A 30-year-old man presents with severe pruritus that is worse at night and reports similar symptoms among other family members. Upon examination, areas of excoriated papules are observed in the interdigital areas. Which one of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
cutaneous larva migrans
A 33-year-old woman who is 29 weeks pregnant with her fourth child presents to the obstetric unit with onset of painless vaginal bleeding two hours ago, accompanied by passage of significant blood and clots. Fetal heart rate is regular at 150 beats/minute. She is having no uterine contractions. Which one of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
disseminated intravascular coagulation
A 3-year-old boy presents to the emergency room following a 40 second generalized tonic-clonic seizure. The infant has been ill with a high fever for 24 hours. His history is unremarkable, and physical examination is normal, CBC and urinalysis are normal. Which one of the following would be the best initial step?
Arrange to have an EEG performed urgently.
Admit to hospital for an immediate CT scan of the head.Carry out blood cultures.
Reassure the mother and recommend close observation.Perform a lumbar puncture.
Throughout the winter months, about 18% of 1000 people working in a modern office building complain of headache, eye irritation and sore throat. These symptoms develop each day about noon and persist through the afternoon. The most likely explanation for this phenomenon is
mass psychogenic illness.
sick building syndrome (indoor air pollution).
endemic transmission of rhinovirus.
A 15-year-old boy presents with a history of repeated fire setting. He collects lighters and enjoys watching fires in the neighborhood. His mother and teachers describe his temper as explosive and he is known to fight, lie and steal. With his mother, he is frequently argumentative and disobedient. Which one of the following diagnoses is most likely?
oppositional defiant disorder
intermittent explosive disorder
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
A 30-year-old male presents with a three month history of weight loss, fatigue and night sweats. He has palpable
lymph nodes in his neck and mild hepatosplenomegaly. A chest x-ray shows a large mediastinal mass. What would be the most appropriate method of obtaining tissue for pathologic diagnosis in this patient?
neck lymph node biopsy under local anesthetic
biopsy of mediastinal mass under general anestheticliver biopsy under local anesthetic
liver biopsy under general anesthetic
needle biopsy of the spleen under local anesthetic
For a 52-year-old sedentary, normotensive, non-smoking white male who is not overweight, drinks 60 mL of whiskey per day and plays golf occasionally, which one of the following conditions is most likely to cause death within the next 10 years?
motor vehicle accident
cirrhosis of the liver
ischemic heart disease
A 26-year-old pregnant woman delivers a male infant at 40 weeks, with a birthweight of 2.0 kg. His head circumference is 34 cm and there are no dysmorphic features. Antenatal ultrasounds have been normal until 32 weeks, when intrauterine growth restriction has been diagnosed. Which one of the following is the most likely cause of the low birth weight?
congenital intrauterine infection
chromosomal or genetic abnormality
A previously normal 65-year-old African-American man presents with a urinary tract infection. He is treated with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. One week later, routine laboratory testing reveals a new normocytic anemia with hemoglobin 89 g/L. Which one of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) hemolysisthalassemia trait
occult blood loss from renal carcinoma
sickle cell trait
A 27-year-old man is brought to the emergency room after trying to smash a computer in the library. He says the computer is being used to control his thoughts and that he has a good idea that the government is behind this. This patient is exhibiting which one of the following?
What would be the best test to confirm the diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis?
bone marrow aspiration
osmotic fragility studies
red blood cell enzyme studies
human leukocyte antigens (HLA) studies
The son of a 79-year-old woman wants a psychiatric evaluation for his mother because she has been more confused and lethargic during the past 6 months. She takes several medications daily, although her son doesn't know what they are. Mental status examination shows the woman to be dishevelled, mildly agitated, and delirious. Which one of the following is the most useful next step in this woman's evaluation?
identifying her medications
eliciting a family history
ordering serum electrolytes
obtaining a CT scan of the head
prescribing haloperidol for agitation
A first-born male child develops vomiting at the age of five weeks. The vomit is free of bile. The child remains hungry and vomits after taking feedings. Examination reveals visible peristalsis in the upper abdomen. Which one of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
incarcerated inguinal hernia
International comparisons suggest that the health status of a population is most influenced by the
presence of a national health insurance plan.
range of social and welfare programs.
method of paying the physicians.
number of hospital beds.
