The Six Sigma Project Planner
A Step-by-Step Guide to Leading a Six Sigma Project Through DMAIC
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Contents List of Figures vi
List of Tables vii
List of Worksheets vii
Introduction xii How to Use The Six Sigma Planner xii
1. Planning 1
Develop the Project Charter 1 Project Charter 1 The Project Charter Document 1
Conduct a Feasibility Analysis 5 Is This a Valid Project 5 Feasibility Analysis Study 8
The Project Plan 16 Project Metrics 16 Refining the Dollar Opportunity Estimates 20 How Will I Monitor Satisfaction with Project Success? 22 Identify Human Resources Need to Complete the Project 24 Identify Other Resources Needed to Complete the Project 27 Work Breakdown Structures 29 Creating the WBS 29 Integration and Test 32 Project Schedule Development 32 Activity Definition 35 Activity Dependencies 38 Estimating Activity Duration 40 Gantt Charts 42 Network Diagrams 46 Resource Availability 51 Calendars 51 Schedule Improvement 54
Estimating Project Duration Statistically 60 Calculating the Cost of a Schedule 66
Resource Leveling 70
Project Control Subplans 72 Risk Control Plan 72 Quality Plan 80
Cost Control Plan 84 Schedule Control Plan 87
Project Schedule Management 88 Scope Change Control Plan 90
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Change Control System 90
2. Define 95
What Is the Current State? 95 Whats Wrong with the Way Things are Now? 96 Quantify the Undesirable Effects 97 Tools and Techniques 97
Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) 100 FMEA Process 100
Process Metrics 106 Other Key Factors and Metrics 110
How Does This Project Move the Organization Toward Its Strategic Goals and Objectives? 111
Measurement Reliability and Validity 113 Dimension Measurement Analysis 113
Attribute Measurement Analysis 115
4. Analyze 119 Quantify the Current Process 119 Catalog of Data Sources for This Process 119 Exploratory Data Analysis 121 Descriptive Data Analysis 122 Example of Using Worksheet 124
Quantify the Capability of the Current Process 125 Conduct a Process Audit 125 Prepare an Audit Report 129 Determine Sigma and DPMO Levels CTxs 129 Process Capability and Process Actual Sigma Levels Continuous CTx Characteristics 129 Measuring Process Capability for Variables Data 129 Measuring Actual Process Performance for Variables Data 130 Process Capability and Process Actual Sigma Levels for Attribute CTx Characteristics 131 Measuring Process Capability for Attributes Data 132 Measuring Actual Process Performance for Variables Data 132
5. Improve 139
Optimize the Process 139 Perform Designed Experiments 141
What Will the Future State Be? 144
What are the Best Practices in This Area? 144 Create a Future State Process Map 150 Six Sigma Project Activities Template 152 Presentation and Acceptance of Deliverables 154
6. Control 157
Control Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) 157
Business Process Control Systems 159 How Will We Maintain the Gains Made? 159
7. A Tutorial on Project Selection and Management 165
Choosing the Right Projects 165 Customer Value Projects 166 Using QFD to Link Six Sigma Projects to Strategies 166 The Strategy Deployment Plan 168 Using Customer Demands to Design For Six Sigma 174 Structured Decision-Making 175 Shareholder Value Projects 184 Other Six Sigma Projects 184
Analyzing Project Candidates 184 Other Methods of Identifying Promising Projects 184 Using Pareto Analysis to Identify Six Sigma Candidates 185 Throughput-Based Project Selection 186 Multitasking and Project Scheduling 190 Critical Chain Project Portfolio Management 191 Summary and Preliminary Project Selection 192
Tracking Six Sigma Results 194 Financial Results Validation 196 Types of Savings 196 Lessons Learned: Capture and Replication 196
Appendices 199 Issues List 200 Risk Control Plan 202 Quality Plan 203 Cost Control Plan 204 Schedule Control Plan 205 Project Change Control Plan 206 Audit Report 207 Business Process Change Control Plan 208 Resource Calendars 209 Attribute Measurement Error Analysis 210 Calculating Yields 224
Normalized Yield and Sigma Level 227 Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Using MS Excel 230 Additional Resources on Six Sigma Project Management 232 Figures Figure 1. The Six Sigma Project Process Flow xiii Figure 2. Map of Six Sigma Project Flow xv Figure 3. Six Sigma Project DMAIC Cycle Questions xvi Figure 4. Example of Project Validation Analysis 6 Figure 5. Example of Cost-Benefit Opportunity Calculations 20 Figure 6. WBS Creation Process Flowchart 29 Figure 7. Example of a WBS 30 Figure 8. Types of Activity Dependencies 38 Figure 9. Gantt Chart of Schedule 42 Figure 10. Gantt/Milestone Chart of Actual vs. Scheduled Performance 42 Figure 11. Example of Computer Gantt/Milestone Chart 43 Figure 12. Example of Network Diagram 48 Figure 13. Example of a Computer-Generated Network Diagram 49 Figure 14. Example of a Computer-Generated Human Resource Calendar 52 Figure 15. Computer Screen for Entering Task Duration Data 63 Figure 16. Results of Simulation for Example 64 Figure 17. Simulation Results: Probability of Meeting Due Date 65 Figure 18. Example of Cross-Functional Process Map 95 Figure 19. Define Gate Criteria 112 Figure 20. Measure Gate Criteria 118 Figure 21. Some EDA Techniques 121 Figure 22. Example of Combined DDA and EDA Analysis 122 Figure 23. Example of Evaluating a Hypothesis 124 Figure 24. Analyze Gate Criteria 137 Figure 25. Example of a Future State Process Map 150 Figure 26. Improve Gate Criteria 156 Figure 27. Control Gate Criteria 164 Figure 28. Strategy Deployment Plan 167 Figu
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