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Matter – Properties and Changes Properties of Matter Changes of Matter Mixtures of Matter Elements...

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Matter – Matter – Properties and Properties and Changes Changes Properties of Matter Properties of Matter Changes of Matter Changes of Matter Mixtures of Matter Mixtures of Matter Elements and Compounds Elements and Compounds
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Matter – Properties Matter – Properties and Changesand Changes

Properties of MatterProperties of MatterChanges of MatterChanges of MatterMixtures of MatterMixtures of Matter

Elements and CompoundsElements and Compounds

PROPERTIES OF MATTERPROPERTIES OF MATTERTypes of PropertiesTypes of Properties

Physical PropertiesPhysical Properties - properties that can be - properties that can be observed and measured without changing observed and measured without changing the compositionthe composition

examples – color, texture, hardness)examples – color, texture, hardness) types of physical propertiestypes of physical properties 1) 1) intensiveintensive - do not depend upon amount of - do not depend upon amount of the substancethe substance 2) 2) extensiveextensive - depend upon amount of - depend upon amount of the substancethe substance

Examples:Examples:lengthlengthcolorcolormassmassvolumevolumedensitydensityphasephaseconductivityconductivitytexturetexture

Properties- PhysicalProperties- Physical

Properties of MatterProperties of Matter

chemists use characteristic chemists use characteristic properties to tell substances apart properties to tell substances apart and to separate themand to separate them

some properties define a group of some properties define a group of substancessubstances

Types of PropertiesTypes of Properties

PhysicalPhysical- characteristics that can be - characteristics that can be observed or measured without observed or measured without changing the identity of a substancechanging the identity of a substance

Ex. melting point, boiling ptEx. melting point, boiling pt ChemicalChemical- relates to a substances - relates to a substances

ability to undergo changes that ability to undergo changes that transform it into a different substancetransform it into a different substance

Easiest to see when a chemical is Easiest to see when a chemical is reactingreacting

Physical Changes in MatterPhysical Changes in Matter change in a substance that doesn’t change in a substance that doesn’t

change the identity of the substancechange the identity of the substance Ex. grinding, cutting, melting, boilingEx. grinding, cutting, melting, boiling Includes all changes of state Includes all changes of state

(physical changes of a substance (physical changes of a substance from one state to another)from one state to another)

SolidSolid

•definite volumedefinite volume•definite shapedefinite shape•atoms are packed atoms are packed

together in fixed together in fixed positionspositions

•strong attractive strong attractive forces between forces between atomsatoms

•only vibrate in placeonly vibrate in place

LiquidLiquid

•definite definite volumevolume

•indefinite indefinite shapeshape

•atoms are atoms are close close together together

•atoms can atoms can overcome overcome attractive attractive forces forces to flowto flow

GasesGases

•indefinite indefinite volumevolume•indefinite shapeindefinite shape•atoms move very atoms move very

quicklyquickly•atoms are far atoms are far

apartapart•pretty weak pretty weak

attractive forcesattractive forces

Changes of StateChanges of State

PlasmaPlasma

high temperature state in which high temperature state in which atoms lose their electronsatoms lose their electrons

Ex. the sunEx. the sun

CHANGES IN MATTERCHANGES IN MATTERTypes of ChangesTypes of Changes

1. 1. physicalphysical - changes in which a substance is - changes in which a substance is altered without changing compositionaltered without changing composition

a. examples- phase changes, cut into piecesa. examples- phase changes, cut into pieces

2. 2. chemical chemical - changes in which one or more - changes in which one or more substances change into new substances with substances change into new substances with

new propertiesnew properties

a. a. reactants reactants – substances that react– substances that react

b. b. productsproducts - substances that are produced - substances that are produced

PROPERTIES OF MATTERPROPERTIES OF MATTERTypes of PropertiesTypes of Properties

Chemical PropertiesChemical Properties - properties relating - properties relating to the ability of substances to combine to the ability of substances to combine with or change into other substance with or change into other substance (has a uniform and unchanging (has a uniform and unchanging composition)composition)

examplesexamples

1) reaction with water1) reaction with water

2) ability to combine with oxygen2) ability to combine with oxygen

3) reaction with acids3) reaction with acids

Changes that result in a new substanceChanges that result in a new substance a.k.a chemical reactiona.k.a chemical reaction

