Moyobamba, PeruWoman from Tarapoto, Peru
CuzcoThe Inca Capital
The Nazca Desert
European ExplorationSpain and Portugal sought to get more out of their trade with the EastSpecifically, they needed to achieve a balance of trade (the cost of imports [money out] exceeded the cost of exports [money in]--meaning they became in debt to other nations)They needed to find a quicker way to the East
Prince Henry of Portugal was very interested in explorationHe helped to create better maps, compasses, astrolabes, and math for navigation from notes and books left over or discovered by Islamic scholars
As exploration began and proved profitable, wealthy merchants and kings began to fund the tripsWith more interest came a need to establish more permanent settlements in the lands that were visited--so the Portuguese began to establish colonies in the lands they traded with As they began to colonize Africa, they also began to use the native people to turn a profit--they made them slaves to sell or work on their plantations
In 1484, Columbus, an Italian sailor, came up with a plan to sail West to reach AsiaHe first took his idea to Portugal, but was rejectedHe then went to the King and Queen of Spain, who reluctantly agreedTwo months after setting sail, they landed in the BahamasHe then proceeded to enslave and murder the Arawaks--the original inhabitants of the islands
From that discovery onward, the Spanish and Portuguese began to eagerly explore and exploit the New WorldIn the 1540s the Spanish discovered silver in Peru and made slaves out of the nativesThere were a few priests, such as De Las Casas, who objected to this treatment and wrote about it--but it did not stop itSoon after this, other European nations began sending expeditions and setting up coloniesEngland reached North America in 1497, then the French in 1524, followed by the Dutch This quickly shifted the power in trade and wealth from Italy (drying up the Italian city states) to Western Europe
The Columbian ExchangeThe Columbian Exchange is the exchange of plants, animals, ideas, and diseases between the New World (the Americas) & the Old World (Europe, Africa, Asia)
To the Old World: beans, corn, potatoes, tomatoes, squash, turkey, tobacco, peanuts, slaves, some diseases
To the New World: Deadly diseases, bananas, cattle, horses, grapes, sugarcane, citrus, pigs, rice, religion (forcefully), slavery, language, guns, steel, the wheel
CapitalismCapitalism is an economic system based on private ownership of business and public investment for desired returns.In other words people invest capital (a fancy word for money or resources) in a business that promises to make a profit (more money) that they will pay back to the investor in the hopes that they will invest morewhile seeking new market (places to sell things) to make even more money, generating more profit, and more capital.
Capitalism OriginsMercantile system: a system where a govt. tells its colonies what to make so that it can be used in the mother country (this is what England did to us)The Cottage Industry: a system where families work out of their homes to make a product or part of a productThis is how the Mercantile system worked in the Americas
Capitalism OriginsJoint Stock Companies: Nearly every European nation involved in exploration and colonization operated through JSCsprivate entrepreneurs that used capital from banks, private individuals, and state government to generate trade and profit FOR a government.All of these gave rise to a new global MARKET ECONOMY, in which individuals, not states, decided what goods and services they wanted to buy
The Enlightenment and GovernmentEuropean Monarchs feared many of the ideas of the EnlightenmentSome, like Louis XIV of France locked down on his people declaring, Letat cest moi! (I am the state!)Others embraced some ideas, and became know as enlightened despotsmonarchs who ruled like traditional kings/queens but also applied principals of human/civil rights and property rights to their people.
John LockePerhaps the most influential Enlightenment thinker was John Locke.He was an Englishman who formulated the idea of the social contractthat there was an agreement between the ruler and the ruled, that one would obey the other as long as the ruler provided what the people needed (which included rights, etc.)Wrote about Natural Laws and Rights: the right to life, liberty, and property.
OthersMontesquieu: Separate powers of government to ensure freedom.Rousseau: Govt. should express will of the people, social contractVoltaire: Freedom of speechAmericans: Our founding is based DIRECTLY off the beliefs and ideas of the Enlightenment. Franklin, Jefferson, Madison, many others
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