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Lentic waters in Haryana: Water Quality Status and Recommendations for Future Activities Anita Bhatnagar Department of Zoology Kurukshetra University Kurukshetra [email protected]
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Page 1: Lentic waters in Haryana: Water Quality Status and ...cdn.cseindia.org/userfiles/Anita Bhatnagar-Lentic waters-water qualit… · Gurgaon) Hathni Kund (Yamunanagar) Karna (Kurukshetra)

Lentic waters in Haryana:Water Quality Status and

Recommendations for Future Activities

Anita BhatnagarDepartment of ZoologyKurukshetra University

[email protected]

Page 2: Lentic waters in Haryana: Water Quality Status and ...cdn.cseindia.org/userfiles/Anita Bhatnagar-Lentic waters-water qualit… · Gurgaon) Hathni Kund (Yamunanagar) Karna (Kurukshetra)

●• Every day, millions of tons of inadequately treated sewage and industrial and

agricultural wastes are poured into the world’s waters.

●• Every year lakes, rivers, and deltas take in the equivalent of the weight of the entire

human population.

●• Every year, more people die from the consequences of unsafe water than from all

forms of violence, including war.

• These most polluted freshwater ends up in the oceans, causing serious damage to • These most polluted freshwater ends up in the oceans, causing serious damage to many coastal areas and fisheries and worsening our ocean and coastal resource

• And, every year, water contamination of natural ecosystems affects humans directly by destroying fisheries or causing other impacts on biodiversity that affect food production.

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• Water forms the most indispensable, precious and the prime necessity of life

• Pure water is now a scarce commodity -rapid increase in agricultural irrigation needs, -dwindling water resources - lowering of water table -the increasing water pollution on

account of rapid indusralization

Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University ,Kurukshetra

account of rapid indusralization • About 80% of the earth is covered by water• Inland fresh water availability - less than 1% • Total water resources - are 1123 Km3

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To match the increasing water demand

Requires adoption of better management practices.

Research and investigations for sustainable utilization of more and more available water

Pressure on availability and utilization of natural water resources for various anthropogenic needs

Page 5: Lentic waters in Haryana: Water Quality Status and ...cdn.cseindia.org/userfiles/Anita Bhatnagar-Lentic waters-water qualit… · Gurgaon) Hathni Kund (Yamunanagar) Karna (Kurukshetra)

Anthropogenic needs includes

• Drinking Water• water in beverages,• water in food.• For Irrigation• For Irrigation• Water for ensuring food security (Fish

production)• For Bathing/Swimming/Mass Bathing• Water bodies for religious/ ritual activities

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Mewat

21 Districts106 Towns

6955 Villages

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The River Yamuna Flows along its eastern boundary

The Rivers Saraswati is said to have flowed from Yamunanagar but it has now disappeared

The River Ghaggar is Haryana's main seasonal river. It rises in the outer Himalyas between the Yamuna and the Sutlej and enters Haryana near Pinjore, in Panchkula. Passing through Ambala and near Sirsa it reaches Rajasthan.

Rivers Flowing Through Haryana

The Markanda river is also a seasonal stream. Its ancient name was Aruna. It originates from the lower Shivalik hills and enters Haryana west of Ambala.

The Sahibi river originates in the Mewat Hills , On reaching Jhajhar it branches off into two smaller streams, finally reaching the outskirts of Delhi and flowing into Najafgarh lake that flows into the Yamuna through the Najafgarh drain

There are three other rivulets in and around the Mewat hills – Indori, Dohan and Kasavati and they all flow northwards from the south

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Major Lakes/ Wetlands

Badkhal

(Faridabad)

TilyarSultanpur

(Gurgaon)

SurajKund(Faridabad)

Brahmsrovar

Damdama

(Sohna, Gurgaon)

Hathni Kund

(Yamunanagar)

KarnaTilyar

(Rohtak)(Gurgaon)Brahmsrovar

(Kurukshetra)Karna

(Karnal)

Sannihit Sarovar

(Kurukshetra)

Bhindwas

(Jhajjar)

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• Used for Domestic Purpose

• or Fish Culture

Artificial Ponds/Small Natural Ponds

(Especially Village Ponds)

• Which makes an interesting Bio type

Temporary Water Bodies of large or

Small typeSmall type

• Which have religious importance

Man made or Natural Tanks/ Ponds /Temple

ponds

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Water Resources in HaryanaType Area

Perennial Village ponds 14000 hectare

Seasonal Village Ponds 2500 hectare

Reservoirs/Lakes 900 hectareReservoirs/Lakes 900 hectare

Water Harvesting Dams 1000 hectare

Water Logged area 2000 hectare

Saline soil 20000 hectare

Rivers and Tributaries 50000 Km

Canals 22000 m

Drains 2000 Km

Brackish Ground water is in more than 55% of area

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STRENGTHS

• Availability of water Resources

• Scope for diversification of crops

• Good tropical Agroclimatic conditions

• Suitable Conditions for the Application for

WEAKNESSES

• Flood system of irrigation in canal command area

• Brackish ground water in 54 % area

• Cultivation of Water guzzling crop of paddy

the Application for resourse conserving technology

guzzling crop of paddy

• Seepage losses along wide network of canals in western part

• Depletion of groundwater in fresh water zone

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•WORK FOR SUSTAINABILITY OF WATER BODIES

Monitoring and Surveillance to assess reasons for degradation

To disseminate/apply newer technology

It is time to Take action?

To disseminate/apply newer technology for conservation of water bodies

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Rural Fish Culture Ponds of Haryana

(Managed and Unmanaged)

Ponds of fish farms of progressive farmers with the

application of technologyapplication of technology

Water Bodies of Haryana with religious activities

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12

3Hisar

Mewat4

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UNMANAGED PONDS MANAGED PONDS

•No Fertilizer

•No control on cattle entry

•No control on sewage inputs

•No Regular netting

•No monitoring

•Use of Manure

or inorganic fertilizer

•Check on cattle entry

•Regular netting to assess growth

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District Pond site Type Areahectare

Source of water

Kurukshetra Barwa Unmanaged 0.48 Canal

Durala Unmanaged 3.2 Canal / Natural

Adhon Managed 0.6 Tube well / canal

Bohar sadan Managed 0.6 Tubewell /Bohar sadan Managed 0.6 Tubewell /Canal

Hisar Mugalpura Unmanaged 2.0 Natural

Jajanwala Unmanaged 2.0 Canal /Natural

Dabra Managed 0.6 Tubewell

Satrod Managed 1.2 Tubewell

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Nuh Mewat Kira Unmanaged 2 .0 Canal / Natural

Ghasara Tali Unmanaged 3.2 Canal /Natural

Ghasara Managed 1.2 Canal / Tubewell

Hirmuthala Managed 1.6 Canal / Tubewell

Y. Nagar Sasoli Unmanaged 1.32 NaturalY. Nagar Sasoli Unmanaged 1.32 Natural

Chaneti Unmanaged 1.0 Natural

Fatehgarh Managed 0.44 Tubewell

Fatehgarh Managed 0.24 Tubewell

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1

2

3

4

SG

R (%

BW

D-1

)

Wild Managed

8000

10000

Fis

h Y

ield

(K

g/Y

ear/

Hec

tare

)

8235 kg/ha/year

0

2000

4000

6000

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Fis

h Y

ield

(K

g/Y

ear/

Hec

tare

)

Wild Managed

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Physicochemical characteristics of water(APHA, 1998)

• Temperature °C Digital thermometer • pH Electronic pH meter • Turbidity NTU Turbidity meter• Conductivity mm/Cm Conductivity meter • Dissolved oxygen mg L-1 Modified winkler’s method • Free Co2 mg L-1 Titrimetric method • Alkalinity mg L-1 Titrimetric method• Chloride mg L-1 Titrimetric method• Chloride mg L-1 Titrimetric method• Sulphates mg L-1 Spectrophotometric• Phosphates mg L-1 Spectrophotometric• BOD mg L-1 Incubation method• Hardness mg L-1 Titrimetric method• Calcium mg L-1 Titrimetric method• Magnesium mg L-1 Titrimetric method • Ammonia mg L-1 Spectrophotometric method

