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Alachua County Energy conservation strategies commission Presentation to the Solid and Hazardous Waste Public Information Committee. March 18, 2009. Contents. Background on the ECSC Community Challenges Rising Energy Costs, Climate Change, Peak Oil Production & Decline - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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ALACHUA COUNTY ENERGY CONSERVATION STRATEGIES COMMISSION PRESENTATION TO THE SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTE PUBLIC INFORMATION COMMITTEE March 18, 2009 1
Transcript

Alachua County Energy conservation strategies commission presentation to: the east Gainesville Development Corporation

Alachua County Energy conservation strategies commission

Presentation to theSolid and Hazardous Waste Public Information Committee

March 18, 2009

11ContentsBackground on the ECSCCommunity ChallengesRising Energy Costs, Climate Change, Peak Oil Production & DeclineCommunity OpportunitiesCreate a resource efficient and resilient community22Alachua County Commissionwants to do its part to reduce or mitigate the effects of Global Climate Change and promote the long-term economic security of its citizens through the implementation of policies that enhance energy efficiency

Resolution 07-18, March 27, 2007

3MembershipTwelve energy conservation experts Possess demonstrated expertise and/or advanced training in the areas of energy demand side management, LEED or Green Building Code standards, renewable energy technologies, or a related field. One representative of the University of Florida One former elected Gainesville City Commissioner One former elected Alachua County Commissioner One alternate position

4Dwight Adams, Ed Brown, Erich Christian, Fred Depenbrock, Christopher Fillie, Ken Fonorow, Levin Gaston, Pattie Glenn, Harry Kegelmann, Tom Lane, Ruth Steiner, Eduardo Vargas

University of Florida Representative VacancyFormer elected Gainesville City Commissioner Warren NielsenFormer elected Alachua County Commissioner Penny WheatAlternate Member Bill Shepherd

4Energy Conservation Strategies CommissionMISSIONTo draft a comprehensive report on energy use, its relationship to climate change and local socio-economic impacts, including actions that can be implemented by the Board of County Commissioners and the community at large.

ECSC final report will include potential local socioeconomic impacts of increased costs of energy for transportation & energy for buildings.

5ECSC Subcommittees Land Use & TransportationLocally-applicable Alternative Energy OptionsResidential Buildings (inc. Low-Income Housing & Rental Properties)Waste & Energy Implications

5County Accomplishments 1991 County Energy Management Program1998 Resolution Establishing Air Quality Commission1999 BoCC joins ICLEI Cities for Climate Protection1999, the County Commission adopted a resolution allowing Alachua County to join the Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) campaign. The CCP program is a global campaign to reduce greenhouse gas. Achieved four of five stars.

2000 Hybrids purchased for County Fleet2001 County Greenhouse Gas Inventory2001 Sustainable Operations Team2001 County Employee RTS Bus Passes2002 Greenhouse Gas Reduction Plan2002 Comprehensive Plan specifically the Conservation Element Policy 4.1.3.7

6County Accomplishments 2003 Landfill Gas to Energy Project2003 Alachua County Energy Reduction Policy2003 New Courthouse built to LEED standards2006 County Representative to ICLEI North American Congress; Receive ICLEI Award: Recognition of 4 of 5 Stars for CCP Campaign.

2007 Resolution Establishing Energy Conservation Strategies Commission2008 NACO Green Infrastructure Award2008 Alachua County becomes full ICLEI member2008 Water Conservation Project County Jail RetrofitIt is estimated that the ICON Water Reduction System will conserve between 16 and 17 million gallons of water per year, lowering utility bills by over $109,000 per year.

