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LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES Masum Hossain University of Alberta 0
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Page 1: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION

FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES

Masum Hossain

University of Alberta

0

Page 2: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

Outline

• Why ADC-Based receiver?

• Challenges in ADC-based receiver

• ADC-DSP based Receiver

– Reducing impact of Quantization Noise

– Variable Resolution ADC

– low-latency high-resolution TDC-based timing recovery

– Implemented Prototype and Measured Results

1

Page 3: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

Tx FIR Filter:

• Peak power constrained

• Limited by supply

voltage

Peaking equalizer:

• Analog - does not scale well

• Limited by supply voltage

• PVT variation

Decision Feedback Eq.:

• Latency constrained

• Difficult for multilevel

signaling

Existing equalization strategy does not scale well with technology, channel loss and data rate

2

Conventional mixed-signal Link

Page 4: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

ADC-based high speed Link

Analog mixed-signal Digital

Benefits of DSP-based equalization:

• Scales well with technology

• Frequency response can be well controlled

• Can equalize both pre and post cursors

3

Challenges of DSP-based equalization:

• ADC-DSP is power hungry.

• Higher loop latency make timing recovery difficult

Mixed-signal vs ADC-based Link

Page 5: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

4

• Variable

Resolution

• Predictive

ADC

• Timing Recovery

• 3-bit TDC

• 8-tap Digital FFE

• 3-tap in Look-up table

• 5-tap in conventional way

PAM-4 Digital Receiver Architecture

Page 6: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 120

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Time (Bit period)

No

rma

lize

d S

tep

Res

po

nse

&

Co

mp

ara

tor

Ref

eren

ce

Transient Data Edge

5

4 Fixed Reference

• Between two consecutive samples signal changes a lot

• Need to cover entire dynamic range - 4 Fixed References.

Variable Resolution ADC – 12 dB loss

Page 7: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

6

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 120

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Time (Bit period)

No

rma

lize

d S

tep

Res

po

nse

&

Co

mp

ara

tor

Ref

eren

ce

TransientDataEdge

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 120

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Time (Bit period)

No

rma

lize

d S

tep

Res

po

nse

&

Co

mp

ara

tor

Ref

eren

ce

Transient Data Edge

• Between two consecutive samples signal changes around 20% - 30%

• Need to cover a portion of entire dynamic range – Reference Switching

Variable Resolution ADC – 25 dB loss

Page 8: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

7

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 120

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Time (Bit period)

No

rma

lize

d S

tep

Res

po

nse

&

Co

mp

ara

tor

Ref

eren

ce

TransientDataEdge

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 120

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Time (Bit period)

No

rma

lize

d S

tep

Res

po

nse

&

Co

mp

ara

tor

Ref

eren

ce

Transient Data Edge

• Edge comparator output defines the next probable location of references

Variable Resolution ADC – 25 dB loss

Page 9: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 120

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Time (Bit period)

No

rma

lize

d S

tep

Res

po

nse

&

Co

mp

ara

tor

Ref

eren

ce

TransientDataEdge

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 120

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Time (Bit period)

No

rma

lize

d S

tep

Res

po

nse

&

Co

mp

ara

tor

Ref

eren

ce

Transient Data Edge

• Fine references are carried over to the mid of two coarse references

Fine

Reference

2 Edge Reference

Variable Resolution ADC – 25 dB loss

Page 10: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

9

Fine EVENEDGE

Fine ODD

Quad Edge

Octal ODD

Quad Coarse

Octal EVEN

Coarse

• Quad and Octal

clock is retimed with

a the original quad

clock

/2PGEN

PGEN

3.5 GHz

Matched

delay

OctalQuad

Variable Resolution ADC – Sample and Hold

Page 11: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

10

• Unbalance the capacitive load attached to the input of the strong-ARM latch

• Store the bit-decisions into a 6T SRAM to reduce the area.

Ref: [2]

ADC Offset Correction

Page 12: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

11

Measured ADC Performance

Page 13: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

12

• Timing Recovery

• 3-bit TDC

• 8-tap Digital FFE

• 3-tap in Look-up table

• 5-tap in conventional way

• Variable

Resolution

• Predictive

ADC

PAM-4 Digital Receiver Architecture

Page 14: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

ФN

Digital

Filter

Digital FFE

MM Phase

Detector

ФQ

• MM based phase detection is not as robust as 2x (i.e. data and edge) sampled CDR

• Bang-bang or 1 bit phase quantization at the Phase detector increases in-band jitter

• Lowering loop bandwidth increases VCO phase noise contribution

• Loop latency makes it difficult to achieve wider loop bandwidth

13

Timing Recovery Challenge for ADC-based Receiver

Page 15: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

Effect of Timing Noise on SNR

Effect of timing noise on SNR is less when we consider channel loss!!!