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BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF POND WATERS

Parameters Methods Formula used References

Phyto-and zooplankton density (nos. L-1)

Sedgwick rafter cell method

L-1= (P × C ×100)L

APHA, 1998

Species diversity (d )

Shannon and weaver index

d = -∑ (ni/N) log2 ni/N Washington, 1984

Net primaryproductivity

Light anddark bottlemethod

NPP = NOP × 0.375t

Golterman

et al.,1978

Page 22: Lentic waters in Haryana: Water Quality Status and ...cdn.cseindia.org/userfiles/Anita Bhatnagar-Lentic waters-water qualit… · Gurgaon) Hathni Kund (Yamunanagar) Karna (Kurukshetra)

Fish Growth/ Productivity studiesFish were bulk weighed by repeated netting and specific growth rate was calculated:

Growth parameter Formula

Specific Growth rateIn W2– In W1

________________ χ 100 t

Growth per cent gain in

• Fish yield was recorded at the time of harvesting•• Coefficient of Correlation & Duncan’s Multiple range testCoefficient of Correlation & Duncan’s Multiple range test•• --SPSS packagesSPSS packages• Species diversity was determined using Shannon and weaver’s diversity

index

Growth per cent gain in body weight

W2- W1

---------- χ 100W1

Page 23: Lentic waters in Haryana: Water Quality Status and ...cdn.cseindia.org/userfiles/Anita Bhatnagar-Lentic waters-water qualit… · Gurgaon) Hathni Kund (Yamunanagar) Karna (Kurukshetra)

Parameter K-1 K-2 K-3 K-4

Water Temp. 0C 22.09±1.09B 22.46±1.24B 22.43±1.20A 21.07±1.60B

p H 9.22±.07A 8.91±.17B 8.51±.15C 8.52±.10C

Conductivity µ S cm-1 838.88±9.01B 1016.49±9.12A 487.77±57.27D 625.55±47.43C

Dissolved oxygen mg L-1

5.92±.37B 5.39±.20B 7.58±.09A 7.68±.19A

Free CO2 mg L-1 12.49±2.43B 1.38±1.27C Absent 14.27±3.12A

Carbonate Alkalinity mg L-1 3.44±3.15C 17.61±1.90B 23.05±.85A nil

BiocarbonateAlkalinity mg L-1

274.94±18.67C 461.05±14.68A 295.05±5.89B 268.99±12.74C

Total alkalinity mg L-1 295.60±19.05A 478.66±20.09A 318.05±6.12B 268.99±12.74A

Physico-chemical and Biological Characteristics of pond water in District Kurukshetra

Total alkalinity mg L-1 295.60±19.05A 478.66±20.09A 318.05±6.12B 268.99±12.74A

Total Hardness mg L-1 237.35±4.60B 276.27±17.72A 198.71±5.39D 217.89±3.09C

Calcium mg L-1 44.61±2.87A 40.62±4.96A 17.72±1.19B 41.49±1.60A

Magnesium mg L-1 30.68±1.58 42.65±1.51A 37.51±1.88C 27.82±1.41D

Chloride mg L-1 64.68±6.78B 89.31±1.94A 24.59±1.72D 33.15±7.45C

o-phosphate mg L-1 1.66±.28A 1.41±.41A 0.69±.14B 0.60±.06B

Total phosphate mg L-1 2.52±.25B 2.80±.44A 1.17±.22C 1.01±.11C

Total ammonia mg L-1 1.88±.28A 1.51±.03A 0.29±.o2B 0.399±.05B

BOD mg L-1 3.04±.08A 2.87±.12B 2.05±.05C 2.03±.06C

Plankton Population L-1 4596.66±253.7A 4470.00±158.78A 3906.66±229.63B 3926.66±174.88B

Phytoplankton L-1 2506.66±156.5A 2460.00±90.65AB 2320.00±167.71B 2420.00±104.00AB

Zooplankton L-1 2090±138.76B 2010±96.02A 1586.66±85.00BC 1506.66±95.43C

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CosmariumVolvox

MicrosporaCladophora

ZygnemaOedogonium

oscillatoriaPhormidium

Nostoc

Phyto

lankto

n taxa Cosmarium

VolvoxMicrosporaCladophora

ZygnemaOedogonium

oscillatoriaPhormidium

Nostoc

Volvox√

1314 14 14

0 100 200 300 400

K-1

DiatomaCyclotella

NaviculaSynedra

ClosteriumSpirogyra

UlothrixCosmarium

Phyto

lankto

n taxa

0 100 200 300 400

K-2

0 100 200 300 400

K-3

DiatomaCyclotella

NaviculaSynedra

ClosteriumSpirogyra

UlothrixCosmarium

0 100 200 300 400 500

K-4

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DaphaniaMoina

NaupliusBosmina

CyprisChironomid

Zoop

lankto

n tax

a Moina

Nauplius

Bosmina

Cypris

Chironomid

*0 200 400 600

K-1

BranchionusKeretellaCyclops

DiaptomusDaphania

Zoop

lankto

n tax

a

0 100 200 300 400 500

K-2

Branchionus

Keretella

Cyclops

Diaptomus

Daphania

0 100 200 300 400

K-3

0 200 400

K-4

**

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1

2

3

4

Spe

cific

gro

wth

rat

e

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

NP

P m

g C

cm

3 d

ay-1

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

Am

mo

nia

(mg

L-1

)

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

BO

D (

mg

L-1

)

0100020003000400050006000700080009000

K-1 K-2 K-3 K-4

Selected ponds

Fis

h y

ield

(K

g/Y

ear)

Page 27: Lentic waters in Haryana: Water Quality Status and ...cdn.cseindia.org/userfiles/Anita Bhatnagar-Lentic waters-water qualit… · Gurgaon) Hathni Kund (Yamunanagar) Karna (Kurukshetra)

Physicochemical and Biological Characteristics of pond (Y-1-Y-3) Waters in District Yamuna Nagar

Parameter Y-1 Y-2 Y-3

Water Temp. 0C 22.64±1.81A 22.84±1.75A 23.03±1.85A

pH 8.65±.20A 8.40±.23B 7.65±.13C

Conductivity µ S cm-1 943.22±31.32A 681.62±37.95B 592.38±46.47C

Salinity ppt 0.0 0.0 0.0

Dissolved oxygen , mg L-1 4.35±.49C 7.30±.89B 9.38±.90A

Free CO2 mg L-1 11.99±4.97B 28.10±3.99B 13.16±5.89B

CarbonateAlkalinity mg L-1 7.00±3.41A nil 6.72±3.29A

BiocarbonateAlkalinity mgL-1

301.66±23.84A 264.33±12.42B 260.72±12.89B

L

Total alkalinity, mg L-1 308.66±24.29A 264.33±12.42B 267.44±12.89B

Total Hardness mg L-1 218.66±13.76A 185.83±2.67B 231.27±16.37A

Calcium mg L-1 19.18±1.29B 23.18±1.94B 52.38±8.77A

Magnesium mg L-1 42.43±3.50A 33.48±1.49B 26.90±2.45C

Chloride mg L-1 71.15±17.03A 59.3±2.72A 38.04±14.78B

o-phosphate mg L-1 0.874±.16B 1.08±.09A 0.780±.16B

Total phosphate mg L-1 1.39±.25B 2.04±.31A 1.21±.14B

Total ammonia mg L-1 1.81±.62A 1.28±.07B 0.74±.19C

BOD mg L-1 3.0±.13A 2.58±.06B 1.66±.09C

Plankton Population L-1 5030±122.24A 4543.33±341.66B 4566.66±147.66B

Phytoplankton L-1 2680±68.90B 2460±183.95B 2926.66±117.69A

Zooplankton L-1 2350±120.44A 2083.33±197.54B 1640±59.10C

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UlothrixCosmarium

VolvoxMicrosporeCladophore

ZygnemaOedogonium

OcillatoriaPhormidium

Spirulina

Phyt

opla

nkto

n ta

xa

0 100 200 300 400

Y-1

DiatomaCyclotella

NaviculaSynedra

ClosteriumSpirogyra

100 200 300 400

Y-2

100 200 300 400 500

Y-3

Phyt

opla

nkto

n ta

xa

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Daphania

Moina

Nauplius

Bosmina

Cypris

Chironomid

Hydrophilide

Zopl

ankt

on ta

xa

0 200 400 600

Y-1

Branchionus

Keretella

Cyclops

Diaptomus

Daphania

Zopl

ankt

on ta

xa

0 200 400 600

Y-2

0 200 400 600

Y-3

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0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

