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Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

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this document ives information regarding liquid desiccant cooling systems available in markets, its method and principle of functionsing, area of uses etc.
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LIQUID DESICCANT AIR COOLING (LDAC) MADE BY: SHWETA MODI 11 KASHYAP PARSANA 16 JAY VADODARIA 26
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Page 1: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

LIQUID DESICCANT AIR COOLING (LDAC)

MADE BY:

SHWETA MODI 11

KASHYAP PARSANA 16

JAY VADODARIA 26

Page 2: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

AIR COOLING SYSTEMS

AIR COOLING SYSTEMS

CONVENTIONAL COOLING SYSTEM

SOLID DESICCANT WHEEL SYSTEM

LIQUID DESICCANT COOLING SYSTEM

Page 3: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS PERFORM TWO CRITICAL FUNCTIONS:

COOL AND DEHUMIDIFY AIR

COOLING THE AIR IS RELATIVELY STRAIGHTFORWARD, REMOVING HUMIDITY TENDS TO BE COSTLY IN TERMS OF ENERGY

CONSUMPTION AND MAINTENANCE COSTS.

CONVENTIONAL SYSTEM:

CONVENTIONAL A/C SYSTEMS OVERCOOL THE AIR TO DEW POINT TO CONDENSE MOISTURE FROM THE AIR, AND THEN

REHEAT TO A COMFORTABLE TEMPERATURE.

SOLID DESICCANT WHEEL SYSTEM:

SOLID DESICCANT WHEELS REQUIRE A CONSTANT CYCLE OF EXCESSIVE HEAT AND RECOOLING IN THEIR

DEHUMIDIFICATION PROCESS.

BOTH OF THESE PROCESSES WASTE AN EXORBITANT AMOUNT OF ENERGY.

COMPARISION BETWEEN LDAC AND CONVENTIONAL SYSTEM

Page 4: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

COMPARISION BETWEEN LDAC AND CONVENTIONAL SYSTEM LIQUID DESICCANT SYSTEM:

LIQUID DESICCANT TECHNOLOGY USES, A NON-TOXIC BRINE SOLUTION WITH A HIGH AFFINITY FOR WATER, TO NATURALLY

REMOVE HUMIDITY AND COOL THE AIR IN ONE PASS.

THIS THERMODYNAMIC SHORT-CUT TAKES YOU DIRECTLY TO THE COMFORT ZONE, CUTTING YOUR AIR CONDITIONING

WORKLOAD BY HALF .

Page 5: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

CONCERNS WITH CONVENTIONAL SYSTEM EFFICIENCY:

FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEM WITH TRADITIONAL AIR

CONDITIONING SYSTEMS IS THAT THEY DO A GREAT JOB AT

SENSIBLE COOLING, BUT PROVIDE A VERY INEFFICIENT

SYSTEM FOR REMOVING HUMIDITY FROM AIR.

REACHING A TYPICAL TARGET OF 22◦ C AND 50% RH MAY REQUIRE

BRINGING THE PROCESSED AIR TO 11◦ C OR LOWER .

HEALTH CONSIDERATION:

ANOTHER CONCERN WITH CURRENT HVAC TECHNOLOGY IS THE

NEGATIVE HEALTH IMPACTS OF AIRBORNE MOLD AND BACTERIA

GROWTH ON HVAC INTERIOR SURFACES. WATER THAT HAS

CONDENSED ON COILS SERVES AS AN IDEAL INCUBATING GROUND

FOR MOLD AND BACTERIA.

80%

20%

SENSIBLE COOLING (TEMP REDUCTTION)

LATENT COOLING (HUMIDITY REDUCTION)

TOTAL COOLING OF A CONVENTIONAL AIR-CONDITIONER

11◦ C

ACCEPTABLE HUMIDITY LEVEL

PROCESSED AIR

22◦ C 50% RH

Page 6: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

CONCERNS WITH SOLID DESICCANT WHEEL SYSTEM THE CHALLENGE WITH SOLID DESICCANT WHEELS IS THAT

THEY NEED TO BE BOMBARDED BY +93°C HEAT IN ORDER TO

FRY OFF THE DESICCANT’S RECENTLY CAPTURED HUMIDITY.

