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[Lucy_Pollard]_Lucy_Pollard’s_Guide_to_Teaching_(BookFi.org) (1)

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Page 1: [Lucy_Pollard]_Lucy_Pollard’s_Guide_to_Teaching_(BookFi.org) (1)

8/12/2019 [Lucy_Pollard]_Lucy_Pollard’s_Guide_to_Teaching_(BookFi.org) (1)

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 (9BC;A =8H8H38= 67C6 @? ;4< C=8 CA5@D> A6<F8D6A 64 H4N8 64 ?4=H C >=4<: ]=C678= 67CD P<A6 CA5@D> 678H 64 B4=5 B@67 678@= E94A8A6 D8@>734<=A^K @6 B@99 6C58 C ?8B H@D<68A 644=>CD@A8G %4< B@99 D88F 64 ?CE64= 67@A @D64 ;4<= 98AA4D :9CDG

16S M?@D A987 D?8 D8@H?8E A9 ABE>;< Q@>E @;A <E9BQ K9EIN

%4< ECD M<@68 A@H:9; 986 A6<F8D6A >86 4D B@67 678 6CA5G 14B8N8=K 67@A F48AD+6 H8CD@>D4=@D> 678H CDF 9866@D> 678 6CA5 F@A@D68>=C68G

U $4:;=@>76 X "<E; &499C=F JYYS (99 )@>76A )8A8=N8F 

07@A 8Q3445 HC; D46 38 =8:=4F<E8F @D :C=6 4= @D ?<99 B@674<6 678 8L:=8AA B=@668D :8=H@AA@4D 4? 678 C<674=G 

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%4< C994B 678H 64 B4=5 C6 678@= :CE8 CDF @D C BC; 67C6 A<@6A 678HG

%4< 4??8= 789: B78D D8E8AAC=;G

%4< CDAB8= A6<F8D6A+ M<8A6@4DAG

%4< ECD 986 678H 5D4B 67C6 6@H8 @A E94A@D> @DO 8G>G _P<A6 ?@N8 H@D<68A 64 E4H:9868B7C6 ;4<+=8 F4@D>`G

%4< H4D@64= B7C6 @A >4@D> 4DG Z7@9A6 H4D@64=@D>K 678 68CE78= D468A F4BDH@A6C58A CDF 8LCH:98A 4? >44F B4=5G

078=8 C=8 6B4 BC;A 4? H4D@64=@D>T BC95 C=4<DF 678 E9CAAK 74N8= 4N8= 8N8=; :C@= 4=>=4<: ?4= C H@D<68 4= A4 64 9@A68D 64 B7C6 678; C=8 F4@D>G 07@A C994BA ;4< 64 ?4E<A@D68DA@N89; 4D 8CE7 >=4<: 4= :C@=G 078=8 @A C F@ACFNCD6C>8 78=8K 74B8N8=T A6<F8D6AA4H86@H8A ?=88a8 <: CDF 9445 64 678 68CE78= ?4= CAA@A6CDE8K B7@E7 F8?8C6A 678 :<=:4A84? >=4<: CDF :C@= B4=5G &8=A4DC99;K . :=8?8= C F@??8=8D6 C::=4CE7 @D C E9CAA=44H B78=8678 A@a8 :8=H@6AG . C==CD>8 678 >=4<:A 4= :C@=A @D C 74=A8A748 C=4<DF 678 =44H CDF . A@6@D 678 H@FF98 4? 67C6 74=A8A748G . 678D E4DE8D6=C68 H; C668D6@4D 4D 8CE7 :C@= 4= >=4<:@D 6<=D B@674<6 H4N@D>G %4<+F 38 CHCa8F C6 74B H<E7 ;4< ECD 78C=G 07@A C::=4CE7C9A4 H8CDA 67C6 ;4< F4D+6 7CN8 ;4<= 3CE5 64 A4H8 4? 678 A6<F8D6AG

 (?68= :C@= B4=5 4= >=4<: B4=5K CA5 A6<F8D6A B7C6 678; F@AE<AA8FK E78E5 CDAB8=AK CA5678H B7C6 F8E@A@4DA 678; ECH8 64K CDF A4 4D ]F8:8DF@D> 4D 678 6CA5 ;4< A86^G *<=@D>67@A A6C>8 ;4< ECD C9A4 E98C= <: CD; M<8A6@4DA 678 A6<F8D6A HC; 7CN8 CDF =8N@8B8==4=A CDF 8LCH:98A 4? >44F B4=5G

