determined as faulty and if included would give erroneous data.

    Measurements of light output during the trial period show the LEDs to be performing satisfactorily. Luminaires demonstrated a slower depreciation of light output then HID luminaires and some key findings are listed: • of the 10 products, six had increased output, three products had a reduced output and

    one remained constant • largest increase is 29% of initial output • largest decrease is 10% of the initial output • there appears to be a trend where the lumen output increases in the cooler months

    and decreases in the warmer months. It is believed an increase in temperature impacts on the LED chip and electronic driver performance and as such reduces the light output of the luminaire

    • when all measured data for all LED products is averaged, the output increases by 3% from initial measurements.

    The site measurements indicate that there is an effect on the lumen output with temperature for the trialled street lighting that is consistent with published literature1 from the world’s leading LED chip manufacturer Cree. There is a seasonal trend where the output is higher in the winter months than in the summer months. During the trial a MV luminaire was chosen to be assessed in the same way to the trial lights for the purpose of establishing a comparison luminaire. Testing undertaken on the MV luminaire over the same duration also shows seasonal variations in the luminance outputs. This is unusual and contradicts published literature which states that ambient temperature should not have a great effect on the light output of HID lamps.

    The MV luminaire depreciated in luminance output as expected noting that the luminaire was installed in a low pollution environment.

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    Literature indicates that LED initial lumen output may be unstable, some LEDs have an increase in output over time before they start to depreciate. “Data before 1,000 hours is not used since many LEDs experience rapid changes during the first 1,000 hours”.5 As a guide, typical burning hours per year in Brisbane (PE-Cell controlled luminaires) are 4,342 hours.

    Multiple methods to extrapolate the data (average of all LEDs) have been attempted. If a linear trend is chosen, the light output will increase with time. Using the “IES TM-21-11 Projecting Long Term Lumen Maintenance of LED Light Sources”6 gives an increasing curve using data from 1,000 hours to 6,000 hours and also using 3,000 hours to 8,300 hours (last measurement).

    As the results from the trial are indicating an unstable light output for a period longer then 1000 hours it is recommended that consideration be given to allowing a longer stabilisation period to allow for the light output to stabilise prior to initial measurements to determine maintenance factor. The maintenance factor is important for output design.

    With regards to the illuminance meter used, a check of the calibration reports for the instrument indicate that there is no change in the sensitivity of the meter for the duration of the trial (appendix D).

    11.6 Correlated colour temperature and colour rendering index

    During the initial round of analysis, measurements of CCT and Colour Rendering Index (CRI) were recorded (Table 5). The UQ laboratory measured data generally aligns with manufacturers’ data where provided.

    Table 5 – CCT and CRI of trial luminaires Luminaire Luminaire

    Flux (Lumens)

    Measured CCT (K)

    Nominal CCT (K)

    SA/SNZ 1158.6*

    Manufacturers’ CCT (K)

    Measured CRI

    Manufacturers CRI

    1 2104 4196 4000 4000 (Neutral White)

    77 70

    2 1517 5899 5700 5700 (Cool White) 73 3 1725 3168 3000 3000 (Warm White) 82 4 1702 3910 4000 4000 (Neutral

    White) 75

    5 2180 4265 4500 4500 (Neutral White)

    75

    6 2012 4448 4500 4500 (Neutral White)

    74

    7 2053 3952 4000 4000 (Neutral White)

    76 >70

    8 2245 4239 4000 4000 (Neutral White)

    79

    9 2008 4099 4000 4000 (Neutral White)

    75

    10 3067 3975 4000 4000 (Neutral White)

    75

    *SA/SNZ TS 1158.6 – Technical Specification – Lighting for roads and public spaces – Part 6 – Luminaires – Performance

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    12 Community Feedback

    Residents were asked for feedback on two occasions, September 2016, before installation and August 2017, a year after installation.

    Figure 1 – Residents’ feedback prior to installation

    Prior to the change to LED street lighting: • an equal number of respondents indicated that they agreed and disagreed that their

    street was sufficiently lit and did not have dark patches • more than half of respondents indicated that there was an adequate number of street

    lights, the lights were not too bright and contributed to the feeling of being safe.

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    Figure 2 – Resident feedback after the trial

    Following the installation of the LED street lighting: • there was an increase in the percentage of residents who thought there were enough

    lights, the street was not too bright and the lights contributed to a feeling of safety (56% to 66%)

    • following the installation of the LED lights less residents considered their street lights to be too dim and in need of upgrading (from 38% to 30% during the trial)

    • residents’ perception that the street is sufficiently lit and does not have dark patches had an almost equal move to a more neutral position.