THIS ALLOWS THE NEWLY DRIED DESICCANT TO ONCE AGAIN

GRAB MORE HUMIDITY AS THE WHEEL IS ROTATED BACK

AROUND TO THE OUTSIDE AIR STREAM.

THE PROBLEM IS THAT NEWLY TOASTED WHEEL CAN HEAT

THE OUTDOOR AIR UP TO 43°C OR MORE!

THIS 43°C HEAT TRAIN SLAMS INTO THE HVAC UNIT

CHALLENGING IT TO COOL IT BACK DOWN TO 18°C - 20°C IN

ONE PASS. ONE WOULD NEED SIGNIFICANTLY MORE RESERVE

TONNAGE TO ACHIEVE THAT TEMPERATURE DROP.

HENCE THE LIQUID DESICCANTS ARE MORE PREFFERED

OVER SOLID DESICCANTS.

Page 7: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

LIQUID DESICCANT AIR COOLING LIQUID DESICCANT AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS DEHUMIDIFY

AND COOLS THE AIR.

A KEY ADVANTAGE OF LIQUID DESICCANT SYSTEMS IS THAT THEY

PROVIDE INDEPENDENT CONTROL OF TEMPERATURE AND

HUMIDITY, ENABLING SENSIBLE COOLING (TEMPERATURE

REDUCTION) AND LATENT COOLING (HUMIDITY REDUCTION). TO

MATCH THE NEEDS OF THE APPLICATION AND AVOID THE ENERGY

WASTED IN OVERCOOLING.

DESICCANT SYSTEMS CAN ALSO BE POWERED BY RENEWABLE

ENERGY SOURCES SUCH AS SOLAR THERMAL AND WASTE HEAT

FROM CO-GENERATION SYSTEMS, PROVIDING ENERGY SAVINGS

OF 30% - 80%.

80%

20%

SENSIBLE COOLING (TEMP REDUCTTION)

LATENT COOLING (HUMIDITY REDUCTION)

TOTAL COOLING OF A LIQUID DESICCANT AIR-CONDITIONER

Page 8: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

A DESICCANT IS A HYGROSCOPIC SUBSTANCE USED AS A DRYING

AGENT.

DESICCANTS ARE AVAILABLE IN ALL THE STATES OF MATTER SOLID

LIQUID AND GAS.

EFFICIENCY MEASURE:

1. ONE MEASURE OF DESICCANT EFFICIENCY IS THE RATIO

(OR PERCENTAGE) OF WATER STORABLE IN THE

DESICCANT RELATIVE TO THE MASS OF DESICCANT.

2. ANOTHER MEASURE IS THE RESIDUAL RELATIVE HUMIDITY

OF THE AIR OR OTHER FLUID BEING DRIED.

THE PERFORMANCE OF ANY DESICCANT VARIES WITH

TEMPERATURE AND BOTH RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND ABSOLUTE

HUMIDITY

WHAT IS DESICCANT ?

*HYGROSCOPIC-

TENDING TO ABSORB MOISTURE FROM THE AIR.

SILICA GEL MAY BE DOPED WITH A MOISTURE INDICATOR THAT GRADUALLY

CHANGES ITS COLOR WHEN IT TRANSITIONS FROM THE ANHYDROUS (DRY)

STATE, TO THE HYDRATED (WET) STATE. COMMON INDICATORS ARE COBALT(II)

CHLORIDE AND METHYL VIOLET.

COBALT (II) CHLORIDE IS DEEP BLUE WHEN DRY AND PINK WHEN WET.

METHYL VIOLET CHANGE FROM ORANGE TO GREEN

Page 9: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

DESICCANT

SOLID EG:- SILICA GEL, ACTIVATED

CHARCOAL, MOLECULAR SIEVES (TYPICALLY, ZEOLITES).

LIQUID

HYGROSCOPIC SALTS EG:- CALCIUM CHLORIDE, LITHIUM

CHLORIDE, SODIUM CHLORIDE, SODIUM SULPHATE, POTASSUIM

FORMATE

GLYCOLS EG:- TRIETHYLENE GLYCOL,

PROPYLENE GLYCOL

TYPES OF DESICCANT

Page 10: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

TYPES OF LIQUID DESICCANT HYGROSCOPIC SALTS:

THESE ARE DESICCANTS THAT HAVE SALTS ADDED TO A WATER SOLUTION. LITHIUM CHLORIDE IS ONE OF THE MOST COMMONLY

USED HYGROSCOPIC SALTS BECAUSE IT IS HIGHLY EFFECTIVE AND HAS RELATIVELY FEW CORROSIVE PROPERTIES. THE

CONCENTRATION OF SALT GENERALLY DETERMINES THE QUALITY OF THE SOLUTION.