Word equation:Word equation:

hydrogen + oxygenhydrogen + oxygen waterwater

reactantsreactants product product

copper + silver nitratecopper + silver nitrate silver + copper silver + copper nitratenitrate

reactantsreactants product product

Changes ChemicalChanges Chemical

Formula EquationFormula Equation

Cu + 2AgNOCu + 2AgNO33 Cu(NO Cu(NO33))22 + + 2Ag2Ag

Pb(NOPb(NO33))22 + 2KI + 2KI PbI PbI22 + 2KNO + 2KNO33

ChangesChangesChemicalChemical

(be able to identify reactants and products)(be able to identify reactants and products)

Chemical changesChemical changes

Examples of chemical changes Examples of chemical changes

1) digestion of food1) digestion of food

2) burning (combustion)2) burning (combustion)

3) fermentation3) fermentation

4) rusting4) rusting

5) tarnishing of silver5) tarnishing of silver

CHANGES IN MATTER CHANGES IN MATTER Evidence of Chemical ChangesEvidence of Chemical Changes

1. change in color and/or appearance 1. change in color and/or appearance

2. change in energy 2. change in energy

3. change in odor3. change in odor

4) formation of a precipitate or a gas 4) formation of a precipitate or a gas

Energy Changes in MatterEnergy Changes in Matter

when any change occurs, energy when any change occurs, energy is always involvedis always involved

energy can be in different forms energy can be in different forms (light, heat, etc.) (light, heat, etc.)

energy is never destroyed or energy is never destroyed or created (law of conservation of created (law of conservation of energy)energy)

Energy changes related Energy changes related to chemical changes to chemical changes

(reactions)(reactions)1.1. exothermicexothermic - energy is released - energy is released

(given off in the form of heat or light)(given off in the form of heat or light)

- burning, explosion- burning, explosion

2.2. endothermicendothermic - energy must be - energy must be continuously added to keep the continuously added to keep the reaction goingreaction going

- electrolysis of water or salt- electrolysis of water or salt

Energy Changes in MatterEnergy Changes in Matter

Exothermic Reaction-Exothermic Reaction- reaction that reaction that gives off energy (feels warm on gives off energy (feels warm on outside)outside)

Endothermic ReactionEndothermic Reaction- reaction that - reaction that uses up energy (feels cold on outside)uses up energy (feels cold on outside)

MIXTURESMIXTURES

A. DefinitionA. Definition of Mixtureof Mixture - combination of - combination of pure substances that retain their propertiespure substances that retain their properties

B. Types of MixturesB. Types of Mixtures

1. 1. heterogeneous heterogeneous - individual substances are - individual substances are distinct (composition is not uniform distinct (composition is not uniform throughout)throughout)

a. examples – sand, vegetable soup a. examples – sand, vegetable soup

2. 2. homogeneoushomogeneous - individual substances are - individual substances are not distinct (uniform composition throughout)not distinct (uniform composition throughout)

a. examples - solutions a. examples - solutions

MIXTURES MIXTURES Types – homogeneousTypes – homogeneous

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

type of solution examplestype of solution examples__________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________

solid – liquid sugar water, salt watersolid – liquid sugar water, salt water______________________________________________________________________________________ gas – liquid carbonated beveragesgas – liquid carbonated beverages________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

liquid – liquid alcohol, vinegarliquid – liquid alcohol, vinegar________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

gas – gas airgas – gas air______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

solid - solid alloys (metal + metal)solid - solid alloys (metal + metal)________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

MIXTURES MIXTURES Separating MixturesSeparating Mixtures

1. Filtration1. Filtration

2. Distillation2. Distillation

3. Crystallization3. Crystallization

4. Chromatography4. Chromatography

Separation TechniquesSeparation Techniques

FiltrationFiltration- solid part is - solid part is trapped by filter trapped by filter paper and the liquid paper and the liquid part runs through the part runs through the paperpaper