    The majority of people who provided comments during the trial, were satisfied or very satisfied with the level of lighting. Statements of support taken from the questionnaire included: • I think they are fantastic. We have no problem with them at all. Please keep them. • We are very happy with the LED lighting. We recommend them for other streets. • The lights that are now in place are the best. • Excellent lighting. So much better than previous lighting. The change was obvious. • I am close to the trial LED lights AND think they are much better than the old lights. • I think the new lights are great.

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    13 Conclusion

    The trial of LED was an initiative of both Energex and Council to better understand the performance and the available LED luminaire products for minor street public lighting.

    Prior to the trial, technical analysis of available products was undertaken to understand how the LED luminaires might perform and suit the Brisbane minor street environment. Through the two-year trial, technical analysis was undertaken along with visual observations and community feedback on the evening street environment. Performance of the LED luminaires was monitored along with manufacturer’s response to any emerging issues.

    During the trial there were some performance concerns associated with luminaire failures or light spill concerns. These failures were addressed through the trial. The trial does demonstrate that it will be important for operators to maintain high quality warranty information on public lighting luminaires into the future. To take full advantage of the new LED luminaire technology it will be important to review elements of public lighting hardware, maintenance policy and tariff structures at the next available Regulatory Review Period.

    The trial has demonstrated that when selecting a LED street light luminaire, it is important to receive advice on the treatment available and recommended to manage light spill and glare concerns for each specific product should they arise. Manufacturers have a role in this task in producing their product. It was found that manufacturers are producing accurate and trustworthy product information and data on their LED luminaire products.

    It is clear that LED street lighting technology is mature enough to be considered a viable and economical alternative to using HID technology for minor road lighting. The trial captured and validated sufficient data to inform future corporate product specifications and technical requirements.

    Prior to the commencement of the trial LED luminaires were quoted as a more expensive luminaire product then the HID or CFL alternatives already in use. Since the selection of the trial LED luminaires that commenced in 2015, the LED luminaires available on the market for the Brisbane area are now 6.5% and 74% less than the purchase price of equivalent HID and CFL products.

    Energex and Council evaluation and assessment of the available luminaires should always consider maintenance (component replacement, IP integrity (water resistance)), aesthetics, weight, light distribution characteristics and associated risks and spill light, and glare control. These criteria will support suitable, energy efficient, low life cost luminaires that produce appropriate lighting that can be appropriately controlled.

    Throughout the trial community engagement was undertaken to gauge concerns and comments regarding the performance of the LED luminaires in the trial. It was noted that the community is proactively involved in how they feel that their streets should be illuminated. Overall there was support for the LED luminaire technology.

    The trial has been valuable in providing information that will assist Council and Energex in their decision making relative to LED street lighting policy, standards and guidelines for minor road lighting.

    Both organisations will continue to operate these trial LED luminaires to gather further information on light output and failure rates over the life of the luminaire.

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    14 References

    1. Thermal Management of Cree XLamp LEDs https://www.cree.com/led-components/media/documents/XLampThermalManagement.pdf

    2. Engineering Bulletin High Intensity Discharge Mercury Lamps https://media.distributordatasolutions.com/Sylvania/v1/files/File_Technical_Document_-_High_Intensity_Discharge_MERCURY_Lamps_69408.pdf

    3. Howard Lighting Products HID Lamp Service Guide http://www.howard-lighting.com/Documents/ProductLiterature/HIDLampServiceGuide.pdf

    4. Lighting Research Centre https://www.lrc.rpi.edu/programs/nlpip/lightinganswers/lightpollution/indicatorDirectUplight.asp

    5. LIGHTING RESEARCH CENTRE Capturing the Lighting Edge – August 13, 2012 New York, NY https://www.lrc.rpi.edu/education/outreachEducation/pdf/CLE4/PM3_Photometry.pdf

    6. IES TM-21-11 Projecting Long Term Lumen Maintenance of LED Light Sources Illuminating Engineering Society publication 2011, ISBN-13: 978-0-87995-259-4