EG:- CALCIUM CHLORIDE, LITHIUM CHLORIDE, MAGNESIUM PERCHLORATE, SODIUM CHLORIDE, SODIUM SULPHATE,

POTASSUIM FORMATE

GLYCOLS

GLYCOLS FUNCTION MUCH LIKE HYGROSCOPIC SALTS, BUT REQUIRE HIGHER CONCENTRATIONS TO ACHIEVE EQUILIBRIUM, MAY

ALSO EVAPORATE AND REQUIRE A SIGNIFICANTLY LARGER AMOUNT OF SOLUTION TO WORK AS A DESICCANT.

DUE TO EVAPORATION, THE SOLUTION MAY NEED TO BE PERIODICALLY REPLACED AND IS TYPICALLY USED IN LOWER

TEMPERATURE OPERATIONS.

PROPYLENE GLYCOL HAS RELATIVELY LOW TOXICITY, MAKING IT SUITABLE FOR FOOD-RELATED APPLICATIONS, WHILE

TRIETHYLENE GLYCOL PROVIDES REDUCED EVAPORATION POTENTIAL.

Page 11: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGY IN LDAC A LDAC SYSTEM WORKS ON TWO BASIC PHENOMENON

ABSORPTION AND DIFFUSION

ABSORPTION : A PROCESS IN WHICH ONE SUBSTANCE PERMEATES ANOTHER; A FLUID PERMEATES OR IS DISSOLVED BY A

LIQUID OR SOLID.

DIFFUSION : THE PROCESS IN WHICH THERE IS MOVEMENT OF A SUBSTANCE FROM AN AREA OF HIGH CONCENTRATION OF

THAT SUBSTANCE TO AN AREA OF LOWER CONCENTRATION.

EQUILIBRIUM:

REGENERATION:

Page 12: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System
Page 13: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

HOW LDAC FUNCTIONS

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF A LDAC

Page 14: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

HOW LDAC FUNCTIONS

1

2

3

4

5

6 8

7

9

1

2 4

3 5

6

8

7

ACTUAL DIAGRAM OF A LDAC

Page 15: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

HOW LDAC FUNCTIONS TYPICAL LIQUID DESICCANT SYSTEMS HAVE TWO PRIMARY

COMPONENTS:

1.ABSORBER 2. REGENERATOR.

STAGE: 1

DE-HUMIDIFYING / ABSORPTION TOWER

IN THE BASIC CONFIGURATION, CONCENTRATED AND

COOLED LIQUID DESICCANT FLOWS INTO THE

ABSORBER AND DOWN THROUGH A PACKED BED OF

GRANULAR PARTICLES (OR OTHER ENHANCED MASS

TRANSFER SURFACE OR PACKING).

RETURN AIR PASSES UP THROUGH THE BED,

TRANSFERRING BOTH MOISTURE AND HEAT TO THE

COUNTERFLOWING LIQUID DESICCANT.

THE LIQUID DESICCANT LEAVES THE BOTTOM OF THE

PACKED BED DILUTED BY THE WATER ABSORBED

FROM THE AIR, AND FLOWS INTO THE REGENERATOR.

Page 16: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

HOW LDAC FUNCTIONS STAGE:2

REGENERATION TOWER

A HEAT SOURCE (GAS- OR OIL-FIRED, WASTE HEAT, SOLAR,

ETC.) IN THE REGENERATOR HEATS THE WEAK LIQUID

DESICCANT SOLUTION, WHICH IS THEN SPRAYED ON ANOTHER

PACKED BED.

THE HEATED SOLUTION TRANSFERS THE ABSORBED

MOISTURE TO A COUNTER-FLOWING SCAVENGER AIRSTREAM

TO REGENERATE A CONCENTRATED LIQUID DESICCANT

SOLUTION.