Sp

ecif

ic g

row

th r

ate

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

Am

mo

nia

(m

g L-1

)

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

BO

D (

mg

L-1

)

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

Y-1 Y-2 Y-3

Selected Ponds

Fis

h y

ield

(K

g/y

ear)

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Parameter N-1* N-2 N-3 N-4

Water Temp. 0C 19.36±.02 22.9±.86A 22.45±1.28A 22.93±1.02A

p H 8.72±.003 9.2±.03A 8.17±.09C 8.83±.14B

Conductivity µ S cm-1 5298±3.40 5289.6±71.01A 2688.66±36.28C 3576.59±39.61B

Salinity ppt 0.0 2.0 1.0 1.0

Dissolved oxygen mg L-1 5.93±.03 4.94±.64A 8.36±.64A 8.11±.48A

Free CO2 mg L-1 19.5±.38 Absent Absent Absent

Carbonate Alkalinity mg L-1 nil 25.53±1.39A 14.06±1.74B 13.86±.37B

BiocarbonateAlkalinity mg L-1 295.00±.78 347.46±11.33B 173.33±5.51C 378.46±28.29A

Physicochemical and Biological Characteristics of pond (N-1-N-4)watersin District Nuh Mewat

Total alkalinity mg L-1 295.00±.78 372.19±11.60B 187.39±4.14C 392.32±28.09A

Total Hardness mg L-1 513.66±2.33 466.13±14.59A 312.73±10.99C 349.43±8.65B

Calcium mg L-1 33.21±2.00 69.80±1.18A 76.93±43.05C 61.65±1.94B

Magnesium mg L-1 105.07±.92 71.15±3.38A 58.65±2.40B 47.65±1.51C

Chloride mg L-1 133.35±.64 103.75±1.80A 90.57±2.01B 82.82±1.38

o-phosphate mg L-1 2.26±.02 1.71±.12A 0.96±.18C 1.49±.05B

Total phosphate mg L-1 2.95±.04 3.51±.19A 1.62±.14C 2.69±.24B

Total ammonia mg L-1 - 3.53±.67A 1.29±.05B 1.12±0.64

BOD - 3.01±.08A 2.31±.09C 2.70±.09

Plankton Population L-1 4400 4456±176.33A 3992±170.31B 3968±232.32B

Phytoplankton L-1 2400 2456±56.26A 2496±106.78A 2392±150.67A

Zooplankton L-1 2000 2000±135.66A 1512.0±92.44B 1576±95.32B

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CosmariumVolvox

MicrosporaCladophora

ZygnemaOedogonium

OscillatoriaPhormidium

Nostoc SpirulinaTabellaria

Phyto

plankt

on tax

a

0 100 200 300 400

N-30 100 200 300 400

N-4

0 100 200 300 400

N-1

DiatomaCyclotella

NaviculaSynedra

ClosteriumSpirogyra

UlothrixCosmarium

Phyto

plankt

on tax

a

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

N-2

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Moina

Nauplius

Bosmina

Cypris

Chironomid

Hydrophilide

Eubranchus

Zoopl

ankton

taxa

MoinaNaupliusBosmina

CyprisChironomid

HydrophilideEubranchus

0 100 200 300 400

Branchionus

Keretella

Cyclops

Diaptomus

Daphania

Moina

Zoopl

ankton

taxa

0 100 200 300 400

N-2100 200 300 0 50 100 150 200 250 300

N-4

BranchionusKeretellaCyclops

DiaptomusDaphania

Moina

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0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

Sp

ecif

ic g

row

th r

ate

0

1

2

3

4

Am

mon

ia m

g L

-1

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

BO

D m

g L

-1

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

N-1 N-2 N-3 N-4

Fis

h y

ield

(K

g/y

ear

)

Selected ponds

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Physico-chemical and Biological Characteristics of ponds (H-1-H- 4) waters in District Hisar

Parameter H-1 H-2 H-3 H-4

Water Temp. 0C 22.12±1.40A 22.24± 1.36AB 23.57± 1.06A 23.92±.90A

p H 9.08± .09A 8.19± .02B 8.17±.08B 8.12±.13B

Conductivity µ S cm-1 4201.94± 56.60A 1618.33± 10.45B 1023.44± 84.40C 427.66±15.97D

Salinity ppt 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Dissolved oxygen mg L-1 3.93± .08D 6.26± .03C 7.21±.05B 7.51±.06A

Free CO2 mg L-1 Absent 22.55±1.42A 11.50±.95C 13.10±1.55B

Carbonate Alkalinity mg L-1 57.21± 4.25A nil nil Nil

Biocarbonate Alkalinity mg L-1 429.77± 25.64A 382.83±14.67B 240.55±9.16C 168.16±2.34D

Total alkalinity mg L-1 486.98± 22.82A 382.83±14.67B 240.55±9.16C 168.16±2.34D

Total Hardness mg L-1 543.72± 14.60A 206.33± 6.6C 234.83±28.21B 172.11±3.24D

Calcium mg L-1 73.26± 10.65A 41.57± 1.69B 43.54±11.76B 26.45±4.06C

Magnesium mg L-1 87.96± 8.88A 25.04± 2.40B 30.75±1.05B 25.87±2.79B

Chloride mg L-1 221.26± 11.16A 193.18± 13.04B 115.65±22.55C 9.42±.38D

o-phosphate mg L-1 2.3± .06A 1.93± .04B 0.74±.02C 0.46±.02D

Total phosphate mg L-1 2.87± .10A 2.54±.03B 1.15±.05C 0.63±.05D

Total ammonia mg L-1 2.05± .56A 1.36±.35B 0.52±.04C 0.59±.11C

BOD mg L-1 2.70± .13B 3.04± .10A 2.45±.05C 2.38±.10C

Plankton Population L-1 3780±193.21A 3893.33±238.62A 3520±208.65B 3333.33±156.86B

Phytoplankton L-1 2153.33±143.35A 2076.66±172.74A 2206.66±157.73A 2083.33±113.02A

Zooplankton L-1 1626.66±83.94B 1816.66±151.17A 1313.33±98.55C 1037.33±183.00C

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UlothrixCosmarium

VolvoxMicrosporaCladophora

ZygnemaOedogonium

OscillatoriaPhormidium

Nostoc

Phyt

opan

kton

taxa

0 200 400

H-1

DiatomaCyclotella

NaviculaSynedra

ClosteriumSpirogyra

Ulothrix

Phyt

opan

kton

taxa

0 100 200 300

H-2

0 100 200 300

H-3

0 100 200 300 400

H-4

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MoinaNaupliusBosmina

CyprisChironomid

HydrophilideEubranchus

Zoop

lank

ton

taxa

0 100 200 300 400

H-1

BranchionusKeretellaCyclops

DiaptomusDaphania

Moina

Zoop

lank

ton

taxa

0 100 200 300 400

H-2

0 100 200 300

H-3

0 100 200 300

H-4

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0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

Sp

ecif

ic g

row

th r

ate

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

Am

monia

(m

g L

-1)

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

BO

D m

g L

-1

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

H-1 H-2 H-3 H-4

Fis

h Y

ield

(kg

/yea

r)

Selected ponds

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√√

DENDROGRAM

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SALIENT FINDINGSØ Mortality in the ponds during the study period was

invariably due to low dissolved oxygen content and high ammonia values.