    7. South East Queensland Energy Efficient Public Lighting Trial 2008 to 2011

    https://www.cree.com/led-components/media/documents/XLampThermalManagement.pdfhttps://www.cree.com/led-components/media/documents/XLampThermalManagement.pdfhttps://media.distributordatasolutions.com/Sylvania/v1/files/File_Technical_Document_-_High_Intensity_Discharge_MERCURY_Lamps_69408.pdfhttps://media.distributordatasolutions.com/Sylvania/v1/files/File_Technical_Document_-_High_Intensity_Discharge_MERCURY_Lamps_69408.pdfhttp://www.howard-lighting.com/Documents/ProductLiterature/HIDLampServiceGuide.pdfhttp://www.howard-lighting.com/Documents/ProductLiterature/HIDLampServiceGuide.pdfhttps://www.lrc.rpi.edu/programs/nlpip/lightinganswers/lightpollution/indicatorDirectUplight.asphttps://www.lrc.rpi.edu/programs/nlpip/lightinganswers/lightpollution/indicatorDirectUplight.asphttps://www.lrc.rpi.edu/education/outreachEducation/pdf/CLE4/PM3_Photometry.pdf

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    Appendix A – Lighting Categories

    Extract of AS/NZS 1158.3.1 Tables 2.6 – 2.9 - Sub-Categories

    Category P

    Local roads and pathways: Lighting Category

    Average horizontal illuminance (lux)

    Point horizontal illuminance (lux)

    Point vertical Illuminance (lux)

    Comment

    P1 7.0 2.0 2.0 Not used P2 3.5 0.7 0.7 Rarely used P3 1.75 0.3 - Occasional

    use P3 Paths 1.75 0.3 0.3 Off Road

    Bikeways P4 0.85 0.14 - Local Roads

    (Incl bikeways in road)

    P5 0.5 0.07 - Local Roads

    Public Activity Areas excluding Car Parks: Lighting Category

    Average horizontal illuminance (lux)

    Point horizontal illuminance (lux)

    Point vertical Illuminance (lux)

    Comment

    P6 21 7.0 7.0 NA to trial P7 14 4.0 4.0 NA to trial P8 7.0 2.0 2.0 NA to trial

    Connecting Elements: Lighting Category

    Average horizontal illuminance (lux)

    Point horizontal illuminance (lux)

    Point vertical Illuminance (lux)

    Comment

    P9 Same as highest category that abuts the connecting element when forming part of a path or road, but not less than P8

    NA to trial

    P10 35 17.5 17.5 NA to trial

    Car Parks: Lighting Category

    Average horizontal illuminance (lux)

    Point horizontal illuminance (lux)

    Point vertical Illuminance (lux)

    Comment

    P11a 14 3.0 3.0 NA to trial P11b 7.0 1.5 1.5 NA to trial P11c 3.5 0.7 - NA to trial P12 - >=14 - NA to trial

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    Appendix B – Analysis of the 10 individual products used in the trial

    Average Depreciation of each LED luminaire below. Averaged over two test luminaires.

    All graphs of LED luminaires are scaled equally

    The error bars for the average illuminance vs time take the uncertainty in measurement of 0.2 lux or the standard deviation between the two data sets, whichever is greater. It can be seen that where there is a large difference in data for the same product, the error bars get larger.