AFTER THE RETURN FEED FROM THE REGENERATOR PASSES

THROUGH A COOLING TOWER OR CHILLER, THE COOLED

LIQUID DESICCANT SOLUTION RETURNS TO THE ABSORBER TO

COMPLETE THE CYCLE.

DESIGNS OFTEN INCLUDE A COUNTERFLOW HEAT EXCHANGER

BETWEEN THE ABSORBER AND THE REGENERATOR TO REDUCE

THE AMOUNT OF EXTERNAL HEATING AND COOLING

REQUIRED.

Page 17: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

REGENETRATION OF LIQUID DESICCANT

REGENERATION OF DESICCANT

RENEWABLE ENERGY

SOLAR ENERGY

GEO- THERMAL ENERGY

NON- RENEWABLE

ENERGY

REUSING HEAT OF

COMPRESSOR

Page 18: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

REGENETRATION OF LIQUID DESICCANT BY SOLAR ENERGY

Page 19: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

REGENETRATION OF LIQUID DESICCANT BY GEO-THERMAL ENERGY

Page 20: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

ADVANTAGES OF LDAC DEHUMIDIFICATION & HUMIDITY CONTROL

COMMERCIAL FACILITIES WITH A HIGH OCCUPANCY LEVEL SUCH AS

SCHOOLS AND FITNESS CENTERS OFTEN STRUGGLE WITH HUMIDITY FROM

BOTH INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL SOURCES.

PEOPLE GENERATE A SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT OF MOISTURE BY SIMPLY

BREATHING AND HIGH LEVELS OF FRESH AIR INTAKE IN A HUMID CLIMATE

CAN FURTHER PUSH HUMIDITY BEYOND A COMFORTABLE AND HEALTHY

RANGE.

LIQUID DESICCANT TECHNOLOGY USES, A SALTY, BRINE SOLUTION WITH A

HIGH AFFINITY FOR WATER, TO NATURALLY AND POWERFULLY REMOVE

HUMIDITY FROM THE AIR.

LDAC UNIT REMOVES UP TO 90 GALLONS OF MOISTURE PER DAY;

COMPARED TO JUST 38 GALLONS REMOVED BY A CONVENTIONAL SYSTEM.

Page 21: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

ADVANTAGES OF LDAC COST

LIQUID DESICCANT TECHNOLOGY CONDITIONS THE AIR DIRECTLY, ELIMINATING THE “REWORK” REQUIRED OF

CONVENTIONAL AND SOLID DESICCANT SYSTEMS.

WITHOUT THIS REWORK, THE COST SAVINGS ARE SUBSTANTIAL COMPARE TO ALTERNATIVE EQUIPMENT:

20 - 40% LOWER OPERATING COSTS THAN OUTSIDE AIR / HIGH LATENT MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

30 - 60% LOWER OPERATING COSTS THAN SOLID DESICCANT WHEEL SYSTEMS

COMPARABLE (OR LOWER) UPFRONT COSTS TO ALTERNATIVE EQUIPMENT

EXAMPLE FOR 3000 CFM OF OUTDOOR AIR:

REQUIRED EQUIPMENT MEETS LOADS ENERGY

CONSUMPTION (MBH)

ENERGY COST

STANDARD DX UNIT 20+ TONS CONVENTIONAL NO 250 - 300 $$

VAPOR COMPRESSION DOAS

18 TONS COOLING + MODULATING HOT GAS

REHEAT YES 200 - 300 $$

GAS CHARGED DESICCANT WHEEL

7 “TONS” DEHUMIDIFICATION + 16

TONS COOLING YES 250 - 450 $$$

LDAC SYSTEMS 12 “TONS” LDAC YES 100 - 150 $

Page 22: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

ADVANTAGES OF LDAC INDOOR AIR QUALITY

LIQUID DESICCANT SOLUTION IS TOXIC TO MICROORGANISMS

AND BACTERIA. PARTICULATES LARGER THAN 5 MICRONS ARE

REMOVED, ELIMINATING DANGEROUS FUMES AND UNPLEASANT

ODORS.

POWERFUL HUMIDITY CONTROL AND NO CONDENSATION

POINTS ANYWHERE IN THE SYSTEM PREVENT S THE GROWTH OF

MOLD AND MILDEW ON COILS, DUCTWORK, AND BUILDING

SURFACES FOR A SAFER, HEALTHIER ENVIRONMENT.