A patient with delirium tremens manifests all of the following, EXCEPT
A 4-year-old girl presents with areas of bluish discoloration of the lower extremities, buttocks and upper trunk. She has a low-grade fever but otherwise well looking. The complete blood count reveals the following results: hemoglobin, 120 g/L; white blood cell, 8.2x109/L and platelets 170 x109/L. Which one of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Question: 17A 28-year-old pregnant woman develops sudden onset of dyspnea and tachycardia. Which one of the following is the most likely explanation?
acute mitral valve regurgitation
acute respiratory distress syndrome
A 10-year-old boy complains of headaches and stomach aches each morning before school and has missed most of the last 2 weeks of school. He has no history of vomiting, change in stool patterns, weight loss or visual disturbances. His physical examination is negative. The most appropriate course of action is
propranolol prophylaxis for migraines.
referral back to school with reassurance to parents.computed tomography scan of the head.
Maalox® before meals.
suggest withdrawal of privileges to deal with truancy.
A 55-year-old overweight, non-smoking woman, recently separated from her husband, complains of severe chest pains radiating to both arms. During the attacks, which are provoked by drinking cold liquids, she is nauseated and may experience difficulty in swallowing. The most likely diagnosis is
ischemic heart disease.
peptic ulcer disease.
A 4-year-old boy has a history of easy bruising, nosebleeds, and a similar history among male and female family members. Laboratory investigations show normal INR and prolonged APTT. Which one of
the following is the most likely cause of this boy's tendency?
factor XIII deficiency
von Willebrand's disease
familial platelet function disorder
A 45-year-old business executive with advanced cirrhosis of the liver and a history of alcohol abuse says that he drinks only because of the constant nagging of his wife. This is an example of which of the following defense mechanisms?
A 3-year-old boy presents with a swelling in the right scrotum. On examination the swelling is irreducible, it is possible to get above it and it is translucent. Which one of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
indirect inguinal hernia
varicosity of testicular veins
torsion of the testis
To estimate survival from a follow-up study, "time zero" must be defined precisely for each patient. This is best
ensured by"back dating" the entrance to the date of onset of the first symptoms, as obtained from the history.enrolling all patients on the same calendar date.
measuring from the first instance when each patient's symptoms met certain criteria for severity.measuring from the time the disease is detected by a screening program.selecting all patients at clinically comparable points in the course of their disease.
A 45-year-old female presents with a history of a direct blow over the shaft of her left humerus. Her x-ray shows a spiral fracture of the distal third of the humerus. On examination of her hand, sensation is intact on the palmar side but absent on the dorsum of her hand. Which one of the following nerves is most likely injured?
A 24-year-old man is brought to the emergency room after being found unresponsive in a city park. Physical examination reveals pinpoint pupils unresponsive to light and a respiratory rate of 7 breaths per minute. Which one of the following is the most likely cause?
tricyclic antidepressant overdose
The following laboratory values were obtained during investigation of a 45-year-old man:
Hemoglobin 90 g/L
Mean corpuscular volume 82 fL
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration
300 g/L (N = 310-360 g/L)
Serum iron7 µmol/L (N = 13-27 µmol/L)
Total iron binding capacity36 µmol/L (N = 54-72 µmol/L)
Sideroblasts in the bone marrow
0.25 (N = 0.30-0.50)
Bone marrow iron Normal
These results could be due to all the following conditions, EXCEPT
iron deficiency anemia.
The incidence of a particular disease is greater in men than in women, but the prevalence shows no sex difference. The most probable explanation is that
the mortality rate is higher in women.
the case fatality rate is higher in women.
the duration of the disease is longer in women.
women receive less adequate medical care for the disease.this diagnosis is more often missed in women.
A 50-year-old woman has a 2 cm carcinoma in the upper outer quadrant of her left breast, with no palpable axillary nodes. Which one of the following is the most appropriate treatment?
lumpectomy and tamoxifen
lumpectomy and axillary dissection
modified radical mastectomy
lumpectomy, axillary dissection and radiotherapy
lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy
A 16-year-old boy presents in the emergency room with a history of a football injury to the left flank earlier that day. He reports that at the time of injury he only had the wind knocked out of him and recovered in a few minutes. About 1 hour later he began to experience pain in the left upper quadrant and left shoulder and light-headedness on standing. Which one of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
dislocation of the left shoulder
broken rib on the left side
contusion of the left kidney
A 6-month-old girl presents with vomiting and diarrhea of acute onset. Her systolic blood pressure is 40 mm Hg, pulse is 160/minute, she has poor peripheral circulation and is very lethargic. Her serum sodium concentration is 158 mmol/L. Which one of the following is the best initial management?
