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Mcgraw hill - the six sigma project planner ebook - fly

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  • TEAMFLY

    Team-Fly

  • The Six Sigma Project Planner

    A Step-by-Step Guide to Leading a Six Sigma Project Through DMAIC

    Thomas Pyzdek

    McGraw-Hill New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London

    Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto

  • Copyright 2003 by The McGraw-HIll Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in theUnited States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no partof this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data-base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

    0-07-142555-1

    The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: 0-07-141183-6.

    All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol afterevery occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefitof the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Where such designationsappear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps.

    McGraw-Hill eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales pro-motions, or for use in corporate training programs. For more information, please contact GeorgeHoare, Special Sales, at [email protected] or (212) 904-4069.

    TERMS OF USEThis is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (McGraw-Hill) and its licensorsreserve all rights in and to the work. Use of this work is subject to these terms. Except as permittedunder the Copyright Act of 1976 and the right to store and retrieve one copy of the work, you may notdecompile, disassemble, reverse engineer, reproduce, modify, create derivative works based upon,transmit, distribute, disseminate, sell, publish or sublicense the work or any part of it withoutMcGraw-Hills prior consent. You may use the work for your own noncommercial and personal use;any other use of the work is strictly prohibited. Your right to use the work may be terminated if youfail to comply with these terms.

    THE WORK IS PROVIDED AS IS. McGRAW-HILL AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUAR-ANTEES OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY, ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OFOR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK, INCLUDING ANY INFORMA-TION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE,AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUTNOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR APARTICULAR PURPOSE. McGraw-Hill and its licensors do not warrant or guarantee that the func-tions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that its operation will be uninterrupted orerror free. Neither McGraw-Hill nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inac-curacy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom.McGraw-Hill has no responsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work.Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hill and/or its licensors be liable for any indirect, incidental,special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use thework, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of lia-bility shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tortor otherwise.

    DOI: 10.1036/0071425551

  • iii

    Contents List of Figures vi

    List of Tables vii

    List of Worksheets vii

    Preface xi

    Introduction xii How to Use The Six Sigma Planner xii

    1. Planning 1

    Develop the Project Charter 1 Project Charter 1 The Project Charter Document 1

    Conduct a Feasibility Analysis 5 Is This a Valid Project 5 Feasibility Analysis Study 8

    The Project Plan 16 Project Metrics 16 Refining the Dollar Opportunity Estimates 20 How Will I Monitor Satisfaction with Project Success? 22 Identify Human Resources Need to Complete the Project 24 Identify Other Resources Needed to Complete the Project 27 Work Breakdown Structures 29 Creating the WBS 29 Integration and Test 32 Project Schedule Development 32 Activity Definition 35 Activity Dependencies 38 Estimating Activity Duration 40 Gantt Charts 42 Network Diagrams 46 Resource Availability 51 Calendars 51 Schedule Improvement 54

    Estimating Project Duration Statistically 60 Calculating the Cost of a Schedule 66

    Resource Leveling 70

    Project Control Subplans 72 Risk Control Plan 72 Quality Plan 80

    Cost Control Plan 84 Schedule Control Plan 87

    Project Schedule Management 88 Scope Change Control Plan 90

    For more information about this title, click here.

    Copyright 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click Here for Terms of Use.

  • iv

    Change Control System 90

    2. Define 95

    What Is the Current State? 95 Whats Wrong with the Way Things are Now? 96 Quantify the Undesirable Effects 97 Tools and Techniques 97

    Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) 100 FMEA Process 100

    Process Metrics 106 Other Key Factors and Metrics 110

    How Does This Project Move the Organization Toward Its Strategic Goals and Objectives? 111

    3. Measure

    Measurement Reliability and Validity 113 Dimension Measurement Analysis 113

    Attribute Measurement Analysis 115

    4. Analyze 119 Quantify the Current Process 119 Catalog of Data Sources for This Process 119 Exploratory Data Analysis 121 Descriptive Data Analysis 122 Example of Using Worksheet 124