Ø Unmanaged ponds invariably had High BOD and Ammonia indicating that water quality of ponds need management and control on the entry of sewage and cattle.and control on the entry of sewage and cattle.

Ø Production of Fish food organisms i.e. planktons were in good number from unmanaged as well as managed ponds indicating that if properly managed, these ponds can be used for fish production contributing to food security

Ø If managed they can be used as water resource for domestic and Agricultural needs.

Ø There is a need to standardize management practice.

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Impact of religious activities on prominent water bodies of Haryana

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Ø India is a religious countryØ Religious activities

– • Idol immersion•Floral Offering•Mass bathing•Rubbibg Filth•Use of detergents during mass bathing•Use of detergents during mass bathing•Frolicking•Offering Lamp with oil and coins•Offering Ash•Offering dead bodies•Offering Coconut shell etc.

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DETERIORATE WATER

QUALITY

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Sr.No

Name of waterbody

District Latitude,Longitude

Activity

1. Brahmsarovar Kurukshetra 29.961N,76.827E

Mass Bathing on everyNew Moon day(Amavasya) and Solareclipse day

2. Saraswati tirth Pehowa,Kurukshetra

29.978N76.596E

Pind-dan and bathingduring Sharad, Sloar eclipse& Kartik amavasya

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3. Kapalmochan Yamunanagar 30.326N,77.317 E

Mass Bathing and Floral+oil lamp offering on FullMoon Day of Kartik ( Kartikmass ki purnima(Oct./Nov),Gurunanak jayanti alsoFalls on same day

4. Phalgu tirth Faral Village,Kaithal

29.835N,76.587 E

Pilgrim Dip and rituals, likefloral offerings on Newmoon day (Amavasya) ofSharadh (Sept-Oct)Sharadh (Sept-Oct)

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Sr.No

Name ofwater body

District Latitude,longitude

Activity

5. Ban Gangatirth

Dayalpur,Kurukshetra

29.937 N,76.813 E

Vaishakhi (April)

6. Pandu-Pindaratirth

Jind 29.309 N,76.322 E

Somvati amvasya,Solar eclipse, Sharad

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7. Jyotisar Kurukshetra 29.956 N,76.778 E

Amavasya, Solar eclipse

8. Kirmach Kurukshetra 29.922 N,76.806 E

Kultarn titrth, Fair at Septmonth

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Impact of religious activity on physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient status of water of Brahmsarovar before and after “Amavasya”

Parameter Before Activity After Activity Before Activity After Activity

Water Temp. 25.42±0.15 26±0.29 27.58±3.36 27.5±0.18

pH 7.15±0 6.36±0.83 7.15±0.16 7.03±0.11

Conductivity 168.04±2.37* 175.74±1.44* 146.04±1.06* 159.2±1.07*

TDS 210±1.04* 228±1.56* 189.22±2.31* 203.67±1.24*

Turbidity 4.3±0.72* 10.02±1.06* 11.03±0.2* 12.38±0.1*

Free CO2 0.89±0.48* 8.89±2.31* 2.22±0.62* 25.33±2.19*

DO 8.27±0.0.19* 3.16± 0.11* 8.54±0.11* 1.6±0.12*

BOD 5.07±0.13* 11.6±.44* 8.13±0.27* 10±0.23*BOD 5.07±0.13* 11.6±.44* 8.13±0.27* 10±0.23*

COD 27.62±2.52* 51.43±0.82* 54.29±0.82* 115.71±0.82*

T. alkalinity 34.67±2.54* 38.22±1.31* 36.22±2.09 39.56±1.82

Chloride 6.85±0.26* 8.39±0.5* 5.19±0.22* 6.52±0.34*

Hardness 74.22±0.7* 78±0.47* 76.22±.62* 80.89±1.11*

Calcium 15.05±0.17* 15.98±0.34* 18.6±.22* 21.59±0.2*

Magnesium 17.67±0.17* 18.57±0.11* 18.06±0.15* 19.11±0.27*

phosphate 0.52±0.08 0.9±0.12 0.31±0.02* 0.6±0.07*

Sulphate 46.84±0.63 45.76±0.29 58.39±6.07 49.08±2.14

Ammonia 0.17±0.03 0.42±0.12 0.07±0.01* 0.45±0.05*

Nitrite .05±0 0.13±0.04 1.09±0.03 0.72±0.22

Nitrate 0.06±0 0.15±0.05 0.09±0.01 0.13±0.04

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Sr. No.

Parameter Before Activity After Activity Before Activity After Activity

1. Water Temp. 25.42±0.15 25.42±0.15 28.42±0.15 28.17±0.28

2. pH 7.18±0.01 7.19±0 7.1±0.27 6.4±0.17

3 Conductivity 273.67±1.42* 394.22±2.63* 585.78±2.43* 610±1.29*

4. TDS 377.78±13.92* 444.44±9.3* 753±0.89* 814±0.7*5. Turbidity 5.9±0.37* 12.1±1.28* 9.88±0.18* 55.77±3. 07*

6. Free CO2 6.44±0.44* 61.56±0.56* 30.89±6.59* 558.44±75.93*

7 DO 8.72±0.18* 3.92±0.13* 8.8±0.1* 0.8±0.1*

8 BOD 16.4±.23* 21.33±0.53* 10.53±.27* 25.07±0.13*

Pehowa (Saraswati Tirth) Chautra Chaudas Mela and Shradh

8 BOD 16.4±.23* 21.33±0.53* 10.53±.27* 25.07±0.13*

9 COD 61.9±1. 26* 85.71±0.82* 62.86±2.97* 131.9±2.08

10 T. alkalinity 90.22±2.59* 128.89±0.82* 160±0.67* 228±1.25*

11 Chloride 15.35±1.23* 30.15±0.33* 65.49±0.26* 75.99±2.06*12 Hardness 128.67±2.26* 177.33±0.88* 288.89±1.92* 312.33±1.78*

13 Calcium 35.98±0.74* 41.12±0.36* 57.38±0.19* 62.7±0.15*

14 Magnesium 30.35±0.54* 42.08±0.22* 68.82±0.46* 74.36±0.43*

15 phosphate 0.55±0.07* 1.56±0.06* 1.1±0.06 1.81±0.37

16 Sulphate 25.41±1.38* 32.84±0.49* 34.82±1.36 30.1±317 Ammonia 0.18±0.04* 1.84±0.35* 0.61±0.38* 2.31±.23*

18 Nitrite 0.09±0.01* 0.06±0* 0 0.04±0.02

19 Nitrate 0.06±0 0.4±0.17 0.31±0.03 1.07±0.48

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Pandu-Pindara Tirtha (Solar Eclipse and Somvati Amavasya)

Sr. No.