intravenous 5% dextrose in 0.9% saline, 20 mL/kg over 60 minutesintravenous 5% dextrose in water at 80 mL/kg/24 hoursoral solution containing 50 mmol sodium per liter
hydrocortisone 200 mg intravenously
A 28-year-old woman has a 3-year history of primary infertility. She presents with increasing symptoms of steady, aching lower abdominal pain at the time of menses. The pain persists throughout menstruation and often after, and radiates into the rectum. Tender nodules in the uterosacral ligaments are noted on pelvic examination. Which one of the following would be the most contributory investigation?
hysterosalpingogram on day 9 of her cycle
endometrial biopsy on day 26 of her cycle
basal body temperature charting
A 54-year-old man presents with extreme pain and swelling of the left middle finger. Four days earlier, he suffered a small puncture wound to the volar aspect of the finger at the level of the distal flexor crease. Passive extension of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints severely aggravates his symptoms. Which one of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
pulp space infection
mid-palmar space infection
septic arthritis distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint
A 52-year-old patient is complaining of hot flushes, sweating, and sleep disturbance. After discussion she feels hormone replacement therapy would not be suitable for her. She wants to discuss herbal remedies for menopause. Which one of the following natural products is most likely to help her symptoms?
Evening primrose oil
On physical examination of a 21-year-old woman, you auscultate at the apex of her heart a low-pitched mid-to-late diastolic murmur with accentuation of S1. Upon careful listening you notice a clicking sound just after S2 and immediately preceding the rumbling murmur. Which one of the following is the most likely condition?
mitral valve prolapse
mitral valve stenosis
patent foramen ovale
A 21-year-old primigravida at 20 weeks' gestation is diagnosed as having herpes genitalis. Your suggestion to her for her future care include which one of the following?
Pap smears every 3 months
cesarean section if active lesions at the time of deliverytermination of this pregnancy
refraining from sexual activity
amniocentesis to see if fetus is infected
The lupus patient you are following suddenly develops a fever and notes that her urine is dark in color. Analysis of her urine reveals the presence of red cells. She has had some joint aching and been feeling unwell for a few days. Her malar rash is about the same as usual for her. Which one of the following suggests she is experiencing an exacerbation of her disease?
C3 and C4 are both normal.
C3 is low and C4 is normal.
CH50, C3 and C4 are normal.
C3 and C4 are low.
terminal complement components are absent.
A 9-year-old boy is brought to the hospital with a history of having fallen from his bike. He fainted and is now complaining of abdominal pain and thirst. There is general abdominal tenderness and rebound tenderness. Approximately 4 hours after the accident, the white blood count is 20 x 109/L and the hemoglobin is 80 g/L. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A 40-year-old woman has a history of osteoporosis in her family and seeks counseling. Which of the following statements is true regarding an increased risk of osteoporosis?
black women with a late menopause
white women with larger bone mass
women with regular physical exercise
women with history of cigarette smoking
white women with a late menopause
A 27-year-old woman seeks evaluation for her "depression" in an out-patient clinic. She reports episodic feelings of sadness since adolescence. Occasionally she feels good, but these periods seldom last more than 2 weeks. She is able to work but thinks she is not doing as well as she should. In describing her problems she seems to focus more on repeated disappointments in her life and her low opinion of herself than on discrete depressive symptoms. In your differential diagnosis at this
point,which one of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
major depression with melancholia
adjustment disorder with depressed mood
Extrinsic allergic alveolitis may be acquired by breathing air contaminated by which one of the following substances?
urea formaldehyde foam insulation
fine silicaceous dust
Following a car accident, a patient presents with bruising of the eyelid and clear fluid is observed leaking from his nose. Which one of the following is the most likely cause?
linear fracture of the vault of skull
anterior cranial fossa fracture
petrous bone fracture
foramen magnum fracture
squamous temporal bone fracture
A infant girl presents with a webbed neck, shield chest, coarctation of the aorta, and edema of the hands and feet . Which one of the following conditions is she likely to manifest?
Between 1901 and 1981, the total mortality rate in developed countries showed a dramatic decline. Which one of the following factors accounted for the greatest proportion of the decrease in mortality during this time?
improvement in the geographic distribution of health care professionalsincrease in the number of health care professionalsdevelopment of antibiotics
improvements in general living standards
improvements in diagnostic techniques
You see a cyanotic 1-day-old baby boy, born by difficult delivery at 37 weeks' gestation. After administration of 100% oxygen, there is no significant change in the arterial PaO2. Based on this finding, the most likely primary diagnosis is
central nervous system damage.
congenital heart disease.