FIELD DATA SHOWS THAT

1. DESICCANT SOLUTION KILLS 99% OF MICRO-ORGANISMS IT

CONTACTS

2. 89-98% REDUCTION IN AIRBORNE M ICRO-ORGANISMS AFTER

INTALL

3. ALLERGENS, PARTICULATES, AND ODOUR CAUSING

MOLECULES ALSO CAPTURED BY THE PROCESS

Page 23: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

ADVANTAGES OF LDAC INSTALLATION

LIQUID DESICCANT UNITS ARE AS EASY TO

INSTALL AS CONVENTIONAL EQUIPMENT.

UNITS CAN BE INSTALLED ON A ROOFTOP, IN A

MECHANICAL ROOM, INSIDE THE FACILITY, OR

SKID-MOUNTED NEXT TO AN EXTERIOR WALL.

THE KEY REQUIREMENT IS BEING ABLE TO

EXHAUST THE HOT AND HUMID AIR TO THE

EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT.

UNLIKE CONVENTIONAL SYSTEMS, THERE IS NO

CONDENSATE REMOVAL SYSTEM, NO PLUMBING,

WATER OR GAS HOOKUPS, NO DRIP PANS, NO WET

COILS OR UV LIGHTS AND NO DISPOSABLE

FILTERS.

LDAC UNIT ON TERRACE LDAC UNIT ON MOUNTED TO WALL

LDAC UNIT IN INTERIOR EXCLUDED FROM MAIN USAGE AREA

Page 24: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

OTHER ADVANTAGES OF LDAC 5. ENERGY

SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION IN

ENERGY CONSUMPTION

6. PERFORMANCE

NO PERFORMANCE DEGRADATION AND

NO REPLACEMENT OF DESICCANT

7. COMPACT & LIGHTWEIGHT

SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCED

FOOTPRINT AND WEIGHT

8. MAINTENANCE

MINIMAL MAINTENANCE AND

INFREQUENT REPLACEMENT OF PARTS

Page 25: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

HIGH INITIAL COST.

MAINTENANCE EQUIPMENT.

AS DESICCANT IS A BRINE SOLUTION IT CORRODES THE EQUIPMENT.

COST OF ENERGY (USUALLY NATURAL GAS) TO REGENERATE THE DESICCANT

A SEPARATE HEAT EXCHANGER IS REQUIRED TO COOL THE DESICCANT BEFORE IT IS DELIVERED FOR ABSORPTION AGAIN

DISADVANTAGES OF LDAC SYSYTEM

Page 26: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

USES OF LDAC SYSTEM

APPLICATIONS THAT MAY BENEFIT FROM LIQUID DESICCANTS, SORTED BY RELEVANT DESIGN DEMAND.

Page 27: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

OTHER USES OF LD SYSTEM

LIQUID DESICCANT DRYING SYSTEM

Page 28: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

CONCLUSION UNLIKE CONVENTIONAL AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS, LIQUID DESICCANT SYSTEMS DIRECTLY ABSORB HUMIDITY FROM

THE AIR WHILE COOLING. THIS APPROACH SUBSTANTIALLY REDUCES ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY ELIMINATING THE NEED

FOR OVER-COOLING AND REHEATING

THE AIR.

LIQUID DESICCANT SYSTEMS ALSO OFFER THE ABILITY TO INDEPENDENTLY CONTROL TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY

WHICH USUALLY MAKES IT POSSIBLE TO PROVIDE A MORE COMFORTABLE ENVIRONMENT WHILE GENERATING

ADDITIONAL ENERGY SAVINGS.

LIQUID DESICCANT SYSTEMS CAN BE POWERED BY RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES SUCH AS SOLAR

PANELS AND GEOTHERMAL WATER OR BY WASTE HEAT FROM CO-GENERATION SYSTEMS.

Page 29: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

TYPES OF LDAC UNITS IN MARKET THERE ARE FOUR SYSTEM SERIES: FV; FH; FP AND SP.

FV “VERTICAL DISCHARGE” CONDITIONER

THE CONDITIONER CAN BE DESIGNED WITH PROCESS FANS AVAILABLE IN “UPBLAST”, “FRONT” OR “REAR” AIR

DISCHARGE ARRANGEMENTS.

