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Maximizing Recovery

Date post:11-Feb-2016
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Maximizing Recovery. Lecture 18 Part II. Most of us will never get to this point... but we do get tired from training on consecutive days. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
  • Maximizing RecoveryLecture 18 Part II

  • Most of us will never get to this point... but we do get tired from training on consecutive days.

    Are there supplements that can help athletes recover faster and allow them to train hard consistently without risking the development of chronic fatigue/overtraining syndrome/illness?

  • Intense Exercise TrainingMuscle soreness, weakness, pain, signs of inflammation, lack of energyDepleted intramuscular energy stores, accumulation of waste products, impaired circulation, activation of proteases by calcium, and release of lysosomal proteases that lead to intracellular degradation.

  • Intense Exercise TrainingMuscle Glycogen DepletionMuscle Fiber DamageTranslocation of GLUT4 to muscle cell membrane, enzymes for glycogen storage are upregulated.

  • CortisolAdrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is released by the posterior pituitary gland in response to fiber damage.ACTH causes release of cortisol to help suppress inflammation and mobilize amino acids from muscle protein degradationCortisol in relation to recovery:Assists in fuel provision (amino acids via gluconeogenesis) May delay recuperation after intense exercise

  • Intense Exercise TrainingMuscle Glycogen DepletionMuscle Fiber DamageCarbohydrate + ProteinStimulates an ANABOLIC environment

  • Protein SupplementsMeat and Vegetable Other common proteins that are found at the GNC in power form:Whey ProteinCaseinEgg ProteinSoy Protein Glutamine the Magic Protein

  • Whey ProteinDerivative of milk productionAmino acid profile closely related to aa required by humansContains a surplus of essential amino acidsAlso has immune-enhancing propertiesContains high levels of cysteine, an amino acid substrate for glutathione (an antioxidant necessary for lymphocyte proliferation)

  • CaseinSimilar to whey-also a derivative of milk production.Whey vs. casein:Casein induces a longer elevation of plasma amino acids (likely due to slower gastric emptying)Casein has been shown to inhibit whole-body protein breakdownWhey protein increases protein synthesis more than casein.

  • Egg ProteinKool-aid and Eggs in a blender...yummy.Egg protein substitutes:Egg protein powders are higher in sodium (>300mg per serving)A good source of essential amino acids.

    Cost: $31.25, 2lbs

  • Soy ProteinContains high amounts of glutamine and arginineGlutamine: deficiencies have been related to intense strenuous exercise, increased infection, suppressed immunity and critical illness.Arginine: has a vital role in stimulating the release of growth hormone and insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1)Soy is low in the sulfur-containing amino acids, methionine and cysteineImportant in glutathione synthesis

  • Soy ContdStudies:Soy vs. beef/meat: no differences in nitrogen balance or net protein useSoy vs. whey (1998 at Ohio State, 20 healthy males involved in a heavy exercise program)Subjects fed soy had an increase in plasma anti-oxidants while the whey group did not.

    Soy contains isoflavones which may oppose free-radical production.

  • Protein SupplementsMeat and Vegetable Other common proteins that are found at the GNC:Whey ProteinCaseinEgg ProteinSoy Protein Glutamine the Magic Protein

  • GlutamineNaturally occurring non-essential amino acid.Synthesized in the muscle.Most abundant free amino acid in muscle and in plasmaServes as a metabolic fuel for lymphocytes, macrophages and for cells lining the intestine.Means of nitrogen transport between tissuesA metabolic link between muscle and the immune system.Immune cell function is connected to the synthesis and release of glutamine in the muscle.

  • Strenuous exercise affects immune system:- depressed lymphocyte count, impaired function of natural killer and B cells...etc(parts of the immune system that recognize and destroy foreign invader cells)


  • Glutamine Hypothesis:Exercise has immunosuppressive effects(marathon running is associated with more upper respiratory infections in the week or two following the event)Glutamine is associated with immune functionPlasma glutamine levels are lowered by intense endurance exercise.Hypothesis: additional glutamine will enhance the resistance to infection in athletes.Evidence?

  • Glutamine manufactures claim:More rapid water absorptionImproved fluid retentionNutritional support for immune function and prevention of infectionStimulation of protein synthesis and muscle tissue growthStimulation of muscle glycogen re-synthesisReduction of muscle soreness and improved muscle tissue repair

  • Studies testing glutamine hypothesis:ONE STUDY HAS SHOWN A POSITIVE EFFECT...

    Castell et al. looked at the effect of post-marathon glutamine supplementation on the incidence of respiratory infection in the week following the race.Marathon participants were given 5g of glutamine or placebo within 2 hours of finishing the race and were monitored over the next 7 days.Results: 20% of the athletes that consumed glutamine reported an infection vs. 50% of the athletes that consumed a placebo drink reported infection (p

  • Lets think about this from a basic science standpoint.Does exercise decrease free glutamine concentrations?Prolonged moderate exercise (50-70% VO2max) is associated with 10-30% decrease in plasma glutamine concentration. Intense exercise >90% VO2Max can also decrease glutamine.(May be the window of increased susceptibility for infection in the hours following exercise.)

  • Are free glutamine levels associated with immune system function?

    Preventing a fall in plasma glutamine concentrations (post-exercise dose at 0, 30, 60 and 90 minutes) did not prevent a fall in lymphocyte activity.Maintaining plasma glutamine by consuming a drink before during and after cycling did not prevent a fall in immune factors like leukocyte trafficking, neutrophil function, lymphocyte proliferation and natural killer cell activity.

  • Can glutamine supplementation increase plasma glutamine and affect factors that are enhance the immune system?

    Evidence thus far does not support the glutamine hypothesis. Maintaining plasma glutamine levels has not been CLEARLY shown to enhance immune system function although anecdotally it is prescribed widely by strength and conditioning coaches to aid in recovery.

  • Intense Exercise TrainingMuscle Glycogen DepletionMuscle Fiber DamageCarbohydrate + ProteinStimulates an ANABOLIC environment


  • Side-noteGlutamate is not glutamine... Many manufacturers add glutamate to supplements because its cheaper than glutamine. Make sure you read the label.

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