Matter and states of MatterChapter 4
• Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass.– It does not have to be visible (example air is not
visible however it still does take up space and has mass)
– All matter is made up of atoms (which can be molecules, or even ions)
Basics of Matter
States of Matter• A state of matter is what form it is in. There
are four states of matter– Solid
These are the THREE MAIN
STATES of MATTER
Different states of matter• What determines states of
matter?– Answer: The motion of the
particles (atoms, molecules, ions) and the strength of attraction between the particles.
– Remember particles are always moving regardless of what state they are in.
Properties of Solids
• A solid is matter with a definite shape and volume.
• Volume is the amount of space an object occupies.
• The particles in solids are vibrating in place• Example: If I pick up a rock
• Does it change shape?: NO• Does it change size?: NO• If I place it in a container will it take the shape of the
Geometric Solids• Some solids have their particles arranged in
3D-patterns called a crystal in a repeating pattern. These are called crystalline solids.
• Can be Cubes, pyramids, even other shapes (sugar, sand, snow) …
• Some solids don’t form crystals and that is because they form particles that aren’t in a repeating pattern.
• Examples: Rubber, Plastic, Glass.
Properties of Liquids
• A liquid is matter with a definite volume but NO definite shape.
• The particles in liquids move more freely, they have enough energy to move out of fixed position but not far apart.
• Example: If I pick up water• Does it change shape?: YES• Does it change volume?: NO• If I place it in a container will it take the shape of the
Viscosity of Liquids
• Viscosity: A liquid’s resistance to flow– Think of water vs. syrup or glue– The slower the liquid flows the higher the
viscosity is. This is because the particles are more attracted to each other.
– Viscosity usually increase as temperature decrease for the liquid.
• The attractive forces of liquids can resist being pulled apart.
• The uneven forces acting on the particles on the surface of a liquid is called surface tension.
Properties of Gases• A Gas is matter that does not have a definite shape or
• The particles are farther apart than in solids or liquids and move at high speeds in all directions.
• You can expand or compress the gas. If you allow it, the gas will take up as much space as needed.
• Example: If I have some CO2
• Does it change shape?: YES• Does it change volume?: YES• If I place it in a container will it take the shape of the container?: YES
Plasma• Plasma occurs at very high temperatures and is
common in the universe but is not common on Earth• 90% of matter in the universe• Can only be contained in a magnetic bottle
• DO NOT WRITE– In recent times, we have begun to study matter at the very high
temperatures and pressures which typically occur on the Sun, or during re-entry from space. Under these conditions, the atoms themselves begin to break down; electrons are stripped from their orbit around the nucleus leaving a positively charged ion behind. The resulting mixture of neutral atoms, free electrons, and charged ions is called a plasma. A plasma has some unique qualities that causes scientists to label it a "fourth phase" of matter. A plasma is a fluid, like a liquid or gas, but because of the charged particles present in a plasma, it responds to and generates electro-magnetic forces. – NASA (http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/k-12/airplane/state.html)