    Luminaire #1

    Luminaire #2

    0.70

    0.80

    0.90

    1.00

    1.10

    1.20

    1.30

    08/2016 03/2017 09/2017 04/2018 10/2018 05/2019

    LUM

    EN D

    EPRE

    CIAT

    ION

    DATE

    Average depreciation of LED luminaire #1

    Average LED #1

    Gaynor Rd 1

    Gaynor Rd 2

    Summer/Winter 2017

    Winter/Summer 2017

    Summer/Winter 2018

    Winter/Summer 2018

    0.70

    0.80

    0.90

    1.00

    1.10

    1.20

    1.30

    08/2016 03/2017 09/2017 04/2018 10/2018 05/2019

    LUM

    EN D

    EPRE

    CIAT

    ION

    DATE

    Average depreciation of LED luminaire #2

    Average LED #2

    Playford St 1

    Playford St 2

    Summer/Winter 2017

    Winter/Summer 2017

    Summer/Winter 2018

    Winter/Summer 2018

  • LED Street Lighting Trial Report 2019

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    Luminaire #3

    Luminaire #4

    Luminaire #5

    0.70

    0.80

    0.90

    1.00

    1.10

    1.20

    1.30

    1.40

    08/2016 03/2017 09/2017 04/2018 10/2018 05/2019

    LUM

    EN D

    EPRE

    CIAT

    ION

    DATE

    Average depreciation of LED luminaire #3

    Average LED #3

    Galleon St 1

    Galleon St 2

    Summer/Winter 2017

    Winter/Summer 2017

    Summer/Winter 2018

    Winter/Summer 2018

    0.70

    0.80

    0.90

    1.00

    1.10

    1.20

    1.30

    08/2016 03/2017 09/2017 04/2018 10/2018 05/2019

    LUM

    EN D

    EPRE

    CIAT

    ION

    DATE

    Average depreciation of LED luminaire #4

    Average LED #4

    Emma St

    Cricket St

    Summer/Winter 2017

    Winter/Summer 2017

    Summer/Winter 2018

    Winter/Summer 2018

    0.70

    0.80

    0.90

    1.00

    1.10

    1.20

    1.30

    08/2016 03/2017 09/2017 04/2018 10/2018 05/2019

    LUM

    EN D

    EPRE

    CIAT

    ION

    DATE

    Average depreciation of LED luminaire #5

    Average LED #5

    Playford St 1

    Playford St 2

    Summer/Winter 2017

    Winter/Summer 2017

    Summer/Winter 2018

    Winter/Summer 2018

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    Luminaire #6

    Luminaire #7

    Luminaire #8

    0.70

    0.80

    0.90

    1.00

    1.10

    1.20

    1.30

    1.40

    08/2016 03/2017 09/2017 04/2018 10/2018 05/2019

    LUM

    EN D

    EPRE

    CIAT

    ION

    DATE

    Average depreciation of LED luminaire #6

    Average LED #6

    Galleon St

    Third Ave

    Summer/Winter 2017

    Winter/Summer 2017

    Summer/Winter 2018

    Winter/Summer 2018

    0.70

    0.80

    0.90

    1.00

    1.10

    1.20

    1.30

    08/2016 03/2017 09/2017 04/2018 10/2018 05/2019

    LUM

    EN D

    EPRE

    CIAT

    ION

    DATE

    Average depreciation of LED luminaire #7

    Average LED #7

    Union St

    Weekes Rd

    Summer/Winter 2017

    Winter/Summer 2017

    Summer/Winter 2018

    Winter/Summer 2018

    0.70

    0.90

    1.10

    1.30

    08/2016 03/2017 09/2017 04/2018 10/2018 05/2019

    LUM

    EN D

    EPRE

    CIAT

    ION

    DATE

    Average depreciation of LED luminaire #8Average LED #8

    Malbon St

    Howard St

    Summer/Winter 2017

    Winter/Summer 2017

    Summer/Winter 2018

    Winter/Summer 2018

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    Luminaire #9

    Note: One of the two luminaire #9’s had a failure which resulted in only one set of data.

    Luminaire #10

    Note: One of the two luminaire #10’s had a failure which resulted in only one set of data.

    0.70

    0.80

    0.90

    1.00

    1.10

    1.20

    1.30

    08/2016 03/2017 09/2017 04/2018 10/2018 05/2019

    LUM

    EN D

    EPRE

    CIAT

    ION

    DATE

    LED luminaire #9

    LED #9

    Summer/Winter 2017

    Winter/Summer 2017

    Summer/Winter 2018

    Winter/Summer 2018

    0.70

    0.80

    0.90

    1.00

    1.10

    1.20

    1.30

    1.40

    08/2016 03/2017 09/2017 04/2018 10/2018 05/2019

    LUM

    EN D

    EPRE

    CIAT

    ION

    DATE

    Depreciation of LED luminaire #10

    LED #10

    Summer/Winter 2017

    Winter/Summer 2017

    Summer/Winter 2018

    Winter/Summer 2018

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    Appendix C – Analysis of Technologies

    Figures of light output over time

    Note: The data in the graphs are greater than two years, however the report is at two years.

    The error bars for the average illuminance vs time taken the uncertainty in measurement of 0.2 lux or the standard deviation between the two data sets, whichever is greater. It can be seen that where there is a large difference in data for the same product, the error bars get larger.

    Average depreciation of all LED luminaires vs Mercury Vapour street light.

    Note: The timing of measurements of the mercury vapour street light do not coincide with the LED measurements. The effects of temperature may influence the output of either technology which has not been corrected in this data

    Average depreciation for all LED luminaires

    0.700.750.800.850.900.951.001.051.101.15

    0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

    LUM

    EN D

    EPRE

    CIAT

    ION

    Time (Years)

    Average depreciation of all LED luminaires vs Mercury Vapour street light

    All LED Luminaires

    Mercury Vapour

    0.90

    0.95

    1.00

    1.05

    1.10

    1.15

    08/2016 03/2017 09/2017 04/2018 10/2018 05/2019

    LUM

    EN D

    EPRE

    CIAT

    ION

    DATE

    Average depreciation of all LED luminaires

    Average all LEDs

    Summer/Winter 2017

    Winter/Summer 2017

    Summer/Winter 2018

    Winter/Summer 2018

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    Depreciation of Mercury Vapour street light.