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,6<F8D6A H@>76 <A8 678@= 4BD 9CD><C>8G WC58 @6 E98C= ?=4H 678 A6C=6 67C6 ;4< 8L:8E6A6<F8D6A 64 <A8 /D>9@A7K H4D@64= EC=8?<99;G ,C; A4H867@D> CA A44D CA ;4< 78C=A6<F8D6A <A@D> 678@= 4BD 9CD><C>8G %4< H@>76 BCD6 64 @D6=4F<E8 C :4@D6A A;A68H CDF

E4H:86@6@4DO A6<F8D6A 94A8 :4@D6A ?4= <A@D> 678@= H4678= 64D><8K >C@D :4@D6A ?4= <A@D>/D>9@A7G (6 678 8DF 4? 678 FC; 4= B885K CFF <: :4@D6A CDF F@A:9C; 678H ?4= 678 E9CAA 64A88G

16V M?@D D9 A9 >; W9BE :>E7D =8779;N

%4< A74<9F 67@D5 C34<6 B78678= 678 A6<F8D6A 5D4B 8CE7 4678= 4= D46G .? 678; F4D+65D4B 8CE7 4678=K A:8DF A4H8 6@H8 C994B@D> 678H 64 >86 64 5D4B 678@= E9CAAHC68AG078=8 C=8 HCD; BC;A 64 >4 C34<6 67@A CDF . A<>>8A6 ;4< :<6 _>866@D> 64 5D4B ;4<CE6@N@6@8A` 4= _?@=A6 FC; CE6@N@6@8A` @D64 C A8C=E7 8D>@D8 CDF E744A8 4D8 67C6 A<@6A ;4<G

3W $4:;=@>76 X "<E; &499C=F JYYS (99 )@>76A )8A8=N8F 

07@A 8Q3445 HC; D46 38 =8:=4F<E8F @D :C=6 4= @D ?<99 B@674<6 678 8L:=8AA B=@668D :8=H@AA@4D 4? 678 C<674=G 

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$78E5 B@67 C E4998C><8 B78678= 678 CE6@N@6; ;4< ?@DF B@99 >4 F4BD B899 @D 678 E<96<=8;4<+=8 B4=5@D> @DG

.? 678; C9=8CF; 5D4B 8CE7 4678=K ;4< E4<9F A:8DF C A74=6 6@H8 C994B@D> 678 A6<F8D6A 64>86 64 5D4B ;4<G 078; E4<9F @D68=N@8B ;4<G R4= 67@AK 678; :=8:C=8 M<8A6@4DA 64>8678= @D

:C@=A CDF 678D CA5 ;4< 678@= M<8A6@4DAG (D CE6@N@6; B78=8 A6<F8D6A >86 64 5D4B 678@=68CE78= @AD+6 A<@6C398 64 C99 E<96<=8AO ?@DF 4<6 C34<6 67@A ?=4H H4=8 8L:8=@8DE8FE4998C><8AG

0=; 64 CN4@F =8CF@D> CDF B=@6@D> @D 678 ?@=A6 98AA4DG "@A68D@D> 64 C =8E4=F@D> @A D46 C>44F E74@E8 8@678=O 9@A68D@D> ECD 38 A6=8AA?<9 CDF ;4< D88F 64 38 A<=8 @6 B@99 38 :@6E78FC6 678 =@>76 98N89G . A<>>8A6 A4H8 9CD><C>8 B4=5 ]8@678= >=CHHC= 4= N4EC3<9C=;^ B7@E7A74<9F 38 58:6 M<@68 9@>76 CDF C A:8C5@D> CE6@N@6; 64 >@N8 ;4< C E7CDE8 64 8NC9<C68 ;4<=A6<F8D6A+ C3@9@6@8AG .? 678; 7CN8 388D 64>8678= =8E8D69; CA C >=4<:K ?@DF 4<6 B7C6 678A6<F8D6A 7CN8 388D A6<F;@D> =8E8D69; CDF B4=5 4D A4H867@D> =89C68F 64 67C6 4=A4H867@D> 67C6 3<@9FA 4D @6G