VERTICAL UNIT APPLIES TO BREWERIES AND INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS WHICH OFTEN HAVE LIMITED FLOOR SPACE

AND HIGH CEILINGS.

THEY ALSO HAVE THE FLEXIBILITY TO INCORPORATE MULTIPLE CONDITIONERS AND A SINGLE REGENERATOR.

FH “HORIZONTAL DISCHARGE” CONDITIONER

THE FH DESIGN IS BEST SUITED FOR APPLICATIONS WHERE SPACE HEIGHT LIMITATIONS PROHIBIT THE USE OF THE

“FV” SERIES.

FH CONDITIONERS ARE COMMONLY APPLIED TO COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS OR PENTHOUSES WHICH DO NOT HAVE

THE HEAD ROOM REQUIRED BY THE FV CONDITIONERS.

APPLICATIONS SUCH AS HOSPITALS AND LABS OFTEN REQUIRE THE FH APPROACH.

Page 30: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

TYPES OF LDAC UNITS IN MARKET FP “FIBERGLASS PACKED” REGENERATOR

THE PACKED TOWER REGENERATORS ARE USED WITH ALL FV AND FH CONDITIONERS.

FP REGENERATOR APPLIES FOR MOST APPLICATIONS THAT HAVE A LARGER MOISTURE LOAD OR SEVERAL

CONDITIONERS SUCH AS BREWERIES, FOOD AND CANDY MANUFACTURING.

THEY COME IN A LARGE RANGE OF SIZES AND CAN BE REMOTELY LOCATED FROM THE CONDITIONER OR

CONDITIONERS.

SP “SMALL PACKAGED” CONDITIONER/REGENERATOR

THESE FACTORY PACKAGED SYSTEMS ARE A PLUG & PLAY DESIGNED SYSTEM, REQUIRING ONLY PLANT UTILITIES

AND POWER TO A SINGLE POINT.

SP UNITS ARE IDEAL FOR SMALLER APPLICATIONS SUCH AS WATER WORKS, CASTING APPLICATIONS,

PHARMACEUTICAL DRYING ROOMS AND FILLING AREAS.

THEY ARE COMPACT, READY TO GO SKID MOUNTED AND PACKAGED UNITS.

Page 31: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

COMPONENTS A—FRP BODY/HOUSING B—FRP PUMP TANK C—DESICCANT SPRAY PUMP D—HEAT EXCHANGER E—SPRAY PRESSURE VALVE F—FAN ADAPTER PLENUM G—PROCESS AIR FAN H—BYPASS FILTER CARTRIDGE I—DESICCANT PIPING

FV “VERTICAL DISCHARGE” CONDITIONER

UNIT SIZE

AIRFLOW(MIN) AIRFLOW(MAX) APPROXIMATE DIMENSIONS NORMAL OPERATING

WEIGHT

CFM m3/hr CFM m3/hr INCHES cm

lbs kg L W H L W H

240FV 1,500 2,550 3,000 5,100 62 50 77 157 127 196 1,950 885

7000FV 42,000 71,360 84,000 1,42,720 377 105 120 958 267 305 24,000 10,886

Page 32: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

FH “HORIZONTAL DISCHARGE” CONDITIONER

UNIT SIZE

AIRFLOW(MIN) AIRFLOW(MAX) APPROXIMATE DIMENSIONS NORMAL OPERATING

WEIGHT

CFM m3/hr CFM m3/hr INCHES cm

lbs kg L W H L W H

800FH 5,000 8,500 10,000 16,990 96 78 93 244 198 236 4,400 1,996

7000FH 42000 71360 84000 142720 387 96 117 983 244 297 27,300 12,383

COMPONENTS A—FRP BODY/HOUSING B—FRP PUMP TANK C—DESICCANT SPRAY PUMP D—HEAT EXCHANGER E—SPRAY PRESSURE VALVE F—BYPASS FILTER CARTRIDGE G—DESICCANT PIPING

Page 33: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

FP “FIBERGLASS PACKED” REGENERATOR

UNIT SIZE INLET AIRFLOW APPROXIMATE DIMENSIONS NORMAL OPERATING WEIGHT

CFM m3/hr INCHES cm

lbs kg L W H L W H

1.5 FP 475 810 42 40 99 107 102 251 3,300 1,497

40 FP 12,600 21,410 167 75 127 424 191 323 4,400 1,996

COMPONENTS A—FRP BODY/HOUSING B—FRP PUMP TANK C—DESICCANTS SPRAY PUMP D—HEAT EXCHANGER E—SPRAY PRESSURE VALVE F—EXHAUST PLENUM G—DESICCANT PIPING H—REGENERATOR FAN