7Based on historical data, the jail is using an average of approximately 36 million gallons of water per year, costing nearly $230,000 for water and over $240,000 per year for natural gas to heat it. 7Community ChallengesEscalating energy costs for transportation & for buildingsClimate change: global and localA geologically abrupt change to long term weather patterns caused by emissions of heat-trapping CO2 through the burning of fossil fuels. Peak Oil production Peak Oil means not 'running out of oil', but 'running out of cheap oil'. For societies leveraged on ever increasing amounts of cheap oil, the consequences may be dire.Energy Bulletin: http://www.energybulletin.net/primer.php

8Escalating Energy CostsElectricity costs havespiked because of rising fuel costs. Coal has doubled in price just this past year. Since 1999, the cost of natural gas has also skyrocketed, by more than 400 percent. Coal and natural gas make up approximately 60 percent of Florida's electric generation. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission is predicting that summer power prices may increase even further, as high as 50 percent or more.Barry MolineExecutive director, Florida Municipal Electric AssociationJuly 2008

99Ripple effects-escalating energy costs Cost of oil (gasoline)Apr 2001: $22.86/barrel Feb 2001 $1.54/gallon gasApr 2008: $101.22/barrel Feb 2008 $3.08/gallon gasMonthly Cost of Food for a Family of 4Feb 2001: $599Feb 2008: $771Average residential retail price of electricity2001: 8.63 cents/kWh2007: 10.61 cents/kWh100%29%23%10Data Available as of 04/22/08 These are national averages!

Cost of Oil: Apr 13, 2001 United States $/barrel of oil http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/hist/wtotusaw.htm Apr 11, 2008 United States $/barrel of oil http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/hist/wtotusaw.htm A barrel of oil has seen a 343% increase in cost since 2001.

Cost of Gasoline: Feb 2001 US City average for retail gasoline all types of gasincludes taxescost per gallon from EAI: http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/merquery/mer_data.asp?table=T09.04 Feb 2008 US City average for retail gasoline all types of gasincludes taxescost per gallon from EAI: http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/merquery/mer_data.asp?table=T09.04

Monthly Food Cost for a Family of 4: See http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/USDAFoodCost-Home.htm For Feb 2001 http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/Publications/FoodPlans/2001/CostofFoodFeb01.pdf Row: Family of 4 Couple 19-50 years and children 2-3 and 4-5 years; Column, Moderate cost plan For Feb 2008 http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/Publications/FoodPlans/2008/CostofFoodFeb08.pdf Row: Family of 4 Couple 19-50 years and children 2-3 and 4-5 years; Column, Moderate cost plan

Average residential retail price of electricity: 2001 from EAI: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/esr/backissues.html See the excel spreadsheet here http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/FTPROOT/electricity/f8612001.xls and look at tab 4 01 Table 4. Average Retail Price for Bundled and Unbundled Consumers by Sector, Census Division, and State, 2001; Residential Column For 2007 see Current and Historical Monthly Retail Sales, Revenues, and Average Retail Price by State and by Sector (Form EIA-826) http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/sales_revenue.xls and look at tab Monthly Totals; Column P Avg Retail Price Residential at the bottom for 2007

10Bargain Priced Fuel?

New York Times: Savoring Bargains at the American Pump, June 29, 200911Climate Change from the PastImage from: Statement on Sea Level in the Coming Century; Science Committee Miami-Dade County Climate Change Advisory Task ForcePresented by Dr. Wanless Aprill 22, 2008

12Climate Change without ActionImage from: Statement on Sea Level in the Coming Century; Science Committee Miami-Dade County Climate Change Advisory Task ForcePresented by Dr. Wanless Aprill 22, 2008

13Climate Change and FL PopulationImage from: Statement on Sea Level in the Coming Century; Science Committee Miami-Dade County Climate Change Advisory Task ForcePresented by Dr. Wanless Aprill 22, 2008

14Energy & TransportationUS General Accountability Office Report GAO-07-283: released February, 2007

Crude Oil: Uncertainty about future oil supply makes it important to develop a strategy for addressing a peak and decline in oil production Source: http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d07283.pdf

15The US GAO Report covered the following:

U.S. economy depends heavily on oil, particularly in the transportation sector. World oil production has been running at near capacity to meet demand, pushing prices upward.

How long can world oil supply expand before reaching a maximum level of production -a peak- from which it can only decline? Study examined when oil production could peak.