R4= 678 ?@=A6 98AA4D B@67 CD <D5D4BD >=4<:K E744A8 C D8<6=C9 64:@E 67C6 B@99 @D68=8A6H4A6 :84:98 4= C6 98CA6 C 64:@E 67C6 8N8=;34F; ECD E4D6=@3<68 64K 8G>G 749@FC;AK B4=5KAE7449K ?CH@9@8AG

161X 4>U>;< >;7DEBHD>9;7

078 A<EE8AA 4? NC=@4<A A6C>8A 4? ;4<= 98AA4D B@99 F8:8DF <:4D ;4<= C3@9@6; 64 >@N8 E98C=@DA6=<E6@4DAG .? 678 A6<F8D6A <DF8=A6CDF ;4<= @DA6=<E6@4DAK 678; B@99 EC==; 4<6 678 6CA5 CA;4< 7CF :9CDD8FG .? @DA6=<E6@4DA C=8 H@A<DF8=A644FK A6<F8D6A B@99 D46 F4 678 =@>76 67@D>G.? ;4< =8C9@A8 @D 6@H8K ;4< ECD >@N8 ;4<= @DA6=<E6@4DA C>C@DO 3<6 @? ;4< 4D9; D46@E8 67@A C6

678 8DF 4? 678 CE6@N@6;K A4H8 A6<F8D6A B@99 7CN8 F4D8 678 B=4D> 67@D>G .D CD; ECA8K @D4=F8= 64 <A8 6@H8 8??@E@8D69;K @6 @A 8AA8D6@C9 64 >@N8 E98C= @DA6=<E6@4DA CDF 64 E78E5 67C6A6<F8D6A 7CN8 <DF8=A644F B7C6 @A =8M<@=8F 4? 678H 38?4=8 678; A6C=6 B4=5G

Z78D :9CDD@D> ;4<= 98AA4DK 67@D5 C34<6 B7C6 ;4< B@99 CA5 678 A6<F8D6A 64 F4G 078D67@D5 C34<6 74B ;4< B@99 AC; 67C6 64 678H @D C BC; 678; <DF8=A6CDFG Z78D ;4< ?@=A6A6C=6 68CE7@D>K ;4< H@>76 BCD6 64 B=@68 ;4<= @DA6=<E6@4DA 4D ;4<= 98AA4D :9CDK 4= 4D CA8:C=C68 :@8E8 4? :C:8=K 64 789: ;4< B78D ;4< C=8 @D E9CAAG -@N@D> @DA6=<E6@4DA B@99A44D 38E4H8 A8E4DF DC6<=8 64 ;4< CDF A6<F8D6A B@99 >86 <A8F 64 ;4<= BC; 4? B4=5@D>CDF ;4<= 8L:9CDC6@4DA CDF 67@D>A B@99 >4 H4=8 AH44679;G

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*4D+6 >@N8 ;4<= @DA6=<E6@4DA 644 ?C= @D CFNCDE8 4? 678 6CA5 @6A89?G /L:9C@D B7C6 @A D88F8F@HH8F@C689; 38?4=8 A6<F8D6A A6C=6 678 CE6@N@6;G .? 678=8+A C >C: 386B88D 678 @DA6=<E6@4DA

33 $4:;=@>76 X "<E; &499C=F JYYS (99 )@>76A )8A8=N8F 

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CDF 678 CE6@N@6;K A6<F8D6A H@>76 ?4=>86 B7C6 64 F4G R4= 8LCH:98K @? ;4<= A6<F8D6A B@99 38H4N@D> 64 B4=5 @D >=4<:AK ?@=A6 CA5 678H 64 H4N8K CDF 678D >@N8 678 @DA6=<E6@4DAG

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1611 ,9K D9 78@D 7DBA8;D7

078=8 C=8 NC=@4<A BC;A 4? A8C6@D> A6<F8D6A CDF 8CE7 A8=N8A C F@??8=8D6 :<=:4A8T

.D C 74=A8A748 4= E@=E98T 67@A @A >44F ?4= B7498 E9CAA F@AE<AA@4DA CDF ?4= E=8C6@D> CE44:8=C6@N8 8DN@=4DH8D6G .? 678 E7C@=A 7CN8 AHC99 H4N8C398 6C398A C66CE78FK 67@AE4D?@><=C6@4D B4=5A B899 CA A6<F8D6A ECD H4N8 C=4<DF 8CA@9; 64 ?4=H :C@=A 4= >=4<:AG