Page 34: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

SP “SMALL PACKAGED” CONDITIONER / REGENERATOR

COMPONENTS A—FRP BODY/HOUSING B—DESICCANT SPRAY PUMP(S) C—HEAT EXCHANGER D—PROCESS AIR FAN E—BYPASS FILTER CARTRIDGE F—DESICCANT PIPING G—REGENERATOR FAN H—PLC CONTROL PANEL

UNIT SIZE

AIRFLOW(MIN) AIRFLOW(MAX) APPROXIMATE DIMENSIONS NORMAL OPERATING

WEIGHT

CFM m3/hr CFM m3/hr INCHES cm

lbs kg L W H L W H

240 SP 1,500 2,550 3,000 5,100 111 59 123 282 150 312 3,300 1,497

400 SP 2,500 4,250 5,000 8,500 128 66 125 325 168 318 4,400 1,996

600 SP 3,750 6,370 7,500 12,740 177 66 132 450 168 335 5,800 2,631

Page 35: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

LIQUID DESICCANT AND ARCHITECTURE

PROJECT NAME: LEAF HOUSE LOCATION: MARYLAND, U.S.A FEATURE: LIQUID DESICCANT WATERFALL

Page 36: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

LIQUID DESICCANT WATERFALL

REQUIREMENT:

AS PART OF THE DESIGN’S ENERGY EFFICIENCY, THE TEAM

NEEDED A LOW-ENERGY SYSTEM TO COOL THE HOT-HUMID

SUMMER AIR IN MARYLAND.

DESIGN:

THE INGENUITY CAME WHEN THEY DECIDED TO RE-DESIGN

AND ADAPT A TECHNOLOGY USED IN LARGE-SCALE

COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS TO FIT IN THEIR SMALL

FOOTPRINT.

INSTEAD OF HIDING THE SYSTEM, THEY FOUND A WAY TO

MAKE IT AN ARCHITECTURAL FEATURE.

MATERIAL:

THE "LIQUID DESICCANT WATERFALL" USES LITHIUM

CHLORIDE/ CALCIUM CHLORIDE TO DEHUMIDIFY

LIQUID DESICCANT AND ARCHITECTURE

Page 37: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

LIQUID DESICCANT WATERFALL

APPROACH:

USE A DESICCANT TO ABSORB WATER FROM THE AIR AND,

WHEN IT IS SATURATED, HEAT THE WATER (WITH SOLAR

TUBES) OUTSIDE THE BUILDING TO EVAPORATE OUT LIQUID TO

CONCENTRATE THE DESICCANT AGAIN.

INSIDE THE HOUSE, THIS LOOKS LIKE A WATERFALL IN

PLEXIGLASS. THUS, NOT ONLY WOULD IT SAVE ON ENERGY USE,

IT ALSO WOULD CALM RESIDENTS.

ALSO IN WINTER, THE PROCESS COULD BE REVERSED TO HUMIFY

THE AIR. AND, IN SUMMER, THE LIQUID DESICCANT WATERFALL

COULD CONTRIBUTE TO COOLING.

LIQUID DESICCANT AND ARCHITECTURE

Page 38: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System
Page 39: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

THANK YOU

Page 40: Liquid Desiccant Cooling System

SLIDE DISTRIBUTION

OPTION: 1 TOTAL SLIDE NO. 1-12 SHWETA 12 SLIDE NO. 13-25 JAY 12 SLIDE NO. 26-38 KASHYAP 12

AVG 12 SLIDES EACH PERSON

OPTION: 2 TOTAL SLIDE NO. 1-7, 34-38 SHWETA 12 SLIDE NO. 8-19 JAY 11 SLIDE NO. 20-33 KASHYAP 13

OPTION: 3 TOTAL SLIDE NO. 1-7, 34-38 SHWETA 12 SLIDE NO. 8-12 , 17-25 JAY 14 SLIDE NO. 13-16, 26-33 KASHYAP 12


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