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LESSON 29: DEPENDENT CLAUSES (ADJECTIVE ... happy girl played the piano. Happy is a one-word...

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  • GET SMART (STUDENT) LESSON 29 www.GrammarRevolution.com

    1

    LESSON 29: DEPENDENT CLAUSES (ADJECTIVE) Relevant Review

    Dependent clauses are groups of words with a subject and a verb, they can't stand alone, and they act as one part of speech.

    Adjectives describe nouns or pronouns.

    Adjective Questions: Which one? What kind? How many? Whose?

    Lesson

    You've learned about two of the three types of dependent clauses (noun clauses and adverb clauses), and in this lesson, you'll learn about the third (dependent adjective clauses).

    For short, we call these adjective clauses.

    They Act As One Part of Speech (Adjectives)

    The happy girl played the piano.

    Happy is a one-word adjective describing the subject girl. WHICH girl? The happy girl.

    The girl who looks happy played the piano.

    Who looks happy is now acting as an adjective describing girl. WHICH girl? The girl who looks happy.

    Who looks happy is a group of words with a subject (who) and a verb (looks), and it cannot stand alone.

    Notice that we could say Who looks happy?, but that's a question, and it's not expressing the same meaning that it is in the above sentence.

    Who looks happy is a dependent adjective clause in this sentence.

    Here are a few more examples of adjective clauses.

    Can you identify what noun or pronoun each adjective clause is modifying?

    The man whom I love is a photographer.

    The book that you lost is overdue from the library.

    The teacher who taught us math will now teach us history.

    We drove to the park where I will be playing.

    Remember that dependent adjective clauses can do anything that an adjective can do. That means they can modify any noun or pronoun.

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    2

    Words That Introduce Adjective Clauses Relative Pronouns

    who, whom, whose, that, which

    Most adjective clauses are introduced by relative pronouns. Relative pronouns link the adjective clause to the word in the independent clause that the adjective clause is modifying.

    Relative pronouns also play a role within the adjective clause. They perform one of the noun/pronoun jobs.

    The book that you lost is overdue from the library.

    That you lost is the adjective clause. It is modifying the subject of the independent clause (book). That is a relative pronoun. It is linking the adjective clause with the independent clause, and it is acting as the direct object within the adjective clause. Relative Adverbs

    where, when, why, before, since

    Sometimes adjective clauses are introduced by relative adverbs.

    We drove to the park where I run.

    Where I run is the adjective clause. It is modifying the object of the preposition that is in the independent clause (park). Where is a relative adverb. It is linking the adjective clause with the independent clause, and it is acting as an adverb within the adjective clause. No Introductory Word

    Sometimes the introductory word in an adjective clause is omitted.

    The book you lost is overdue from the library.

    You lost is the adjective clause modifying book. It is a group of words with a subject and a verb acting as an adjective, so we know that it's an adjective clause.

    The relative pronoun that is implied. It's as if the sentence says:

    The book (that) you lost is overdue from the library.

    All of the sentences that we'll be diagramming have introductory words, so don't worry too much about adjective clauses with no introductory word!

  • GET SMART (STUDENT) LESSON 29 www.GrammarRevolution.com

    3

    Diagramming Adjective Clauses

    Diagram the independent clause at the top.

    Diagram the adjective clause below the independent clause on a horizontal line just like a regular sentence.

    Use a dotted, vertical line to connect the relative pronoun or relative adverb in the adjective clause with the word in the independent clause that the adjective clause modifies.

    In this example, the adjective clause is modifying the subject of the main clause, and the relative pronoun is the subject of the adjective clause.

    The man who smiled knows me.

    In the next example, the adjective clause is modifying the subject of the main clause, and the relative pronoun is the direct object of the adjective clause.

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    4

    The man whom I know smiled.

    In this example, the adjective clause is modifying the object of the preposition in the main clause. The relative adverb is introducing the adjective clause and acting as an adverb in the adjective clause.

    We drove to the park where I run.

  • GET SMART (STUDENT) LESSON 29 www.GrammarRevolution.com

    5

    Lesson 29 Sentence Diagramming Exercises

    1. The girl who looks happy played the piano.

    Hint: Who looks happy is an adjective clause.

    Key

    The girl who looks happy played the piano.

    independent clause

    girl

    The

    played

    piano

    the

    dependent adjective clause modifying girl

    who

    looks

    happy

  • GET SMART (STUDENT) LESSON 29 www.GrammarRevolution.com

    6

    2. The girl played the piano that her grandmother bought.

    Hint: That her grandmother bought is an adjective clause. Diagram it as if it says her grandmother bought that.

    Key

    The girl played the piano that her grandmother bought.

    The girl played the piano

    girl

    The

    played

    piano

    the

    that her grandmother bought

    grandmother

    her

    bought

    that

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    7

    3. The shirt that you wore yesterday is dirty.

    Hint: That you wore yesterday is an adjective clause.

    Key

    The shirt that you wore yesterday is dirty.

    independent clause

    shirt

    The

    is

    dirty

    that you wore yesterday

    you

    wore

    that

    yesterday

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    8

    4. The singer whom I love will release a new song today.

    Hint: Whom I love is an adjective clause. Diagram it as if it says I love whom.

    Key

    The singer whom I love will

    release a new song today.

    The singer will release a new song today

    singer

    The

    will release

    will

    release

    song

    a, new

    today

    whom I love

    I

    love

    whom

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    9

    5. The movie that I like is playing at the movie theater.

    Key

    The movie that I like is playing at the movie theater.

    The movie is playing at the movie theater

    movie

    The

    is playing

    is

    playing

    at the movie theater

    at

    object of the preposition (noun)

    the, movie

    dependent adjective clause modifying movie

    subject of adjective clause (pronoun)

    verb of adjective clause (transitive active)

    direct object of adjective clause (relative pronoun)

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    10

    Extra Practice: Diagramming Adjective Clauses Directions: Diagram the following sentences on a separate sheet of paper.

    1. The woman who called lives in San Francisco.

    2. The poem that I wrote is being read on the radio tonight!

    3. Comets, which are made of ice and dirt, typically have elliptical orbits.

    4. The students smiled at the teacher whom they loved.

    5. The pancakes that he made smelled delicious.

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