Two medical students poll a random sample of classmates concerning their choices for residency training and find that the percentage of women who plan to train in primary care is significantly higher than the percentage of men (p<0.05). The probability is less than 5% that
the sampled men will enter a primary care field.
the difference between the men and women is real.all the women in the class will enter a primary care field.the difference between the sampled men and women is due to chance.this sample reflects the choices of the whole class.
A 65-year-old previously healthy woman is seen for a routine physical examination. You can palpate a 1-cm mass in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast. Which one of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
Paget's disease of the breast
A 27-year-old woman in labour declines epidural anesthesia. A nerve block is recommended instead. A block of which one of the following would be appropriate for pain control?
pelvic splanchnic nerve
inferior gluteal nerve
pelvic sympathetic nerve
Which one of the following signs is consistent with an overdose of morphine?
Self-Administered Evaluating Exam
Which one of the following features is characteristic of central retinal artery occlusion?
progressive loss of vision
semi dilation of both pupils with poor response to direct lightbrisk constriction of pupil when the other eye is illuminated
A 70-year-old woman complains of a 6-month history of cough. She has a past history of hypertension and myocardial infarction and she has been a smoker for 50 years. Which one of the following drugs may be contributing to her cough?
Etiologic factors in female urinary stress incontinence include all of the following EXCEPT
weakness of the urethral supports.
trauma from repeated deliveries.
A nulligravid woman with epilepsy comes for pre-conceptional counselling. She is taking phenytoin and carbamazepine and has been seizure-free for the last 2 months. What advice should be given to her?
There is no significant increased risk of anomalies.
The risk of anomalies exceeds that of untreated epilepsy if she continues her medication.She needs anticonvulsants and should therefore not undertake pregnancy.The benefits of the drugs outweigh the risks, and pregnancy may be attempted.The fetal hydantoin syndrome is familial so the status of relatives must be checked.
An assembly-line worker complains of awakening at night with right-hand discomfort that resolves after several minutes. After 3 weeks of continuing symptoms, he seeks medical advice. Examination reveals mild weakness of thumb abduction and diminished pain sensibility on the palmar aspect of the thumb and index finger. Which one of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
carpal tunnel syndrome
reflex sympathetic dystrophy
radial nerve neuropathy
A 65-year-old man is on his second postoperative day after colon resection for carcinoma. He is on intravenous fluids and nasogastric suction. Which one of the following would be the most reliable in assessing the state of his hydration?
turgor of skin
amount of thirst
moistness of his tongue
A study of traffic safety showed that 61% of those involved in accidents last year had more than 10 years of driving experience, 21% had 6 to 10 years of experience, and 17% had 1 to 5 years. Traffic experts concluded that experience seems to make drivers more complacent and careless. Which one of the following statements best explains why this conclusion is NOT justified?
The rates have not been standardized for age differences.The data are incomplete because of unreported accidents.A comparison needs to be made with similar data on drivers not involved in accidents.No test of statistical significance has been made.
Prevalence is used where incidence is required.
A serious suicide attempt is more likely in patients whoare quietly depressed.
have made previous serious attempts.
have received bad news.
are given inadequate antidepressant medication.
A 56-year-old alcoholic man, who has had chronic bronchitis for the past 10 years, presents with increasing cough. On examination, he has wheezing over the right lower lobe and clubbing of his fingers. Which one of the following diagnosis is the most likely?
alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency
foreign body aspiration
Under certain circumstances, it may be legitimate to detain individuals in an institution against their wishes, for their own good and to protect others. This situation may arise when
a person has bizarre fantasies and actions
persons are mentally incompetent and unable to manage their own affairsa close relative submits a petition that an individual is actually and presently insanethe individual's continued liberty poses a danger
a person has visual and aural hallucinations
A 24-year-old woman appears at 8 weeks of pregnancy and reveals a history of pulmonary embolism 7 years ago during her first pregnancy. She was treated with intravenous heparin followed by several months of oral warfarin (Coumadin®) and has had no further evidence of thromboembolic disease for over 6 years. Which of the following statements about her current condition is true?