Parameter Before Activity After Activity Before Activity After Activity

1. Water Temp. 26.5±0.71 25.83±0.69 26.17±0.8 026.17±0.92. pH 7.22±0 7.21±0 6.78±0.03* 4.68±0.03*3 Conductivity 2094.44±54.24* 4491±7.72* 202.44±0.5* 452.67±0.53*4. TDS 3146±35.6* 5858±17.74* 282.67±0.71* 600.11±0.48*5. Turbidity 12.13±0.79* 46.35±1.85* 12.27±0.24* 65.52±0.59*6. Free CO2 39.78±1.08* 308±10.81* 0* 717.78±3.64*7 DO 8.8±0.1 2.14±0.14* 8.4±0.1 0.72±0.09*8 BOD 7.07±0.35* 18.13±0.13* 8.27±0.27* 13.8±1.11*8 BOD 7.07±0.35* 18.13±0.13* 8.27±0.27* 13.8±1.11*9 COD 46.19±2.08* 93.33±0.48* 32.38±2.08* 58.57±0.82*10 T. alkalinity 387.33±5.57* 489.11±5.76* 82.22±0.52* 139.33±0.47*11 Chloride 5.96±0.23 6.41±0.34 17.56±0.23* 8.61±0.17*12 Hardness 484.89±2.54* 614.44±1.19* 86.67±0.47* 175.33±0.47*13 Calcium 41.12±0.41* 60.28±1.51* 21.59±0.14* 23.92±0.15*14 Magnesium 60.28±1.51* 148.18±0.27* 20.52±0.11* 42.09±0.11*15 phosphate 1.57±0.07* 4.13±0.27* 0.7±0.01* 9.63±0.01*16 Sulphate 315.0.72±0.72* 171.99±7.12* 26.31±0.07* 21.15±0.17*17 Ammonia 0.87±0.03* 28.68±0.72* 0.46±0* 6.57±0.02*18 Nitrite 0.08±0* 0.72±0.02* 0* 0.21±0*19 Nitrate 0.3±0* 1.3±0.03* 0.22±0* 1.9±0*

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Phalgu Tirth (Somvati Amavasya)Sr.No Parameter Before Activity After Activity

1. Water Temp. 27.42±0.15 27.42±0.152. pH 7.08±0.05 7.17±0.133 Conductivity 588±1.63* 672.33±1.56*4. TDS 742.89±2.06* 854.56±2.54*5. Turbidity 10.25±0.65* 19± 0.49*6. Free CO2 9.56±0.44* 90.22±3.36*7 DO 8.63±0.16* 1.83±0.12*8 BOD 13.73±0.27* 20.93±0.58*9 COD 21.43±0.82* 74.29±2.97*9 COD 21.43±0.82* 74.29±2.97*10 T. alkalinity 204±1.37* 265.56±2.66*11 Chloride 36.89±0.51* 41.97±0.22*12 Hardness 266±2.38* 300.44±6.13*

13 Calcium 47.01±0.17* 58.13±0.22*14 Magnesium 63.54±0.58* 71.62±1.5*15 phosphate 0.17±0.02* 1.46±0.09*16 Sulphate 25.95±1.24 27.04±1.4617 Ammonia 0.6±0.09* 1.7±0.1*18 Nitrite 0 019 Nitrate 0. 18±0.02* 0.11±0.01*

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Kulotaran tirtha (Badhrapad’s full moon day-30.9.12)

Sr. No. Parameter Before Activity After Activity1. Water Temp. 28.92±0.24 28.5±0.182. pH 7.43±0.1 7.25±0.043 Conductivity 689±2.49* 704.33±0.88*4. TDS 874.67±7.37* 921.33±0.33*5. Turbidity 39.45±2.46* 61.78±0.42*6. Free CO2 53.11±2.31* 71.78±3.15*7 DO 5.56 ±0.17* 0.85±0.11*8 BOD 6.13±.35* 9.47±0.35*9 COD 66.19±1.26* 98.57±2.97*9 COD 66.19±1.26* 98.57±2.97*10 T. alkalinity 209.78±0.529 208.22±0.5211 Chloride 69.69±0.42 69.8±0.2212 Hardness 184.44±0.8* 188.67±0.75*13 Calcium 31.31±0.19* 34.67±0.19*14 Magnesium 44.1±0.29* 45.03±0.18*15 phosphate 4.08±0.15 4.3±0.0616 Sulphate 23.79±0.35 23.6±1.7717 Ammonia 0.67±0.09 0.96±0.0318 Nitrite 0.01±0 019 Nitrate 0.41±0.03* 0.33±0.01*

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Kapalmochan (Kartik's full moon Day )Sr. No. Parameter Before Activity After Activity

1. Water Temp. 17.92±0.24 17.83±0.172. pH 7.28±0.08 7.22±0.033 Conductivity 495.78±1.32* 504.67±1.8*4. TDS 630.78±2.26* 649.22±1.45*5. Turbidity 10.17±0.28* 12.55±0.2*6. Free CO2 20.89±0.59* 28.87±0.67*7 DO 8.36±0.1* 4.27±0.1*8 BOD 10.13±0.35* 14.67±0.13*8 BOD 10.13±0.35* 14.67±0.13*9 COD 72.38±4.23* 77.14±0.82*10 T. alkalinity 181.56±0.56* 210.89±0.59*11 Chloride 27.94±0.26* 30.15±0.29*12 Hardness 238.67±0.47* 243.56±0.65*13 Calcium 48.03±0.6* 55.04±0.42*14 Magnesium 56.84±0.12* 57.83±0.17*15 phosphate 0.09±0.03* 0.2±0.05*16 Sulphate 35.2±1.18* 30.65±1.61*17 Ammonia 0.9±0.07* 1.22±0.03*18 Nitrite 0.19±0* 0.27±0.02*19 Nitrate 0.23±0.02 0.26±0.01

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Jyotisar (Solar eclipse and Amavasya)Sr. No.

Parameter Before Activity After Activity Before Activity After Activity

1. Water Temp. 26.08±0.15 26.08±0.15 27.25±0.11 27.58±0.152. pH 7.17±0 7.18±0 8.25±0.07 8.42±0.093 Conductivity 353.33±0.89* 358.5±0.89* 218.33±1.29* 232.17±0.75*4. TDS 456.17±0.88* 470.5±2.39* 294.17±0.6* 312±0.58*5. Turbidity 8.42±0.22* 9.95±0.24* 8.07±0.07 8.2±0.066. Free CO2 12.33±0.62 12.67±0.99 0 07 DO 7.47±0.17* 5.14±0.23* 8.4±0.17* 4.8±0.12*8 BOD 7.47±0.13* 10.93±0.13* 6.27±0.13* 8.27±0.13*8 BOD 7.47±0.13* 10.93±0.13* 6.27±0.13* 8.27±0.13*9 COD 42.86±0.82* 65.71±0.82* 61.9±1.26 120±0.82*

10 T. alkalinity 124.67±0.67* 128±1.27* 81.33±1.34 82±0.7311 Chloride 10.93±0.26 11.1±0.31 9.44±0.22* 10.44±0.22*12 Hardness 162±0.73* 164.33±.62* 114.33±.62* 125.67±0.62*13 Calcium 26.07±0.22 25.79±.28 15.28±.26* 17.24±.19*14 Magnesium 38.77±0.18* 39.35±.15* 27.45±0.15* 30.16±0.15*

15 phosphate 0.46±0.04 0.47±0.02 0.42±0.05* 0.19±0.02*16 Sulphate 47.81±2.6* 28.9±0.46* 28.5±0.25* 27.16±0.29*17 Ammonia 0.35±.07* 1.39±0.5* 0.17±0* 0.25±0.01*18 Nitrite 0.06±0 0.05±0 0.85±0.03* 0.55±0.03*19 Nitrate 0.04±0* 0.1±0.02* 0.16±0* 0.23±0.01*

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BanGanga (Vaishakh’s full moon day) )Sr. No.