-=4<:A 4? e 4= i C=4<DF C 6C398K C D<H38= 4? A<E7 >=4<:A C=4<DF 678 =44HT C9A4 >44F?4= F@AE<AA@4D 3<6 98DFA @6A89? H4=8 64 >=4<: B4=5 67CD B7498 E9CAA F@AE<AA@4DG .? 678E9CAA=44H @A AHC99K @6+A D46 8CA; ?4= 678 68CE78= 64 >4 C=4<DF CDF H4D@64=G 07@A4=>CD@AC6@4D B4=5A B899 ?4= AHC99 E7@9F=8DG

.D =4BA B@67 F8A5A A8:C=C68FT >44F ?4= 68A6A CDF 8LCHAG

U8?4=8 >4@D> @D64 E9CAAK 67@D5 C34<6 B7C6 ;4<+99 38 F4@D> CDF B7@E7 A8C6@D>C==CD>8H8D6 B@99 A<@6 ;4< 38A6G

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%4< ECD >8D8=C99; 8L:8E6 CD C3A49<68 38>@DD8= E9CAA 64 7CN8 A6<F8D6A C99 C6 678 ACH898N89G 14B8N8=K CA ;4< H4N8 <: 678 98N89AK F@??8=8DE8A 38E4H8 C::C=8D6G .D CDCFNCDE8F E9CAAK ;4< H@>76 7CN8 C A6<F8D6 B74 7CA 9@N8F @D 678 #j CDF B74 7CA C N8=;>44F 98N89 4? E4994M<@C9K A:458D /D>9@A7 C94D>A@F8 C <D@N8=A@6; A6<F8D6 B74 HCA68=A>=CHHC= 3<6 D46 A:458D /D>9@A7G .D A<E7 ECA8AK @6 B@99 38 D8E8AAC=; 64 :=4N@F8 B4=5

3" $4:;=@>76 X "<E; &499C=F JYYS (99 )@>76A )8A8=N8F 

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67C6 EC68=A 64 C99 D88FAO ?4= 8LCH:98K A4H86@H8A ?4E<A@D> 4D 9CD><C>8 B4=5 CDF C64678= 6@H8A 4D A:458D /D>9@A7G .6 B@99 38 H4=8 @H:4=6CD6 64 E=8C68 3C9CDE8 CDF F4CE6@N@6@8A 67C6 EC68= 64 F@??8=8D6 D88FA C6 7@>78= 98N89AG -8D8=C99; A:8C5@D>K C6 678 94B8=98N89AK A6<F8D6A 7CN8 N8=; A@H@9C= D88FAG

R4= C D8B 68CE78=K 678 @D68=H8F@C68 98N89A C=8 678 8CA@8A6 64 68CE7G .? ;4< 7CN8 CE74@E8K =8M<8A6 674A8 98N89A B78D ;4< ?@=A6 A6C=6 68CE7@D>G

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k4EC3<9C=;T 67@A @A C 3CA@E 3<@9F@D> 394E5 4? 9CD><C>8 98C=D@D>G ,6<F8D6A D88F 64 5D4BB4=FAK 678@= H8CD@D>AK 74B 678; C=8 A:896 CDF 74B 678; C=8 :=4D4<DE8FG Z78D

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&=4D<DE@C6@4DT A6<F8D6A D88F 64 5D4B 74B 64 :=4D4<DE8 @DF@N@F<C9 A4<DFA CA B899 CAE4H3@DC6@4DA 4? A4<DFAG (A C 68CE78=K ;4<+99 ?4E<A 4D 678 A4<DFA A6<F8D6A ?@DF F@??@E<96G07@A 3CA@EC99; H8CDA 678 A4<DFA 67C6 F4 D46 8L@A6 @D 678 A6<F8D6A+ H4678= 64D><8G R4=8LCH:98K 678 _67` A4<DF @A F@??@E<96 ?4= HCD; 98C=D8=A 38EC<A8 678@= 9CD><C>8 F48AD+67CN8 67C6 A4<DFG