Having no evidence of disease for over 5 years means that her risk of thromboembolism is not greater than normal.Impedance plethysmography is not a useful study to evaluate her for deep venous thrombosis in pregnancy.Doppler ultrasonography is not a useful technique to evaluate her for deep venous thrombosis in pregnancy.The patient should be placed on low-dose heparin therapy throughout her pregnancy and the puerperium.She is at highest risk for recurrent thromboembolism during the second trimester of pregnancy.
A student in a university residence has been diagnosed with meningococcal meningitis. Which one of the following is the most effective prophylaxis for individuals exposed to this patient?
The most common reason for antenatal genetic testing is
paternal age greater than 50
a parent with a balanced translocation
maternal age 35 or older
repeated spontaneous abortions
A 65-year-old woman has developed coarse facial features and an increase in her hand size. You suspect she has acromegaly. In addition to growth hormone, which one of the following would also be elevated?
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
follicle-stimulatina hoemone (FSH)
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
A 25-year-old woman with depression repeatedly talks about irrelevant topics when being interviewed by a psychiatrist. Which one of the following symptoms is the patient demonstrating?
A 3-year-old boy, diagnosed as having a hemolytic uremic syndrome 4 months ago, presents with the following laboratory findings (finger prick):
The most appropriate management is toorder calcium intravenously.
do an electrocardiogram.
repeat the blood tests, taking an intravenous specimen.order Kayexalate® by mouth.
repeat the blood tests in 1 week.
You are taking a history from a 24-year-old mother of three who is currently 10 weeks pregnant and has had one previous abortion and one previous twin gestation. Which one of the following is her gravidity and parity?
gravida 4, para 1
gravida 4, para 2
gravida 3, para 2
gravida 2, para 2
gravida 3, para 1
A 45-year-old man sustained an 8 cm ragged laceration of his lateral thigh in a farming accident while ploughing a field. The laceration had penetrated the deep fascia into the muscles. He wrapped a towel around the leg and finished his work. He finally arrived in the Emergency Department 8 hours after the accident. Local treatment should include thorough debridement followed by
closure of wound.
instillation of antibiotics and closure.
leave wound open for secondary closure at a later date.closure with drains.
local antibiotics and closure of muscles only.
All of the following statements about postpartum psychosis are true, EXCEPT
it should be treated as a psychiatric emergency.
residual symptoms are common.
lithium carbonate is useful for manic symptoms.
psychotherapy is beneficial after the period of acute psychosis.use of neuroleptics is often necessary.
Which one of the following hormones is responsible for the
proliferation of the milk ducts during pregnancy?
human chorionic gonadotropinprogesterone
human placental lactogen
A 35-year-old woman who was born in Vietnam has had her dyspepsia diagnosed by endoscopy as a duodenal ulcer. Her pathology is positive forHelicobacter pylori. She has not previously been diagnosed with peptic ulcer disease. What would be the preferred treatment option?
combination antibiotics plus omeprazoleomeprazole alone
surgical vagotomy and pyloroplastyoctreotide
A 30-year-old woman presents with a long standing history of irregular menstrual periods which are often associated with severe pelvic pain and menorrhagia She has also been experiencing dysparunia and pain during defecation. Which one of the following is most likely to assist you in diagnosing this patient's condition?
culdocentesis during menses
A 45-year-old woman is brought to the Emergency Department after she fainted in a supermarket. Her husband tells you she was diagnosed as "hypoglycemic" by a homeopath 2 years ago. Which one of the following criteria is most in favor of the diagnosis of hypoglycemia?
Abnormal 5-hour glucose tolerance test
Low blood glucose while symptomatic
Typical prodrome of tachycardia
History of post-prandial syncope
Improvement of patient status after eating
A patient at 17 weeks' gestation is diagnosed as having an intrauterine fetal demise. She returns to your office 5 weeks later and has not had a miscarriage, although she has had some occasional spotting. This patient is at increased risk for which of the following?
consumptive coagulopathy with hypofibrinogenemiafuture infertility
An 80-year-old woman with a history of congestive heart failure develops angina pectoris. Her medications are adjusted to include furosemide, digoxin, nitroglycerin, and potassium supplements. Shortly thereafter, she develops intermittent frontal throbbing headaches. Which one of the following is your initial management step?
Perform a temporal artery biopsy.
Begin sumatriptan (Imitrex).
Obtain a brain computed tomography (CT) scan.
A newborn infant has excessive drooling along with coughing and choking with feeding. Cyanosis is present and is unrelieved by crying. Bilateral pulmonary rales are present. There is abdominal distention with tympany on percussion. Which one of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
respiratory distress syndrome
In a classroom of 25 students (15 males and 10 females), 5 males develop hepatitis A over a 2-week period. During the next 6 weeks, an additional 3 males and 2 females develop the infection. The secondary attack rate of hepatitis A is which one of the following?