    Appendix D – Meter Calibrations All site measurements of illuminance have been recorded using a calibrated Topcon IM-2D Illuminance meter Serial Number 8101.

    As all measurements have been normalised, the uncertainty in the spectral response is not considered. The measurements presented are all directly below the meter so no correction for cosine response has been made.

    The meter was calibrated in Mar 2016 and November 2018. Both calibrations were performed in NATA Accredited Photometric Laboratories.

    The below graph shows the comparison between the calibrations as confirmation that the meter has not changed in its absolute sensitivity over the trial period.

    The correction factors for the meter responsivity have not been applied as all reported data is normalised.

    0.7

    0.75

    0.8

    0.85

    0.9

    0.95

    1

    1.05

    06/2015 12/2015 07/2016 02/2017 08/2017 03/2018 09/2018 04/2019 10/2019

    LUM

    EN D

    EPRE

    CIAT

    ION

    DATE

    Depreciation of Mercury Vapour Street Light

    Mercury Vapour

    Winter/Summer 2015

    Summer/Winter 2016

    Winter/Summer 2016

    Summer/Winter 2017

    Winter/Summer 2017

    Summer/Winter 2018

    Winter/Summer 2018

    y = 0.9865x - 0.0857y = 0.9867x - 0.0649

    -5.0

    0.0

    5.0

    10.0

    15.0

    20.0

    25.0

    30.0

    35.0

    0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0

    Actu

    al Il

    lum

    inan

    ce (l

    ux)

    Measured Illuminance (lux)

    March 2016 vs November 2019 Meter Calibrations - Topcon IM-2D

    QUT Mar 16

    Lightlab Nov 18

    Linear (QUT Mar 16)

    Linear (Lightlab Nov 18)

  • LED Street Lighting Trial Report 2019

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    Appendix E – Luminaire Classifications

    IESNA Cut-off Classification4 Luminaire Classification Lamp lumens emitted

    upward Lamp lumens emitted between 80° and 90°

    Full Cut-off (Aeroscreen) 0 0 – 11% Cut-off 0 – 16% 0 – 11% Semi Cut-off 0 – 31 % 0 – 22%

    Appendix F – Semi cut-off and Aeroscreen Luminaires

    Examples of CFL and LED luminaires. The images below show Semi Cut-off and Aeroscreen models.

    Table 2: CFL and LED luminaires CFL Semi Cut-off CFL Aeroscreen

    LED – Normal LED - Aero screen

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    Appendix G – Before and After Photos

    Brisbane Street, St Lucia (before)

    Brisbane Street, St Lucia (after)

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    Gaynor Road, Banyo – Camera Settings

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    Gaynor Road, Banyo (before)

    Gaynor Rd, Banyo (after)

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    Weenga St, Geebung – Camera Settings

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    Weenga Street, Geebung (before)

    Weenga Street, Geebung (after)

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    Third Avenue, Sandgate – Camera Settings

  • LED Street Lighting Trial Report 2019

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    Third Avenue, Sandgate (before)

    Third Avenue, Sandgate (after)

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    Playford Street, Bracken Ridge – Camera Settings

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    Playford Street, Bracken Ridge (before)

    Playford Street, Bracken Ridge (after)

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    Drake Street, West End – Camera Settings

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    Drake Street, West End (before)

    Drake Street, West End (after)

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    Drake Street, West End (before)

    Drake Street, West End (after)

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    Cricket Street – Camera Settings

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    Cricket Street, Petrie Terrace (before)

    Cricket Street, Petrie Terrace (after)

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    Lilley Road, Bardon – Camera Settings

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    Lilley Road, Bardon (before)

    Lilley Road, Bardon (after)

    1 Disclaimer2 Glossary3 Executive Summary4 Introduction5 Scope and Objectives6 Project Approach7

    7 Installation8 Monitoring9 Community Engagement10 Project milestones11 Technical Assessment11.1 Electrical measurements11.2 Failures, Issues and Concerns11.3 Spill light11.4 Visual Assessment11.5 Site Measurements11.6 Correlated colour temperature and colour rendering index

    12 Community Feedback13 Conclusion14 ReferencesAppendix A – Lighting CategoriesAppendix B – Analysis of the 10 individual products used in the trialAppendix C – Analysis of TechnologiesAppendix D – Meter CalibrationsAppendix E – Luminaire ClassificationsAppendix F – Semi cut-off and Aeroscreen LuminairesAppendix G – Before and After Photos

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