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MBA - Orientation management

ManagementPrepared by: Aira Kris B. AguilaWhat is Management?Managerial activities -planning, organizing, staffing, directing, controlling.

1. Field of StudyManagement principles, techniques, functions, etc.Profession2.Team or Class of peopleIndividual who performs managerial activities or may be a group of persons3.Process

Frederick Winslow TaylorArt of knowing what you want to do and then seeing that it is done the best and cheapest way. (Father of Scientific Management Theory)Henry Fayol To Manage is to forecast, to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control. (Father of Modern Operational)

Peter F. Drucker Management is work and as such it has its own skills, its own tools and its own techniques.

Management is the art of getting things done through and with people.

Management is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. What is Management?Evolution of ManagementClassical ApproachNeo classical ApproachHuman Relations MovementBehavioral Management TheoryTheory of X and Y

Neoclassical Theory referred to as behavioral science approachto modifying and improving the classical theory.Whileclassical theoriesfocused more on structure and physical aspects of theworkerand Neo-classical theory gives importance to human and social aspects of the worker and his relations in the organization.Neoclassical TheoryIt is a term that refers to the researchers oforganizational developmentwho study thebehaviorof people in particular workplace groups.It is based on the Hawthrone experiments. Elton Mayo conducted the Hawthrone experiments at Hawthron plant ofGeneralElectronic Company (GEC) between 1927 and 1993 at Chicago with 30,000 workers. The Hawthron plant was manufacturingtelephone systembell.Human Resource Movement

The objective of the experiment was to find out the behavior and attitude of workers at workplace under better working conditions. In the company, when management provide the benefits of medical allowance and pension with recreational facilities.

Human Resources Movement

Even thought workers get all facilities but the productivity was not up to expectation. So, in 1924, the professor Elton Mayo and his research team investigate the reasons fordissatisfactionofemployeesand decrease in productivity.Human Resource MovementEvolution of ManagementFour Phase of Hawthrone experiments:Illumination experiments (1924 1927) Relay assembly room experiments (1927 1928) Mass interviewing programmed (1928 -1930) Bank wiring room study (1931 1932)

Result of Hawthrone Experiments: Motivation: Employees are not motivated by only money (bonus scheme and incentive). Communication: communication helps the management and employees to have better mutual understanding. Through proper communication, management can easily identified the problem faced by its employees and can easily solve out. Social factors: Social factors are responsible for deciding the level of output. Behavior of workers: workers are not as individual identity but as members of a group in an organization and they have their own norms and beliefs. Workers behavior depends upon his mental level and emotions. Workers began to influence their group behavior towards management.Relationship: Employees do not like order and command. They preferred to maintain amicable relationship with their co-workers. They want co-operative attitude from their superiors. Production level: Teamwork and Group psychology increases productivity.

Criticism of Hawthrone Experiments: Hawthrone experiment was not conducted scientifically. In the experiment, various format and structure are not feasible. Eltone Mayo gives more importance to human aspect and ignoring other important aspects. Group conflict is prevalent in an organization. Hawthrone experiment did not give any recognition to the forces which are responsible for productivity in the organization. During experiment, Eltone Mayo has assumed that a satisfied employee would be productive. Behavioral MovementThebehavioral management theory is often called the human relations movement because it addresses the human dimension of work. Behavioral theorists believed that a better understanding of human behavior at work, such as motivation, conflict, expectations, and group dynamics, improved productivity.Behavioral MovementAbraham Maslow,a practicing psychologist, developed one of the most widely recognizedneed theories,a theory of motivation based upon a consideration of human needs.His theory of human needs had three assumptions:

Behavioral Movement

Human needs are never completely satisfied.Human behavior is purposeful and is motivated by the need for satisfaction.Needs can be classified according to a hierarchical structure of importance, from the lowest to highest.Maslows Hierarchy

Neo Classical TheoryTheory of X and YDouglas McGregorwas heavily influenced by both the Hawthorne studies and Maslow. He believed that two basic kinds of managers exist. One type, the Theory X manager, has a negative view of employees and assumes that they are lazy, untrustworthy, and incapable of assuming responsibility.On the other hand, the Theory Y manager assumes that employees are not only trustworthy and capable of assuming responsibility, but also have high levels of motivation.

Theory of X and Y

Theory of X and YAn important aspect of McGregor's idea was his belief that managers who hold either set of assumptions can createselffulfilling prophecies that through their behavior, these managers create situations where subordinates act in ways that confirm the manager's original expectations.

Relationship between Classical and Neoclassical

Relationship between Classical and NeoclassicalManagement Functions

1. PlanningInvolves choosing tasks that must be performed to attain organizational goals, outlining how the tasks must be performed, and indicating when they should be performed.Focuses on attaining goals. Managers outline exactly what organizations should do to be successful. Concerned with the success of the organization in the short term as well as in the long termFormulation of Objectives, Policies, Procedure, Rules, Programs and Budgets.