The ovarian lesion most likely to undergo torsion isa dermoid cyst.
a papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma.
a papillary pseudomucinous cystadenoma.
an endometrial cyst.
an inflammatory cyst.
A 40-year-old man states that he is feeling somewhat down and in conflict with his wife. As your history proceeds, you elicit that he has always been somewhat rigid; he is a conscientious hard worker at his employment. You note that he is dressed very neatly and that, while giving his personal history, he rambles and gives you all the details. The most likely personality type is
The karyotype of a hydrocephalic infant would likely show
Which one of the following is the most important initial task of the doctor doing the psychiatric interview?
make a diagnosis
establish a rapport
reassure the patient
develop a treatment plan
A 54-year-old woman sustained an anterior wall myocardial infarction complicated by pulmonary edema. She is symptomless at discharge from hospital 7 days later. Which one of the following treatments isINAPPROPRIATE?
Which one of the following features is of most specific value in differentiating optic neuritis from papilledema?
swelling of the optic disc
loss of vision
distension of retinal veins
enlargement of the blind spot
blurring of the disc margins
A new test is being evaluated for the diagnosis of a pulmonary embolus. Studies indicate that a positive test result has the likelihood ratio of 15, and that a negative test result has a likelihood ratio of 0.85. Which one of the following is a correct conclusion?
This test may be helpful for ruling in a pulmonary embolus.This test is highly sensitive for pulmonary emboli.
This test will be very helpful in a clinical setting.
This test has a negative predictive value is 85%.
This test is very reliable.
A total of 300 newly diagnosed patients with laryngeal cancer are allocated to treatment with either surgical excision alone or surgical excision plus radiation treatment. This scenario best illustrates which one of the following?
case series report
You are seeing a 1-day-old infant and note that she is jaundiced. Which one of the following would be more likely to cause kernicterus?
A panic disorder with agoraphobia has been diagnosed in a 33-year-old patient. Which one of the following drugs is LEAST likely to be useful in preventing panic attacks?
Which one of the following conditions contraindicates routine childhood immunization?
acute illness with an oral temperature over 39 °C
living with a pregnant woman
allergy to penicillin
A 35-year-old man suddenly develops a generalized pruritic macular erythematous rash and fever. Four days ago he saw his physician because of a sore throat that started the day before and was started on penicillin after a throat culture grew beta-hemolytic streptococci. Laboratory studies now reveal a urea of 14 mmol/L Urinalysis shows no casts, 2 protein, 50 RBC/high power field, and 50 WBC/high power field. Complete blood cell count is normal except for eosinophilia (12%). Urine protein concentration is 650 mg/24 h. Which one of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
drug-induced interstitial nephritis
The pattern of inheritance in Duchenne muscular dystrophy is
An 18-year-old woman develops weakness, weight gain, amenorrhea, abdominal striae, and behavioural abnormalities. Physical examination reveals lateral visual field loss. Which one of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
a functional pituitary tumour
anorexia nervosa with bulimia
A 9-year old boy who had been suffering from a gait disturbance for several weeks was found to have a posterior fossa mass on CT scan. Which of the following is the most likely cause for these findings?
a berry aneurysm
Which type of colonic polyp is most likely to become malignant?
For physicians who understand their task to be the diagnosis and treatment of significant physical disease, which one of the following patients would be perceived as being the most difficult?
a somatizing patient
an emphysematous patient who continues to smokea patient with senile dementia
a patient who requests a second opinion
Between 7 and 8 years of age, your patient has grown 4.5 cm. His height, however, remains below and parallel to the 5th percentile. Clinical examination is entirely normal. His mother is anxious for further investigations to be undertaken. Which one of the following would you undertake?
growth hormone secretion using insulin-induced hypoglycemiacomputed tomography scan of the head
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
24-hour urine collection for cortisol
none of those listed
A 34-year-old female keyboard operator develops pain
and numbness in her hands that radiates up her arms. Which of the following is most likely to have been injured?
brachial plexus / triceps muscle
All of the following are more common in the families of children who are sexually abused, EXCEPT
the family is not well integrated into the local community.three generations live under the one roof.
mother delegates homemaking responsibilities to the children.a history of sexual abuse in either parents.
a rigid patriarchal family structure.