Parameter Before Activity After Activity Before Activity After Activity

1. Water Temp. 26±0.13 25.33±0.17 27.42±0.15 26.92±0.24

2. pH 7.17±0 7.16±0 7.33±0.05 7.38±0.063 Conductivity 530.33±1.34* 541±0.97* 424±1.27* 433.83±0.71*

4. TDS 601±0.97* 681.17±7.05* 563±0.58* 665.17±3.68*

5. Turbidity 7.9±0.11* 9.7±0.09* 13.35±0.4* 16.42±1.04*

6. Free CO2 16.33±1.14* 23±0.86* 8±0.52* 19.67±2.28*

7 DO 8.0±0.11* 4.2±0.14* 8.45±0.13* 4.67±0.14*

8 BOD 8.27±0.13* 10.8±0.23* 7.07±0.35* 9.33±0.13*8 BOD 8.27±0.13* 10.8±0.23* 7.07±0.35* 9.33±0.13*9 COD 35.24±1.26* 91.9±4.23* 61.43±1.65* 108.1±0.48*

10 T. alkalinity 183.33±0.67 184±0.73 175±1.13* 179±1.13*

11 Chloride 39.59±0.6 40.42±0.33 31.48±0.49 31.31±0.22

12 Hardness 207.67±0.62 209±0.86 171±0.86* 180±0.73*

13 Calcium 38.13±0.42* 39.53±0.22* 27.05±0.26* 29.86±0.19*

14 Magnesium 49.56±0.15 49.85±0.21 40.94±0.2* 43.05±0.17*

15 phosphate 0.44±0.02* 0.65±0.05* 0.25±0.03* 0.36±0.02*

16 Sulphate 16.43±0.21* 19.35±0.32* 14.88±2.15 20.79±0.42*

17 Ammonia 0.54±0.01* 0.76±0.08* 0.5±0.01* 0.63±0.01*18 Nitrite 0.06±0* 0.14±0.08* 0.43±0.21 019 Nitrate 0.09±0* 0.15±0* 0.16±0.01* 0.17±0.01*

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Table: Depicting the Mean± Standard error values of all the selected water bodies

Parameter

Brahmsarovar Pehowa Pindara Phalgu Kirmach Kapalmochan Jyotisar Banganga

Water Temp.

24.9±0.9 26.04±0.98 24.24±0.82 25.95±1.37 30.32±0.38 21.77±1.59 24.87±1.03 24.64±1.03

pH 7.12±0.05 6.98 ±0.07 6.75 ±0.14 7.04±0.06 7.23±0.05 7.16±0.04 7.59±0.11 7.2±0.04Conduct. 164.48±1.73 557.54±19.3 1202.84±188.

07631±5.72 869.64±24.97 431.73±13.27 291.95±10.1

1495.36±7.41

TDS 195.66±3.76 720.34±26.17 1586.99±253.38

812.83±9.28

1136.23±40.6 598.32±8.98 380.26±12.39

629.95±8.16

Turbidity 8.63±0.67 16.05±2.64 22.94±3.42 20.15±2.49 47.77±4.5 10.91±1.18 6.45±0.56 9.39±0.82Free CO2 6.8±1.15 106.48±25.9 169.37±31.16 21.25±5.35 45.73±4.71 12.32±1.67 6.16±1.11 13.44±1.21DO 6.31±0.39 5.73±0.48 6.25±0.53 6.94±0.34 5.42±0.36 7.54±0.23 7.18±0.27 6.83±0.27DO 6.31±0.39 5.73±0.48 6.25±0.53 6.94±0.34 5.42±0.36 7.54±0.23 7.18±0.27 6.83±0.27BOD 6.82±0.49 11.41±1.44 9.78±0.74 11.22±1.27 6.94±0.47 9.24±0.76 6.64±0.53 8.59±0.28COD 71.11±10.51 99.28±8.09 76.66±10.47 73.09±7.85 89.64±4.35 58.33±5.52 76.95±8.1 73.9±6.16T. alkalinity

37.59±0.8 166.39±5.43 190.48±20.54 216.85±3.9 250.45±7.38 174.8±3.21 102.72±3.27 178.47±1

Chloride 7.5±0.29 60.21±3.25 16.98±1.77 42.22±0.79 90.74±3.63 31.15±0.36 10.4±0.15 36.86±0.66Hardness 77.02±1.09 240.7±8.08 239.69±25.62 208.27±11.

65152.62±9.02 210.43±6.09 134.26±4.36 186.06±3.63

Calcium 19.42±1 46.78±1.25 33.21±1.78 30.51±3.13 31.54±0.48 34.94±2.21 22.5±0.96 30.82±1.22Magnesiu 18.23±0.25 57.38±1.95 49.4±5.42 48.85±2.92 36.33±2.21 48.14±1.43 32.11±1.05 44.51±0.85phosphat 0.49±0.05 1.01±0.09 2.54±0.5 2.79±0.3 3.22±0.32 0.24±0.03 0.28±0.04 0.4±0.03Sulphate 44.17±1.74 28.67±1.1 88.67±16.49 24.03±3 20.79±1.81 24.64±2.32 31.9±2 17.44±0.65Ammonia 0.31±0.04 1.07±0.14 5.41±1.53 1.89±0.28 1.1±0.11 0.8±0.07 1.05±0.24 0.79±0.09Nitrite 0.31±0.07 0.51±0.18 0.16±0.04 0.15±0.03 0.27±0.13 0.12±0.02 0.26±0.06 0.6±0.18Nitrate 0.09±0.02 0.33±0.09 0.57±0.11 0.28±0.03 0.29±0.03 0.19±0.02 0.16±0.03 0.13±0.01

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Mean± Standard error values of all the selected water bodies

Parameter

Brahmsarovar Pehowa Pindara Phalgu Kirmach Kapalmochan

Jyotisar Banganga

Water Temp.

24.9±0.9 26.04±0.98 24.24±0.82 25.95±1.37 30.32±0.38 21.77±1.59 24.87±1.03 24.64±1.03

pH 7.12±0.05 6.98±0.07 6.75±0.14 7.04±0.06 7.23±0.05 7.16±0.04 7.59±0.11 7.2±0.04 Conduct. 164.48±1.73 557.54±19.3 1202.84±188.07 631±5.72 869.64±24.97 431.73±13.27 291.95±10.11 495.36±7.41 TDS 195.66±3.76 720.34±26.17 1586.99±253.38 812.83±9.28 1136.23±40.6 598.32±8.98 380.26±12.39 629.95±8.16

Turbidity 8.63±0.67 16.05±2.64 22.94±3.42 20.15±2.49 47.77±4.5 10.91±1.18 6.45±0.56 9.39±0.82 Free CO2 6.8±1.15 106.48±25.9 169.37±31.16 21.25±5.35 45.73±4.71 12.32±1.67 6.16±1.11 13.44±1.21

DO 6.62±0.41 7.49±0.68 6.72±0.51 9.03±0.48 5.56±0.36 8.47±0.23 8.15±0.31 9.46±0.51 DO 6.62±0.41 7.49±0.68 6.72±0.51 9.03±0.48 5.56±0.36 8.47±0.23 8.15±0.31 9.46±0.51 BOD 6.82±0.49 11.41±1.44 9.78±0.74 11.22±1.27 6.94±0.47 9.24±0.76 6.64±0.53 8.59±0.28 COD 71.11±10.51 99.28±8.09 76.66±10.47 73.09±7.85 89.64±4.35 58.33±5.52 76.95±8.1 73.90±6.16 T. alkalinity

37.59±0.8 166.39±5.43 190.48±20.54 216.85±3.9 250.45±7.38 174.8±3.21 102.72±3.27 178.47±1

Chloride 7.5±0.29 60.21±3.25 16.98±1.77 42.22±0.79 90.74±3.63 31.15±0.36 10.4±0.15 36.86±0.66

Hardness 77.02±1.09 240.7±8.08 239.69±25.62 208.27±11.65 152.62±9.02 210.43±6.09 134.26±4.36 186.06±3.63 Calcium 19.42±1 46.78±1.25 33.21±1.78 30.51±3.13 31.54±0.48 34.94±2.21 22.5±0.96 30.82±1.22 Mg 18.23±0.25 57.38±1.95 49.4±5.42 48.85±2.92 36.33±2.21 48.14±1.43 32.11±1.05 44.51±0.85

phosphat 0.49±0.05 1.01±0.09 2.54±0.5 2.79±0.3 3.22±0.32 0.24±0.03 0.28±0.04 0.4±0.03 Sulphate 44.17±1.74 28.67±1.1 88.67±16.49 24.03±3 20.79±1.81 24.64±2.32 31.9±2 17.44±0.65 Ammonia 0.31±0.04 1.07±0.14 5.41±1.53 1.89±0.28 1.1±0.11 0.8±0.07 1.05±0.24 0.79±0.09

Nitrite 0.31±0.07 0.51±0.18 0.16±0.04 0.15±0.03 0.27±0.13 0.12±0.02 0.26±0.06 0.6±0.18 Nitrate 0.09±0.02 0.33±0.09 0.57±0.11 0.28±0.03 0.29±0.03 0.19±0.02 0.16±0.03 0.13±0.01

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Objective: 2 Impact of religious activities on phytoplankton and zooplankton population.