2. OrganizingAssigning the tasks developed in the planning stages, to various individuals or groups within the organization.Create a mechanism to put plans into action.People within the organization are given work assignments that contribute to the companys goals.Tasks are organized so that the output of each individual contributes to the success of departments, which, in turn, contributes to the success of divisions, which ultimately contributes to the success of the organization.

3. StaffingFilling, and keeping filled, every required position within the company.Positioning right people right jobs at right time.

4. DirectingAlso referred to as motivating, leading or influencing. Can be defined as guiding the activities of organization members in the direction that helps the organization move towards the fulfillment of the goals.The purpose is to increase productivity. Human-oriented work situations usually generate higher levels of production over the long term than do task oriented work situations because people find the latter type distasteful.

5. ControllingThe following roles played by the manager:Gather information that measures performanceCompare present performance to pre established performance norms.Determine the next action plan and modifications for meeting the desired performance parameters.Controlling is an ongoing process.

Kinds of Manager

Top Level ManagersThe top consists of theboard of directors (includingnon-executive directorsandexecutive directors), president, vice-president,CEOsand other members of theC-levelexecutives. They are responsible for controlling and overseeing the entire organization. They set atone at the topand developstrategic plans, company policies, and make decisions on the direction of the business. Top-level managers play a significant role in the mobilization of outside resources and are accountable to the shareholders and general public.

Middle Level ManagersConsist ofgeneral managers, branch managers and department managers. They are accountable to the top management for their department's function. They devote more time to organizational and directional functions. Their roles can be emphasized as executing organizational plans in conformance with the company's policies and the objectives of the top management, they define and discuss information and policies from top management to lower management, and most importantly they inspire and provide guidance to lower level managers towards better performance.

Middle Level ManagersTheir functions include:Design and implement effective group and inter-group work and information systems.Define and monitor group-level performance indicators.Diagnose and resolve problems within and among work groups.Design and implement reward systems that support cooperative behavior. They also make decision and share ideas with top managers.

First Level managersConsist ofsupervisors, section leaders, foremen, etc. They focus on controlling and directing. They usually have the responsibility of assigning employees tasks, guiding and supervising employees on day-to-day activities, ensuring quality and quantity production, making recommendations, suggestions, and up channeling employee problems, etc. First-level managers are role models for employees that provide:Basic supervisionMotivationCareer planningPerformance feedback

Team LeaderTeam leader managers responsible for facilitating team activities toward goal accomplishment but it doesnt mean they are responsible for team performance.Team leader help their team members plan, and schedule work, learn to solve problems and work effectively with each other.Team leaders are responsible for managing external relationship. Their act as the bridge or liaison between in a company.The team leader are responsible for internal team relationship.

JOBResponsibilitiesTOP MANAGERCEO COO CFO DirectorsVice PresidentCorporate HeadsChangeCommitmentCultureenvironmentMIDDLE MANAGERGeneral ManagerPlant ManagerRegional ManagerDivision ManagerResourcesObjectivesCoordinationSubunit performanceStrategy implementationFIRST LINE - MANAGEROffice ManagerShift SupervisorDepartment ManagerNon-managerial worker supervisorTeaching and trainingSchedulingFacilitatorTEAM LEADERSTeam LeaderTeam ContactGroup FacilitatorFacilitatorExternal relationshipInternal relationship

Management Roles

InterpersonalInformationalDecisionalInterpersonal RolesItinvolve coordination and interaction with employeesMost managers spend between two-thirds and four-fifths of their time in face-to-face communication with others.Figurehead role managers perform ceremonial duties like greeting company visitors, speaking at opening of a new facility, or representing the company at a community luncheon to support local charities.Leader role managers motivate and encourage workers to accomplish organization objectivesLiaison role managers deal with people outside their units. Studies consistently indicate that managers spend as much time with outsiders as they do with their own subordinates and their own bosses.

Informational RolesItroles that involve handling, sharing, and analyzing information.Mintzberg found that the managers in his study spent 40 percent of their time giving and getting information from others.Monitor role they scan they environment for informationDisseminator role when they share information with others in their departments or companiesSpokesperson role when they share information with people outside their departments or companies

Decisional RolesItroles that require decision-making.Obtaining and sharing information with people inside and outside the company is useful to managers because it helps them make good decisions.Entrepreneur role they adapt themselves, their subordinates, and their unit to changeDisturbance handler when they respond to severe problems that demand immediate actionResource allocator when they decide who gets what resourcesNegotiator role when they negotiate schedules, projects, goals, outcomes, resources, and employee raises

Management RolesSeek the Kingdom of God above all else, and live righteously, and he will give you everything you need. Matthew 6:33 (NLT)ManagementReferences

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Management What is ma nagement? Evolution of Managem ent Management is . . . Planning Organizing Staffing Directing Controllin g Management Functions Top Level Middle Lev el First line Team Leade r Kinds of Manager Interperso nal Informatio nal Decision M aking Managerial Roles Prepared by: Aira Kris B. Aguila
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