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4=F8=@D> @D C =8A6C<=CD6G R<DE6@4DA ECDD46 38 6=CDA9C68F B4=F ?4= B4=F @D64 CD4678=9CD><C>8 CDF 678; <A<C99; 4D9; EC==; H8CD@D> @D A:8E@?@E A@6<C6@4DAG

"8N89A 4? ?4=HC9@6;T A6<F8D6A D88F 64 F8N894: CD CBC=8D8AA 4? CDF CD C3@9@6; 64:=4F<E8 9CD><C>8 4? NC=;@D> F8>=88A 4? ?4=HC9@6;G $8=6C@D A@6<C6@4DA CDF E4D68L6A EC99?4= 678 <A8 4? ?4=HC9 9CD><C>8O 8G>G C 3<A@D8AA 98668=K C F@AE<AA@4D B@67 4D8+A <D@N8=A@6;:=4?8AA4=G .D 4678= A@6<C6@4DAK H4=8 @D?4=HC9 9CD><C>8 ECD 38 <A8FO 8G>G CD 8N8D6 ?4=A6<F8D6AO CD 8QHC@9 8LE7CD>8 B@67 C ?=@8DFG (A 68CE78=AK B8 D88F 64 =C@A8 A6<F8D6A+CBC=8D8AA 4? 678 NC=;@D> F8>=88A 4? ?4=HC9@6; CDF 789: 678H F@A6@D><@A7 386B88D 678HCA B899 CA <A8 678HG

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.6 HC; 38 67C6 @6 @A H4=8 @H:4=6CD6 ?4= ;4<= A6<F8D6A 64 98C=D 4D8 :C=6@E<9C= A5@99G R4=8LCH:98K CD @D68998E6<C9 :=4:8=6; C664=D8; H@>76 BCD6 64 ?4E<A 4D =8CF@D> F4E<H8D6A

CDF A:8C5@D>G &8=A4DC9 CAA@A6CD6A H@>76 AC; 67C6 A:8C5@D> CDF 9@A68D@D> C=8 @H:4=6CD6A5@99A ?4= 678H 64 98C=DG 078 CH4<D6 4? 6@H8 ;4< A:8DF 4D 8CE7 A5@99 ECD NC=; 3<6 678;A74<9F C99 38 E4N8=8F 64 A4H8 8L68D6G

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.D E4D6=4998F :=CE6@E8K 678 68CE78= B@99 E744A8 C 9CD><C>8 A6=<E6<=8 67C6 678; BCD6 678@=A6<F8D6A 64 ?4E<A 4DG R4= 8LCH:98K ;4< H@>76 BCD6 ;4<= A6<F8D6A 64 <A8 678 :=8A8D6:8=?8E6 ]7CN8 m :CA6 :C=6@E@:98^ 64 6C95 C34<6 8L:8=@8DE8AG %4< H@>76 4=>CD@A8 CDCE6@N@6; B78=83; A6<F8D6A CA5 CDF CDAB8= M<8A6@4DA A<E7 CAT

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07@A 6;:8 4? CE6@N@6; @DN49N8A A6<F8D6A @D C F@AE<AA@4D 3<6 678 9CD><C>8 @A N8=;E4D6=4998F CDF @A :=8QF868=H@D8F 3; 678 68CE78=G ,<E7 CE6@N@6@8A C=8 <A8?<9 C6 94B8=98N89A 4= B78=8 678 43P8E6@N8 @A 64 >86 A6<F8D6A :=4F<E@D> 9CD><C>8 C<64HC6@EC99;B@674<6 7CN@D> 64 67@D5 C34<6 @6 644 H<E7G

Z7@9A6 E4D6=4998F 9CD><C>8 :=CE6@E8 B@99 789: B@67 C<64HC6@E =8CE6@4DAK @6 F48A D46=8:9@EC68 =8C9QB4=9F E4DN8=AC6@4DAG 078 8LCH:98 C34N8 @A N8=; ?C9A8K @6 C::8C=A 64 38CD @D68==4>C6@4D CDF 678=8 @A D4 A7C=@D> 4? @D?4=HC6@4DG .D =8C9Q9@?8K A6<F8D6 ( H@>76=8:9;T _A4 B7C6 F@F ;4< 67@D5 4? W8L@E4b . H@>76 38 >4@D> 678=8 4D 749@FC; H;A89?`G08CE78=A A74<9F 6=; 64 @DE4=:4=C68 CE6@N@6@8A 67C6 @H@6C68 =8C9Q9@?8 E4DN8=AC6@4DA @D 678E9CAA=44H CA H<E7 CA :4AA@398 @D 4=F8= 64 :=8:C=8 A6<F8D6A ?4= E4DN8=AC6@4DA @D 678=8C9 B4=9FG