Page 16: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

Phase Tracking vs Blind ADC based

[Clifford et.al. JSSC, 2013]

• Simple But latency sensitive

• ADC benefits from jitter tracking

• Less latency sensitive

• ADC does not benefits from

jitter tracking

Page 17: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

Region 0

Region 1

Region 2

Region 3

16

Low-latency Timing Recovery

Page 18: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

Proposed CDR Advantages:

• ADC bypass significantly reduces latency

• 3b SAR TDC reduces bang-bang dithering by 4x.

• Wider loop BW effectively filters VCO phase noise

17

Low-latency Timing Recovery – SAR TDC operation

Page 19: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

Frequency (MHz)Jit

ter

Tole

rance (

UIp

p)

Equipment limit

18

Free-running

Locked

• Integrated jitter = 0.5 ps

• In-band phase noise = - 90 dBc/Hz

Phase Noise Jitter Tolerance with 27-1 pattern

102

CDR Performance

Page 20: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

19

• 8-tap Digital FFE

• 3-tap in Look-up table

• 5-tap in conventional way

• Timing Recovery

• 3-bit TDC

• Variable

Resolution

• Predictive

ADC

PAM-4 Digital Receiver Architecture

Page 21: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

2 3 4 5 60

50

100

150

200

250

300

ADC Resolution (No. of bits)

Po

wer (

mW

)

Noise Source Constrain Transfer Gain

NLEQ Power/Gain/BW LEQ + FFE

ΦN Power and latency FFE

NADC Power/Settling time FFE

NQZ ADC Resolution FFE

NLEQ NADC

ФN

NQZDigital FFE

Timing

Recovery

Flash ADC, Fs=14GS/s

20

Noise Sources in ADC-based Receiver

Page 22: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

Quantization Noise Impact

1 2 3 4 5 6 7-100

-90

-80

-70

-60

-50

-40

-30

-20

-10

0

ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (GHz)

AM

PL

ITU

DE

(d

B)

FFT at the ADC Output (Simulated)

FFT at the FFE Output (Simulated)

ADC quantization Noise Floor (Theoretical)

Quantization noise floor at the FFE output (Theoretical)

3

2222Pr

2Pr

22

,

PostQPostMainQMaineeQ

FFEQZoutQZ

WNWNWNhNN

postmainpre

XX

hhh

hW

PostMainex ,,Pr,

Page 23: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

22

NQZ

Z-1

NQMainNQPost

hmain hpost

N bit

2N bit

Although Digital FFE output can be 2N bit, we are

we are still limited by ADC’s N bit resolution

Z-1

hmain hpost

NQZ

If FFE can be moved ahead of the ADC than we can

Minimize ADC’s quantization noise penalty

2N bit

How can we build a digital FFE with resolution better than the ADC?

N bit N bit

22

How to reduce ADC quantization noise impact?

Page 24: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

• LUT based first three taps

reduces quantization noise

impact

• 3 to 8 taps does not

significantly amplify

quantization noise

LUT FFE Conv. FFE

5 bit 5 5 5 5 5

9

Address Decoder

9

23

Reducing Quantization Noise Impact

Page 25: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

46

810

46

810

50

100

150

No. of taps

Power for different no. of taps and tap resolution

Tap resolution

46

810

46

810

50

100

150

No. of taps

Power for different no. of taps and tap resolution - LT

Tap resolution

3-tap LUT + 5-tap Conventional8-tap Conventional

Proposed approach is 30% lower power compared to conv. FIR implementation

Reducing Quantization Noise Impact

Page 26: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

500 µm

500 µ

m

1300 µm

1000 µ

m

• Area increases by 4x but

• Standard cell SRAM will reduce is by 25%

• Area will scale significantly with technology

3-tap LUT + 5-tap Conventional8-tap Conventional

Area Impact of the proposed solution

Page 27: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

Digital Interface

CH270

3.5 GHz

Clock GenTDC

P0

P315

Reference

Generator

CH0

CH90

CH180

(Coarse S/H)

(Edge S/H)

P0 HR(Fine S/H)