VaporizationVaporization- where - where the liquid portion is the liquid portion is evaporated off to evaporated off to leave solidleave solid

Separation TechniquesSeparation Techniques

DecantingDecanting- when - when liquid is poured off liquid is poured off after solid has settled after solid has settled to bottomto bottom

CentrifugeCentrifuge- machine - machine that spins a sample that spins a sample very quickly so that very quickly so that components with components with different densities different densities will separatewill separate

Separation TechniquesSeparation Techniques

Paper Paper Chromatography-Chromatography- used to separate used to separate mixtures because mixtures because different parts different parts move quicker on move quicker on paper than otherpaper than other

ElementsElements

ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDSELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDSElement-Element-a pure substance that cannot be a pure substance that cannot be broken down by simple meansbroken down by simple means

The periodic table organizes the 91 naturally The periodic table organizes the 91 naturally occurring elements and scientifically created occurring elements and scientifically created elementselements

A. Mendeleev created the original A. Mendeleev created the original periodic table.periodic table.

Mendeleev's Periodic Table (1869).htm

Periodic TablePeriodic Table

Periodic TablePeriodic Table

two rows below the periodic table are two rows below the periodic table are the the lanthanide and actinide serieslanthanide and actinide series

these rows fit after #57 and #89these rows fit after #57 and #89 they are only at the bottom to keep they are only at the bottom to keep

the width of the chart smallerthe width of the chart smaller

Types of Elements Types of Elements MetalsMetals

an element that is a good an element that is a good conductor of electricityconductor of electricity

at room temperature, most are at room temperature, most are solidssolids

malleablemalleable- can be rolled or - can be rolled or hammered into sheetshammered into sheets

ductileductile- can be made into wire- can be made into wire high high tensile strength-tensile strength- can resist can resist

breakage when pulledbreakage when pulled most have silvery or grayish most have silvery or grayish

white lusterwhite luster

Types of ElementsTypes of Elements

NonmetalsNonmetals an element that is a poor conductor of an element that is a poor conductor of

heat and electricityheat and electricity many are gases at room temperaturemany are gases at room temperature some are solids: usually brittle, not some are solids: usually brittle, not

malleablemalleable

Types of ElementsTypes of Elements

MetalloidsMetalloids an element that has some an element that has some

characteristics of metals and nonmetalscharacteristics of metals and nonmetals appear along staricase lineappear along staricase line B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, TeB, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te all are solids at room temperatureall are solids at room temperature less malleable that metals but less less malleable that metals but less

brittle than nonmetalsbrittle than nonmetals are semiconductorsare semiconductors

Types of ElementsTypes of Elements

Noble GasesNoble Gases generally unreactive gasesgenerally unreactive gases in far right column of periodic tablein far right column of periodic table

ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDSELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDSCompoundsCompounds

definition - a compound is a pure substance definition - a compound is a pure substance that is the combination of two or more that is the combination of two or more different elementsdifferent elements

ie: NaCl – table saltie: NaCl – table salt

Na- combustible solid and Cl – poisonous gasNa- combustible solid and Cl – poisonous gas

examples of compoundsexamples of compounds a. sodium bicarbonate NaHCOa. sodium bicarbonate NaHCO33

b. hydrochloric acid HClb. hydrochloric acid HCl c. sulfur dioxide SOc. sulfur dioxide SO22

ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDSELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDSCompoundsCompounds

examples of formation of compounds examples of formation of compounds from elements (synthesis reactions)from elements (synthesis reactions)

a. 2 Na + Cla. 2 Na + Cl22 -----> 2 NaCl -----> 2 NaCl

b. 2 Hb. 2 H22 + O + O22 ------> 2 H ------> 2 H22OO

c. Nc. N22 + 3H + 3H22 ------> 2NH ------> 2NH33

ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDSELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDSCompoundsCompounds

examples of decomposition of examples of decomposition of compounds to form elementscompounds to form elements

a. 2NaCl a. 2NaCl 2Na + Cl 2Na + Cl22

b. 2 Hb. 2 H22O O 2H 2H22 + O + O22

The organization of MatterThe organization of Matter

matter

mixtures Pure substances

ElementsOxygen, iron

heterogeneous homogeneous CompoundsSalt, sugar

Matter FlowchartMatter Flowchart

MATTER

Can it be separated by physical means?