Assessed the potential for transportation technologies to mitigate the consequences of a peak in oil production; and

Reviewed studies, convened expert panel, and consulted agency officials. Examined federal agency efforts that could reduce uncertainty about the timing of a peak or mitigate the consequence.

15United States Oil ImportsThis chart depicts the sources of American oil imports. While the United States gets about 45% of its oil from the Middle East and North Africa, these regions hold over two thirds of the oil reserves worldwide.

Driving the Future of Energy Security http://lugar.senate.gov/energy/graphs/oilimport.html

1616From Energy Information Administration: How dependent are we on foreign oil?The United States imported about 60% of the oil we consumed during 2006. About half of these imports came from the Western Hemisphere. Our dependence on foreign oil is expected to decline in the next two decades.

The United States consumed 20.7 million barrels per day (MMbd) of petroleum products during 2006 making us the worlds largest oil consumer. The United States was third in crude oil production at 5.1 MMbd. In addition to crude oil, significant contributions to U.S. petroleum supplies came from natural gas plant liquids, refinery gain, and alcohol fuels. However, we still needed 13.7 MMbd of imported crude oil and petroleum products to meet U.S. demand. The United States also exported 1.3 MMbd of crude oil and petroleum products during 2006, so our net imports (imports minus exports) equaled 12.4 MMbd.

http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/energy_in_brief/foreign_oil_dependence.cfm

Vulnerability and Oil Supply17

Vulnerability and Oil Supply18

Vulnerability and Oil Supply19

Vulnerability and Oil Supply20

Vulnerability and Oil Supply21

Energy InsecurityDomestic InsecurityInternational Conflict

225 Points "Gas Riot" 1979 Levittown PA Sunday, June 24, 1979, the 2nd Arab oil embargo touched off a protest by Levittowners tired of waiting in gas lines to buy gas & truckers which degenerated into a minor riot by evening.

Images from: www.niatross.com/pages/hurricanewilma3.html http://www.levittowners.com/images/http://www.asianews.it/files/img/IRAQ_-_OIL_FIELD_IN_THE_SOUTH.jpghttp://web.mst.edu/~rogersda/military_service/burning%20oil%20platforms.jpg

22US Oil Production and ConsumptionOverview 1949-2006Million Barrels per DayEnergy Information Administration; Official Energy Statistics from the US Governmenthttp://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/pdf/pages/sec5_4.pdf

US Consumption 20.59 MB/DayUS ProductionNet Imports23Points of interest on the chart1970s oil embargo and the subsequent falling demand and the early 80s era of stagflation.23US General Accountability OfficeReport - Key FindingsPeak oil is real.Decline in oil production will occur sometime between February 2007 and 2040.No one is sure of the exact date, because there is a wide variance in the data and methodology used by various research entities.Alternative energy sources, particularly for transportation, are not yet available in large quantities.24No consistent government policy that acknowledges reality of peak oil & decline. Without a plan, the United States, perhaps more than any other nation, will be the most seriously harmed economically.

This lack of a strategy makes it difficult to gauge the appropriate level of effort or resources to commit to alternatives to oil and puts the nation unnecessarily at risk. (p.39)

Departments of Energy and the Interior generally agreed with the report and recommendations.

24US General Accountability OfficeSelected FindingsKey alternative [fuels] currently supply the equivalent of only about 1 percent of U.S. consumption of petroleum products.

USDOE projects that even under optimistic scenarios, by 2015 these alternative fuels could displace only the equivalent of 4 percent of projected U.S. annual consumption.