.D ?=88 9CD><C>8 :=CE6@E8K A6<F8D6A <A8 C99 CDF CD; 9CD><C>8 678; 5D4B 64 8L:=8AA678HA89N8AG (D 8LCH:98 4? ?=88 9CD><C>8 :=CE6@E8 @A C E9CAA=44H F83C68 4D AH45@D>@D :<39@EG ,6<F8D6A >@N8 678@= 4:@D@4DAK 4678=A C>=88 4= F@AC>=88K CDF E4<D68=C=><H8D6A C=8 :<6 ?4=BC=FG 078=8 C=8 D4 9@H@6A 4D 678 9CD><C>8 67C6 ECD 38 <A8FK8LE8:6 ?4= A6C;@D> :49@68g 078=8 @A C >=8C68= 8H:7CA@A 4D 67@A 6;:8 4? CE6@N@6; C6 7@>78=98N89AG R4= H4=8 8LCH:98A 4? ?=88 9CD><C>8 :=CE6@E8K A88 $7C:68= eK ,:8C5@D>G

 (968=DC6@N89;K 678 68CE78= H@>76 E=8C68 A@6<C6@4DA B78=8 E8=6C@D 9CD><C>8 @A 9@589; 64 38<A8FG R4= 8LCH:98K B78D 6C95@D> C34<6 749@FC; :9CDAK ?<6<=8 68DA8A B@99 :=43C39; 38<A8FO @D CD @D68=N@8B A@H<9C6@4DK 678 :=8A8D6 :8=?8E6 ].+N8 D8N8= B4=58F @D C A74:38?4=8^ CDF A@H:98 :CA6 ]. B4=58F ?4= 678 E4<DE@9 ?=4H JYYY 64 JYYe^ B@99 :=43C39; 38<A8FG Z8 ECD :=8F@E6 B7C6 H@>76 38 <A8F 3<6 678 CE6<C9 9CD><C>8 4<6:<6 @A N8=;<D:=8F@E6C398 CDF ECD E4D6C@D C9H4A6 CD; 9CD><C>8 678 A6<F8D6A 5D4BG 07@A @AA4H86@H8A 5D4BD CA ?=88= :=CE6@E8G 07@A 6;:8 4? 6CA5 @A <A8?<9 64 :=CE6@A8 C 9CD><C>8A6=<E6<=8 67C6 7CA 388D :=8A8D68F =8E8D69; B78=8 @6 @A <DD8E8AAC=; 64 8D>C>8 678

A6<F8D6A @D E4D6=4998F :=CE6@E8G

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078 $4HH<D@EC6@4D -CH8A A8=@8A 3; V@99 1CF?@89F :=4N@F8A E4D6=4998F CDF ?=88=9CD><C>8 :=CE6@E8 @D ?<D A@6<C6@4DAG

R@DF A4H834F; B74GGG @A C :4:<9C= CE6@N@6; 64 :=4N@F8 E4D6=4998F CDF ?=88= :=CE6@E8 4?9CD><C>8G ,6<F8D6A C=8 >@N8D C A7886 B@67 678 ?4994B@D>T

3S $4:;=@>76 X "<E; &499C=F JYYS (99 )@>76A )8A8=N8F 

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R@DF A4H834F; B74 6C58A 678 3<A 64 B4=5