2.5

1

2

Even

Odd

T-to-B1.5

2

Mode

Selection

2

3

4

5

5.5

High BW

Amplifier

Passive

Equalizer

T-to-B

T-to-B

T-to-B

DSP

Implemented in TSMC 65nm FPGA

40 mW

29 mW

28 mW

33 mW

30 mW Analog

Clk. Gen +

Buffer

TDC

DSP

Digital

35 mW

26 mW23 mW

24 mW

26 mW Analog

Clk. Gen +

Buffer

TDC

DSP

Digital

26

Digital:

• T-to-B, Mode selection

• Retimer

Long Reach

Medium Reach

Implemented Prototype in 65nm CMOS

Page 28: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

27

To

FPGA

• Heavily digital solution

• Input needs only 7 GHz bandwidth

Implemented Prototype in 65nm CMOS

Page 29: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

PCB for testing

Cyclone V FPGA

Matched SMA

cables

Input Clock

FPGA Interface

28

• Varying channel loss by cascading SMA cables.

Experimental Setup

Page 30: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

29

-0.5 -0.25 0 0.25 0.50

10

20

31

Time (UI)

AD

C C

od

e

-0.5 0 0.50

10

20

31

Time (UI)

AD

C C

od

e

Linear Equalizer

output EYE

Reconstructed digital

EYE from ADC output

frequency responses

of LR, MR and SR channelsS

R

MR

LR

• Tx has 6 dB equalization

• Linear equalizer boost: 6 to 14 dB

Input EYE in Digital Domain

Page 31: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

30

Equalized output code Equalized output code

BE

RO

ccu

rren

c

e

-3 -1 1 3 -3 -1 1 3

3-tap LUT + 5-tap

Conventional

8-tap Conventional

• FPGA gives the distribution of the bins

• The distribution is converted into log-scale

• Gaussian fit to extract the BER.

Link Margin at 28Gb/s 30 dB Channel

Page 32: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

5.7 pJ/bit

4.6 pJ/bit

3.25 pJ/bit

2.1 pJ/bit2.1 pJ/bit

ADC

TDC

FFE

Channel Loss (dB)

Pow

er

(mW

) @

28 G

b/s

31

BE

R

• Receiver can achieve BER up to 10-9

Data rate: 28 Gb/s PAM-4

Link Margin Test and Energy Efficiency

Page 33: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

32

Shafik

ISSCC 2015[4]

Frans

VLSI 2016[5]

Cui

ISSCC 2016[3]

Rylov ISSCC

2016 [6]

This Work

Technology 65 nm CMOS 16 nm FinFET 28 nm CMOS 32 nm CMOS 65 nm CMOS

Data Rate

(Gb/s)

10

NRZ

56

PAM-4

32

PAM-4

25

NRZ

28

PAM-4

ADC

Architecture

32x TI SAR

ADC

32x TI SAR

ADC

32x TI SAR

ADC

4x Flash ADC 4x Flash ADC

ENOB@

Nyquist

4.74 4.9 5.85 4 4.1

Timing

Recovery

N/A Baud-rate Baud-rate Baud-rate Edge & Data Sampled

Tracking BW --- --- --- --- 10+ MHz

Jitter

Tolerance

--- ---- --- --- 0.2 UIpp @ 50 MHz

Channel Loss

Equalization

36.4 dB

@ 5 GHz

25 dB

@ 14 GHz

32 dB

@ 8 GHz

40 dB

@ 12 GHz

30 dB

@ 7 GHz

Power (mW) 79(w/o DSP)

87(w DSP)

410(w/o DSP) 320 453 130@30 dB w/o

45 @ 15 dB DSP

160@30 dB with

60 @ 15 dB DSP

FOM (pJ/bit) 8.7 7.32 10 18.12 5.71@ 30 dB with

2.14@ 15 dB DSP

Comparison with state-of-art

Page 34: LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED …toronto.ieee.ca/files/2017/08/SSCS_invited_talk.pdf · LOW POWER DIGITAL EQUALIZATION FOR HIGH SPEED SERDES ... PAM-4 Digital Receiver

• ADC- DSP Based receivers are the future for multilevel signaling in advanced CMOS – but it’s power has to be reduced.

• DSP needs to be more information efficient – Non-uniform quantization is a simple way to improve effective resolution.

• ADC for wireline is different than general purpose ADC. General purpose ADC considers each sample ‘uncorrelated’ but in reality channel ISI makes them ‘correlated’ –predictive ADC is a simple way to take advantage of that.

• Timing recovery is as important as data recovery – Multibit TDC and lower latency is an effective way to improve timing recovery loop and meet jitter requirement of the ADC.

33

Summary of ADC Based Receiver


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