25In 2004 the US consumed 140 Billion gallons of gasoline. In that same year we produced only 3.4 billion gallons of ethanol from biofuel crops. That is a drop in the nations gas tank (around 2.4%). But, hold on, ethanol doesn't have the same energy content as gasoline. We only get 70% of the bang for our buck with ethanol so, really we only produced the energy equivalent of 2.4 billion gallons of gasoline. That is a meager 1.7% of the total volume consumed. So, to kick the petroleum habit (just for cars remember) we have to make up 98.3% of the missing total. Let's take one of those future technologies. Here's one for cellulosic ethanol. It supposes that it can create 75 billion gallons (only 53 B gallons equivalent of gas) at some point in the future. IF it works, we still need to make up another 62% of just our 2004 consumption habit. What about current ethanol production technology? Can't we just ramp up what we're doing right now? Ok, one acre of bioenergy crops currently makes around 335 gallons of ethanol (energy equivalent of 234.5 gallons of gas). How many acres of farm land do we need to grow corn, switch grass and or other bioenergy crops to make the equivalent of 140 Billion gallons of gas? We would need 597 Million acres. Unfortunately, we might have annex a wee bit of Mexico and Canada to make the nut as we only have 434 million acres of farms and pastures (as of 2002). With that scenario, for the amount of farm land we have (and shrinking) we're almost there, needing only to find 27% more. So, we'll have a 2/3 full gas tank and an empty belly. Remember ALL pasture and crop land would have to be turned over to making fuel for the car.

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Community OpportunitiesCreate a resource efficient and resilient community

Invest in weatherization & energy efficiencyCreate employment & new local businessesDevelop sustainable mobility infrastructureMaximize local food productionMaximize renewable energy production

26What are the major Community Opportunities? The ECSC recommends creating a resource efficient and resilient community in the following five opportunity areas:

Implement a county-wide weatherization & energy efficiency upgrade program.Create community employment opportunities & grow new local businesses (relocalization). Develop local economy based on low-energy consumption.Develop sustainable mobility infrastructure (focus on public transportation.)Maximize local food production.Maximize local, renewable (non-fossil fuel based) energy production (GO SOLAR).

26Community OpportunitiesCreate a resource efficient and resilient communityGuiding Principles: (1), Practice conservation (reduce consumption); (2), make efficiencies in building envelopes and mechanical equipment; and (3), invest in renewable power generation.27New Employment and Business Creation:Turn discards into raw materials for locally manufactured products.

Economic development of the Alachua County Transfer Station.

Issue a Request for Proposals (RFP) for industries to use discards in manufacturing or related activity. Community OpportunitiesCreate a resource efficient and resilient community28Alachua County residents pay to transport to a landfill tons of discards that could be used to manufacture locally needed products.Economic development project: Further develop the Alachua County Transfer Station for use by waste-based industries. Make useful products from recycled materials.Issue a Request for Proposals (RFP) for industries to use discards in manufacturing or related activity. Match waste/discard to industry in order to locally produce (from otherwise discarded materials) items, produced elsewhere, that now require transportation to Alachua County.

28Waste and Energy Implication Recommendations:Recommendations may be found in the Major Strategic Policies, Alachua County, and Legislative Charts. Community OpportunitiesCreate a resource efficient and resilient community29Alachua County residents pay to transport to a landfill tons of discards that could be used to manufacture locally needed products.Economic development project: Further develop the Alachua County Transfer Station for use by waste-based industries. Make useful products from recycled materials.Issue a Request for Proposals (RFP) for industries to use discards in manufacturing or related activity. Match waste/discard to industry in order to locally produce (from otherwise discarded materials) items, produced elsewhere, that now require transportation to Alachua County.

29Contact the ECSCEmail: [email protected] Site: http://energy.alachuacounty.us Phone: Sean McLendon, Sustainability Program Manager 352-548-3765 Address: ECSC, 12 SE 1st St. PO Box 2877, Gainesville, FL 32601-2877

30Resources Energy Bulletinhttp://www.energybulletin.net

Energy Information Administration; Official Energy Statistics from the US Governmenthttp://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/petro.html

CRUDE OIL: Uncertainty about Future Oil Supply Makes It Important to Develop a Strategy for Addressing a Peak and Decline in Oil Production. United States Government Accountability Office, February 2007http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d07283.pdf

31ResourcesThe New York Times Magazine: August 21,2005 The Breaking Point by Peter Maasshttp://www.petermaass.com/core.cfm?p=1&mag=124&magtype=1

National Geographic: The End of Cheap Oil by Tim Appenzeller http://magma.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0406/feature5/fulltext.html

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