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161R *HHBE@HW @;A :=B8;HW

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 (EE<=CE; =8?8=A 64 E4==8E6 <A8 4? 9CD><C>8O 67@A @A 4?68D <A8F P<A6 C?68= :=8A8D6C6@4D 4?D8B 9CD><C>8G 078 43P8E6@N8 @A 64 :=4F<E8 E4==8E6 9CD><C>8 =C678= 67CD 64E4HH<D@EC68 @F8CAG Z78D 678 ?4E<A @A CEE<=CE;K 678 68CE78= <A<C99; F8C9A B@67 8==4=E4==8E6@4D @HH8F@C689;O B8 B@99 9445 C6 67@A @D ?<=678= F86C@9 @D $7C:68= dG 0;:@EC9 6CA5A@DE9<F8T =8:86@6@4DK F=@99AK E4D6=4998F E4DN8=AC6@4DAK ]678A8 68=HA C=8 8L:9C@D8F @D 67@AE7C:68= CDF @D $7C:68= J^G 078A8 6CA5A C=8 <A8?<9 B78D @D6=4F<E@D> CDF :=CE6@A@D> D8B9CD><C>8G

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,6<F8D6A D88F :=CE6@E8 @D 3467 CEE<=CE; CDF ?9<8DE; @? 678; C=8 64 A:8C5 :=4?@E@8D69;G (694B 98N89AK 678=8 B@99 38 H4=8 ?4E<A 4D CEE<=CE;K A@H:9; 38EC<A8 A6<F8D6A F4D+6 5D4B8D4<>7 9CD><C>8 ?4= 98D>67; ?9<8DE; B4=5G (6 7@>78= 98N89AK 678 ?4E<A B@99 38 HC@D9;K3<6 D46 8D6@=89;K 4D ?9<8DE;G

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 (@HA 4? A6<F8D6AT B@99 678 3445 EC68= 64 ;4<= A6<F8D6A+ D88FAb R@=A6 67@D5 C34<6;4<= A6<F8D6A+ =8CA4DA ?4= 98C=D@D>O 678@= C@HA H@>76 38 64 98C=D >8D8=C9 /D>9@A7G'D 678 4678= 7CDFK ;4< H@>76 7CN8 C E9CAA B74 C=8 A6<F;@D> 38EC<A8 678; 7CN8 CA:8E@?@E :<=:4A8 @D H@DFK 8G>G :C=6@E@:C6@D> @D H886@D>A @D /D>9@A7G .? A4K E78E5B78678= 678 3445 B@99 :=4N@F8 8D4<>7 :=CE6@E8 @D A<E7 B4=5G

$4H:9868D8AAT F48A 678 3445 :=4N@F8 8D4<>7 8L:9CDC6@4D CDF :=CE6@E8 4?9CD><C>8 CDF A5@99Ab .A 678=8 8D4<>7 :=CE6@E8 4? N4EC3<9C=;K >=CHHC=K CDF:=4D<DE@C6@4Db .A 678=8 8D4<>7 A5@99A B4=5b '= B@99 ;4< D88F 64 A<::98H8D6b)8H8H38=K A<::98H8D6@D> B@99 6C58 6@H8G

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,;99C3<AT @A 678 3445 :@6E78F C6 678 =@>76 98N89 ]8G>G D46 C99 @D68=H8F@C68 3445A C=8C6 678 ACH8 98N89^O E78E5 67@A EC=8?<99; 3; 9445@D> C6 74B 9CD><C>8 B4=5 @A:=8A8D68FG *48A 678 3445 ?4994B 4D ?=4H 678 A6<F8D6A+ :=8N@4<A E4<=A8 3445b

 (FF@6@4DC9 HC68=@C9AT B7C6 8L6=CA CEE4H:CD; 678 E4<=A8 3445b .A 678=8 C68CE78=+A 3445K C B4=53445K C ECAA8668 4= $*b Z7C6 C=8 678A8 9@58b $CD ;4< >86749F 4? 678H 8CA@9;b .? D46K ECD 678 3445 38 <A8F B@674<6 678Hb

 (NC@9C3@9@6;T 74B 8CA@9; ECD ;4< >86 749F 4? H<96@:98 E4:@8A 4? C 3445b /N8D @? @6+A678 38A6 E4<=A8 3445 4D 8C=67K @6 B4D+6 789: ;4< @? @6 ECD+6 38 F89@N8=8F 4D 6@H8G

3P $4:;=@>76 X "<E; &499C=F JYYS (99 )@>76A )8A8=N8F 

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R9@E5C3@9@6;T 67@A =8?8=A 64 678 C66=CE6@N8D8AA 4? 678 3445O ?9@E5 67=4<>7 678 3445 CDFD468 B78678= @6 9445A C::8C9@D> 4= F=; CDF 34=@D>G '3N@4<A9;K D46 678 H4A6@H:4=6CD6 4? 678 E=@68=@Cg