Date Total Plankton Total Phytoplankton Total ZooplanktonBrahmsarovar 19512 2853.33± 116.38 * 1786.66±53.33 * 1066.66±70.55 *

21512 4213.33±192.52* 3573.33±186.67 * 640±80.00 *13.10.12 7413.33±237.29 6426.66±296.95 986.66±70.55 16.10.12 6213.33±228.11 5706.66±213.33 506.66±26.66

Kirmach 29.9.12 5093.33±53.39 * 3866.66±148.47 1226.66±96.15*1.10.12 5626.66±96.26 * 3813.33±141.11 1813.33±70.55*

Phalgu 2.10.12 47786.66±3613.25* 44960±3354.69* 2826.66±254.39* 16.10.12 8186.66±485.73* 7600±508.08 * 586.66±26.66*

Pehowa 19.3.12 4613.33±254.68* 3653.33±334.14* 960±80.00*23.3.12 1280±80.09* 586.66±53.33 * 693.33±70.5*5 2.10.12 13066.66±347*.07 10346.66±403.55* 2720±122.20 *

16.10.12 3786.66±96.26 * 2693.33±26.66* 1093.33±70.55* 16.10.12 3786.66±96.26 * 2693.33±26.66* 1093.33±70.55* Kapalmochan 26.11.12 7413.33±70.64 6506.66±70.55 906.66±26.66

29.11.12 7226.66±162.40 6426.66±116.24 800±46.19 Pindara 20.5.12 2880±240.72 1320±40.00 1560±200.03

21.5.12 1400±40.12 680±40.00 720±80.01 6.10.12 3960±40.12 3040±80.01 920±40.00

16.10.12 3000±200.60 2480±160.02 520±40.01 Jyotisar 19.5.12 6440±120.36 6000±80.01 440±40.01

21.5.12 6520±120.36 5880±40.00 640±80.01 13.10.12 9440±641.92 8440±600.09 1000±40.01 16.10.12 7880±120.36 7080±40.01 800±80.01

Banganga 12.4.12 13000±441.31* 10560±240.04* 2440±200.03 14.4.12 8640±80.24 * 8040±120.02 * 600±40.01

13.10.12 11240±40.12 10280±40.01 * 960±0 16.10.12 7800±40.12 6920±40.01 * 880±0

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Table: Seasonal dominance of phytoplankton and zooplankton taxa

Summer Monsoon Post-monsoonPhytoplankton Zooplankton Phytoplankton Zooplankton Phytoplankton Zooplankton

Brhm S. Spirogyra, Zygnema

No specific Mougeotia Cyclops cladocerans

Microcystis Lecane

Jyotisar Calothrix, Zygnema, Mougeotia

Nauplius CymbellaMicrosporaPhormidium

No specific Microcystis, Phormidium, Oscillatoria

No specific

MougeotiaRhoplalodiagibba

Phormidium Oscillatoria

Kirmach Phormidium rotifers Euglena, Oscillatoria

Brachionus, B. calyciflorus

Microcystis, Oscillatoria, Melosira

Brachionus

Phalgu Microcystis Brachionus Microcystis Brachionus, Keratella

Pediastrum, Tribonema

Phalodiaptomus, Keratellatestudo

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Summer Monsoon Post-monsoonPhytoplankton

Zooplankton Phytoplankton

Zooplankton

Phytoplankton

Zooplankton

Pehowa

Oscillatoria, Pediastrum

Nauplius, Cyclops

Oscillatoria Brachionus forficula,

Oscillatoria B. calyciflorisCladocerans, Cyclops

Pindara

Oscillatoria,

Brachionus,

Microcystis, Pediastrum

Phallodiaptomus

Mougeotia , Cladophora

Diaptomusa ,

Microcystis, B.forficula

Pediastrum tomus Cladophora

Kapal-mochan

Mougeotia, Oscillatoria

crustaceans

Mougeotia, Desmids, Diatoms

phalodiaptomus

Mougeotia Crustaceans (diaptomus), B. calyciflorus

Ban -Ganga

Oscillatoria, Nannochloris

Trichocera capucina

Microcystis, Botryococcus, Oscillatoria

Brachionus forficula, Diaptomus

Docidium(Desmid), Oscillatoria, Microcystis

B. forficula, Monostyla

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Site name Date MPN index /100 mlPINDARA Before 220

After 1600PEHOWA Before 79

After 350Before 180After >2400

BRAHMSAROVAR Before 22After 220

BANGANGA Before 11After 540After 540Before 23After 79

JYOTISAR Before 23After 350

FALGU Before 49After 1600

KIRMACH Before 19After 140

KAPALMOCHAN Before 38After 1600

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Standard Plate Count before and After ActivitySr. no. Selected site Date of sample

collectionTotal CFU/ml

1 Barhmsarovar Before 2.4*10^10Barhmsarovar After 1.84*10^9Barhmsarovar Before 3.0*10^9Barhmsarovar After 4.24*10^9

2. Pehowa Before 1.6*10^42. Pehowa Before 1.6*10^4Pehowa After 3.2*10^7

3. Jyotisar Before 6.72*10^9

Jyotisar After 1.6*10^124. Falgu Before 3.0*1011

Falgu After 5.6*10^115. Banganga Before 3.88*10^6

Banganga After 2.2*10^10

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Physico-Chemical CharacteristicsvConductivity, TDS, Turbidity, Free CO2, BOD, COD, Alkalinity, Chloride,

Hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphate, Ammonia, NitrateSignificantly increased at most of the sites after the religious activities.

v DO, Sulphate Significantly decreased, at most of the sitesvNitrite showed no specific pattern before and after religious activities.

Biological Characteristicsv Significant Decrease in Total Plankton population, Phytoplankton and Zooplankton

population were found at most of the sites after religious activities.

SALIENT FINDINGS

population were found at most of the sites after religious activities.v Brachionus, Phyllodiaptomus, Keratella testudo, Filinia, Asplanchana, Microcystis,

Pediastrum, Scenedesmus, Nitzschia, Euglena, Navicula, Oscillatoria andChironomous larva, were observed as pollution tolerant taxa.

v Oscillatoria, Spirogyra, Zygnema, Mougeotia, Brachionus, Trichocera were commonin Summer season.

vMougeotia, Cymbella, Microspora, Phormidium, Oscillatoria, Desmids, Diatoma,Microcystis, Brachionus, B. calyciflorus, B. forficula, Diaptomus were commonduring Monsoon Season.

vOscillatoria, Mougeotia , Docidium, Microcystis, Pediastrum, Brachionus,Phallodiaptomus, Keratella testudo, B. calyciflorus, B. forficula, Diaptomus werecommon during Post-Monsoon Season.

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RECOMMENDATIONS• Regular Monitoring and Surveillance is

required for village ponds used for domestic purposes as well as for ponds where religious activities are common.

• More laboratories should be available in the • More laboratories should be available in the state at district level to monitor the DO and ammonia levels.

• If the concentration of ammonia is high (> 1.0 mg l-1 ) efforts should be made to control it Checking the entry of cattle

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• Much emphasis is required on bio-monitoring programme following indicator species concept.