Homogeneous Mixture

(solution)

Heterogeneous Mixture Compound Element

MIXTURE PURE SUBSTANCE

yes no

Can it be decomposed by chemical means?

noyesIs the composition uniform?

noyes

The Law Conservation of MassThe Law Conservation of Mass

States that mass can neither be States that mass can neither be created nor destroyed.created nor destroyed.

Mass of reactants = mass of productsMass of reactants = mass of products

28 g of Na + 28 g of Cl = 56 g of NaCl28 g of Na + 28 g of Cl = 56 g of NaCl

Law of Conservation of Law of Conservation of Mass and chemical Mass and chemical

changeschanges- - Mass reactants = Mass products Mass reactants = Mass products (mass is neither created nor (mass is neither created nor

destroyed in chemical reactions)destroyed in chemical reactions)

Lavoisier (1743 - 1794) experimentLavoisier (1743 - 1794) experiment [ 216 g of HgO --> 200 g Hg + 16g O[ 216 g of HgO --> 200 g Hg + 16g O22

]]216 grams of mercury oxide when heated 216 grams of mercury oxide when heated

will produce 200 grams of mercury and will produce 200 grams of mercury and 16 grams of oxygen16 grams of oxygen

Law of Definite Law of Definite ProportionsProportions

1.Definition - a compound is always composed of 1.Definition - a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportions by the same elements in the same proportions by massmass

2. examples 2. examples a. water- Ha. water- H22O (always has a ratio of 1 gram of O (always has a ratio of 1 gram of hydrogen to 8 grams of oxygen) hydrogen to 8 grams of oxygen) b. ammonia - NHb. ammonia - NH33 (always combine in a ratio of (always combine in a ratio of

14 grams of nitrogen to 3 grams of hydrogen)14 grams of nitrogen to 3 grams of hydrogen)

Law of Multiple Law of Multiple ProportionsProportions

1. definition - when different 1. definition - when different compounds are formed by a compounds are formed by a combination of the same elements, combination of the same elements, different masses of one element will different masses of one element will combine with the same relative mass combine with the same relative mass of the other element in a ratio of of the other element in a ratio of small whole numberssmall whole numbers

Law of Multiple Law of Multiple ProportionsProportions

WATER (HWATER (H22O) O) 2 grams of hydrogen combine with 16 2 grams of hydrogen combine with 16

grams of oxygen grams of oxygen PEROXIDE (HPEROXIDE (H22OO22) ) 2 grams of hydrogen combine with 32 2 grams of hydrogen combine with 32

grams of oxygen grams of oxygen The ratio that compares the amount of The ratio that compares the amount of

oxygen in water and peroxide is 1:2 oxygen in water and peroxide is 1:2

Law of Multiple Law of Multiple ProportionsProportions

SULFUR DIOXIDE (SOSULFUR DIOXIDE (SO22)) 32 grams of sulfur combine with 32 grams of 32 grams of sulfur combine with 32 grams of

oxygenoxygen

SULFUR TRIOXIDESULFUR TRIOXIDE (SO (SO33) ) 32 grams of sulfur combine with 48 grams of 32 grams of sulfur combine with 48 grams of

oxygenoxygen

The ratio that compares the amount of oxygen in The ratio that compares the amount of oxygen in sulfursulfur

dioxide and sulfur trioxide is 2:3dioxide and sulfur trioxide is 2:3

Periodic TablePeriodic Table

GroupsGroups also called familiesalso called families vertical columnsvertical columns numbered 1numbered 11818 have similar chemical propertieshave similar chemical properties

PeriodsPeriods horizontal rowshorizontal rows properties changes consistently across a properties changes consistently across a

periodperiod


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