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/9@E@6@D>T 67@A @DN49N8A >866@D> 8L:9CDC6@4DA ?=4H ;4<= A6<F8D6A =C678= 67CD C9BC;A:=4N@F@D> 678H ;4<=A89?G

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078 =498A F8AE=@38F C34N8 F@??8= ?=4H 6=CF@6@4DC9 68CE7@D> A6;98A B78=8 678 68CE78=8L:9C@D8F 8N8=;67@D> CDF 98F C99 CE6@N@6@8AG ,6<F8D6A B74 C=8 <A8F 64 6=CF@6@4DC968CE7@D> H@>76 ?889 <DE4H?4=6C398 B78D ?CE8F B@67 C 68CE78= 6C5@D> 4D F@??8=8D6 =498AG%4< A74<9F 38 CBC=8 4? 67@A CDF 38 A8DA@6@N8 64 678@= 4:@D@4DAG 14B8N8=K ;4< A74<9F

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3R $4:;=@>76 X "<E; &499C=F JYYS (99 )@>76A )8A8=N8F 

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3U $4:;=@>76 X "<E; &499C=F JYYS (99 )@>76A )8A8=N8F 

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5D4B98F>8 4? :=8A8D6 E4D6@D<4<A CDF [ 4= N8=3A 4? CE6@4D ]78+A =<DD@D>K A78+A FCDE@D>K678;+=8 :9C;@D> 68DD@A^G

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07@A @A A4H867@D> 67C6 H46@NC68F H8 64 B=@68 B78D . BCA C6 AE7449 CDF @6 A6@99 B4=5A64FC;G ,6<F8D6A ECD >86 N8=; @DN49N8F B@67 :8D:C9AG 078 CFNCD6C>8 64FC; @A 67C6A6<F8D6A ECD E4==8A:4DF 3; 8QHC@9O C M<@E5 =8A:4DA8 64 678@= 8QHC@9A @A ?C= H4=8H46@NC6@D> 67CD BC@6@D> J B885A ?4= 678 :4A6 64 E4H8 C=4<DFg

0=; 64 A86 <: C :8D:C9 :=4P8E6 ?4= ;4<= A6<F8D6AG %4< ECD HC6E7 678H B@67 :84:98 @DCD4678= E4<D6=; 4= E@6;O ;4< ECD ?@DF A<E7 :4AA@3@9@6@8A 4D 0/R" B83A@68A CDF @D 0/R"E7C6 ?4=<HAG .? ;4< F4D+6 E4H8 CE=4AA CD;K 6=; 64 HC6E7 ;4<= A6<F8D6A <: B@67 A6<F8D6A@D CD4678= AE7449 @D 678 ACH8 E@6; 4= 8N8D B@67 C F@??8=8D6 E9CAA @D 678 ACH8 AE7449G

%4< ECD C994B 6@H8 @D E9CAA ?4= E4DN8=A@D> B@67 :8D:C9A CDF 8DE4<=C>8 A6<F8D6A 64

E4D6@D<8 4<6A@F8 678 E9CAAG .? ;4< F4D+6 F4 :8D:C9 B4=5 @D E9CAAK 986 A6<F8D6A 5D4B 67C6;4<+=8 @D68=8A68F @D 678H CDF 678@= :8D:C9AG (A5 678H 74B 678; C=8 >866@D> 4DK B7C6678; C=8 98C=D@D> C34<6 678 4678= :8=A4D CDF B7C6 9CD><C>8 678; C=8 98C=D@D>G *4 67@AB@674<6 E=@6@E@A@D> 674A8 B74 C=8 D46 :C=6@E@:C6@D>G

SQ $4:;=@>76 X "<E; &499C=F JYYS (99 )@>76A )8A8=N8F 

07@A 8Q3445 HC; D46 38 =8:=4F<E8F @D :C=6 4= @D ?<99 B@674<6 678 8L:=8AA B=@668D :8=H@AA@4D 4? 678 C<674=G 

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T6F 5@;<B@<8 K9EI

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S8 $4:;=@>76 X "<E; &499C=F JYYS (99 )@>76A )8A8=N8F 

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T6S /D@<87

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