• Regular disinfection of the water should be • Regular disinfection of the water should be done to reduce the danger of water borne diseases

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• Bioremediation programme should be launched to control the effects of organic pollution and eutrophication.

Bio-remediation is an eco-friendly process of removing pollutants/nutrients from an environment (soil, sediment,

water) by using any biological agent based system which is not only an energy saving but also a resource recovering system

PHYTOBIOREMEDIATION MICROBIAL BIOREMEDIATION

only an energy saving but also a resource recovering system

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PHYTO-BIOREMEDIATION

vGreen plant based system

EXAMPLEEXAMPLE•Use of Duckweed/Azolla etc for bioremediation

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Duckweeds hold immense potential for both nutrient recovery and utilization as fodder or feed for livestock

Divide the village pond into two pondsduckweed culture pond and Domestic use ponds or fish culture pond

Direct the village waste in duck weed pond only

Remediated water from duckweed pond is released periodically into the Second Pond

Prepare floating frames either of bamboo or pvc material

Make a regular duckweed harvesting scheduleUtilize duck weed in dried form also

Get fresh water

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Bioremediation through Microbial Technology

• Application of Microbial agents for the clean up of chemical and organic pollution

• Micro-organisms in BioremediationBacteria,Fungi,Cynobacteria,periphytonBacteria,Fungi,Cynobacteria,periphyton

They enhances the timely degradation, transformation, remediation and detoxification of pollutants.

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HOW?Microorganisms (usually bacteria and fungi)

↓feed on contaminants

↓derive nutrition and energyderive nutrition and energy

↓use up wastes

↓Convert wastes into less harmful forms.

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Biodegradation

Organic Wastes Nutrients Dissolvedin Water

MINERALIZATION

Bacillus,Lactobacillus,

Pseudomonas, Azotobacter

Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter,

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Probiotics as Bioremediation agents

• Optimizing nitrification rates to keep low ammonia concentrations

• Optimizing denitrification rates to eliminate excess nitrogen from the water body as nitrogen gasgas

• Maximizing carbon mineralization to carbondioxide to mimimize sludge accumulation

• Maximising primary productivity that stimulate production

• Maintain a diverse and stable community where undesirable species do not become dominant.

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This will result in

• Control of Built up of stress causing chemicals like NH3, NO2 and H2S

• Lower incidence of disease and greater survival.

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Biodegradation (Commercial products)

Product Composition

Micropro through

Micro Remedies Hyderabad

Bacillus, cellulomonas, Nitrosomonas. Nitrobacter, Psudomonas, Lactobacillus, Aerobacter ,Rhodococcus

Speed up the Natural Process of sludge degradation.Eliminate harmful gases like Ammonia hydrogensulphide and nitritesEffectively controls harmful vibrio levels by Comptetive eliminationMaintainence of DO levelsMaintains desired and stable planktons

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Our in vitro studies reveal thatParameter With Probiotic Without Probiotic

Total ammonia

(mg Kg-1 BW d-1)

1026.23 ± 9.23860.25 ± 10.03

Reactive phosphate (mg Kg-1 BW d-1)*

648.14 ± 8. 23 802.19 ± 10.35

Probiotic used was Bacillus prom Micropro Hyderabad

1.0 g /aquaria (60x30x30cm) every fortnight

Stocking density 5 fish per aquaria.

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Excretory patterns of total ammonia and phosphate excretion in the holding

1

1.2

Total a

mmoni

a (mg/1

00g BW

Diet with Probiotic Diet without Probiotic

0.4

0.5

0.6

Ortho-

phosph

ate (m

g/100g

BW of

Diet with Probiotic Diet without Probiotic

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Time after feeding (Hrs.)

Total a

mmoni

a (mg/1

00g BW

of fish

)

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Time after feeding (Hrs.)

Ortho-

phosph

ate (m

g/100g

BW of

fish)

(A)(A) (B)(B)

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Bioremediation through Periphyton

• Total assemblage of sessile or attachedorganisms on any substrate are Periphyton

• Periphyton has the same functions of oxygenand feed production as phytoplankton, but areconsidered more stable.Periphyton may contain protozoans, bacteria,considered more stable.

• Periphyton may contain protozoans, bacteria,fungi, algae, rotifers, annelids, insect larvaeand crustacenans.

• A periphyton community often consists of athin layer of small diatom cells

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• Bacterial/ periphyton microfilm in the water body helps in the

-reduction of ammonia -reduction of turbidity levels -help in the absorption of

particulate organic matter particulate organic matter due to their bio-filter properties

Thus contributing to the bioremediation of water body .

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Parameters With Substrate Without substrate

EC (m mhos/ cm) 24.3±0.4 24.5±0.5

pH 8.5±0.1 8.6±0.20

Dissolved oxygen mg L-1 6.1±0.3 6.4±0.3

Carbonates mg L-1 6.1±0.9* 8.6±1.4Bicarbonates mg L-1 200.1±4.5 205.5±7.6

Total alkalinity mg L-1 206.3±5.0 205.5±7.6

BOD mg L-1 1.6±0.3* 3.4±0.6Turbidity (NTU) 28.5±1.2* 35.0±1.9Total K nitrogen mg L-1 9.1±0.5 9.8±0.4

NO3-N mg L-1 1.7±0.1 1.7±0.1

NO2-N mg L-1 1.7±0.1 1.7±0.1

NH4-N mg L-1 1.8±0.1* 2.1±0.1o-PO4 mg L-1 0.04±0.01 0.05±0.01

SO4 mg L-1 140.0±10.6 142.2±11.3

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Bioengineering

• Isolation, Identification and characterization of bacterial agents/ptobiotic bacterium from the same aquatic system.

• Mass culture of that selected bioremediation agent and its addition from time to time to clean up aquatic system from organic and chemical pollution.organic and chemical pollution.

• With bioengineering techniques, the stability of the area can be restored naturally with vegetation. Lentic aquatic systems can be stabilized permanently, improving water quality and providing rich biodiversity.

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Identification by Biochemical tests16sRNA based Moleculae technique

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Percent occurrence of different species of Azotobacter in pond water and Sediment

Name of the Species

Unmanaged Ponds

Managedponds

Canal water

Pond water Pond Sediment

I II I II

*Azotobacter 60.0 55.0 79.00 64.29 67.86 64.28 75.00*Azotobacterchroococcum

60.0 55.0 79.00 64.29 67.86 64.28 75.00

A. beijerinckii 15.0 22.5 - 17.68 10.71 21.43 10.71

A. vinelandii 10.0 7.5 - 3.57 7.14 3.57 7.14

Unidentified 15.0 15.0 21.00 14.28 1.28 10.71 7.14

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Future Research is required

towards understanding:• the role of individual indicator species in an aquatic system• linkages between aquatic ecosystem quality and food chain• interrelationship with other abiotic factors involved• life history, prey predator relationship, inter and intra –• life history, prey predator relationship, inter and intra –

specific competition of indicator species• the effect of pollution on them• Isolation of bioengineered agents for bioremediation.

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Regular training programmes should be arranged

• Water Quality norms can be achieved through the difficult work of changing social norms and advocating for improved policies

• To disseminate knowledge about water pollution and means to control it.

• To educate the people about harmful effects.• To educate pilgrims to reduce pollution load on tank and prohibit actions • To educate pilgrims to reduce pollution load on tank and prohibit actions

like: Ablutions,defecation, throwing of used floral offerings, use of detergent and body shampoo during mass bathing etc,

• To promote organic farming reducing the use chemical fertilizers• To promote the use of biological agents for pest control reducing the use

of pesticides etc. controlic the entry of toxic chemicals in village ponds• Plans / projects / schemes should be made for regular monitoring and

renovation of village ponds.• Distribution of pamphlets/brochures should be made before any

religious fair etc containing information to educate people on proper lines.

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