    Quantify the Capability of the Current Process 125 Conduct a Process Audit 125 Prepare an Audit Report 129 Determine Sigma and DPMO Levels CTxs 129 Process Capability and Process Actual Sigma Levels Continuous CTx Characteristics 129 Measuring Process Capability for Variables Data 129 Measuring Actual Process Performance for Variables Data 130 Process Capability and Process Actual Sigma Levels for Attribute CTx Characteristics 131 Measuring Process Capability for Attributes Data 132 Measuring Actual Process Performance for Variables Data 132

    5. Improve 139

    Optimize the Process 139 Perform Designed Experiments 141

    What Will the Future State Be? 144

  • v

    What are the Best Practices in This Area? 144 Create a Future State Process Map 150 Six Sigma Project Activities Template 152 Presentation and Acceptance of Deliverables 154

    6. Control 157

    Control Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) 157

    Business Process Control Systems 159 How Will We Maintain the Gains Made? 159

    7. A Tutorial on Project Selection and Management 165

    Choosing the Right Projects 165 Customer Value Projects 166 Using QFD to Link Six Sigma Projects to Strategies 166 The Strategy Deployment Plan 168 Using Customer Demands to Design For Six Sigma 174 Structured Decision-Making 175 Shareholder Value Projects 184 Other Six Sigma Projects 184

    Analyzing Project Candidates 184 Other Methods of Identifying Promising Projects 184 Using Pareto Analysis to Identify Six Sigma Candidates 185 Throughput-Based Project Selection 186 Multitasking and Project Scheduling 190 Critical Chain Project Portfolio Management 191 Summary and Preliminary Project Selection 192

    Tracking Six Sigma Results 194 Financial Results Validation 196 Types of Savings 196 Lessons Learned: Capture and Replication 196

    Appendices 199 Issues List 200 Risk Control Plan 202 Quality Plan 203 Cost Control Plan 204 Schedule Control Plan 205 Project Change Control Plan 206 Audit Report 207 Business Process Change Control Plan 208 Resource Calendars 209 Attribute Measurement Error Analysis 210 Calculating Yields 224

  • vi

    Normalized Yield and Sigma Level 227 Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Using MS Excel 230 Additional Resources on Six Sigma Project Management 232 Figures Figure 1. The Six Sigma Project Process Flow xiii Figure 2. Map of Six Sigma Project Flow xv Figure 3. Six Sigma Project DMAIC Cycle Questions xvi Figure 4. Example of Project Validation Analysis 6 Figure 5. Example of Cost-Benefit Opportunity Calculations 20 Figure 6. WBS Creation Process Flowchart 29 Figure 7. Example of a WBS 30 Figure 8. Types of Activity Dependencies 38 Figure 9. Gantt Chart of Schedule 42 Figure 10. Gantt/Milestone Chart of Actual vs. Scheduled Performance 42 Figure 11. Example of Computer Gantt/Milestone Chart 43 Figure 12. Example of Network Diagram 48 Figure 13. Example of a Computer-Generated Network Diagram 49 Figure 14. Example of a Computer-Generated Human Resource Calendar 52 Figure 15. Computer Screen for Entering Task Duration Data 63 Figure 16. Results of Simulation for Example 64 Figure 17. Simulation Results: Probability of Meeting Due Date 65 Figure 18. Example of Cross-Functional Process Map 95 Figure 19. Define Gate Criteria 112 Figure 20. Measure Gate Criteria 118 Figure 21. Some EDA Techniques 121 Figure 22. Example of Combined DDA and EDA Analysis 122 Figure 23. Example of Evaluating a Hypothesis 124 Figure 24. Analyze Gate Criteria 137 Figure 25. Example of a Future State Process Map 150 Figure 26. Improve Gate Criteria 156 Figure 27. Control Gate Criteria 164 Figure 28. Strategy Deployment Plan 167 Figu

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