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Measurement amp Measurement amp CalculationsCalculations
Honors ChemistryHonors Chemistry
Chapter 2Chapter 2
Scientific NotationScientific NotationShorthand way of expressing Shorthand way of expressing
very large or very small numbersvery large or very small numbers
Consists of Consists of twotwo factors factors Coefficient - a number between 1 and 10 Coefficient - a number between 1 and 10
(only 1 digit to the LEFT of the decimal point)(only 1 digit to the LEFT of the decimal point) Base - a power of 10 Base - a power of 10 ldquopower of 10rdquo shows ldquopower of 10rdquo shows
the number of 10rsquos that are to be multiplied the number of 10rsquos that are to be multiplied togethertogether
Examples on the number lineExamples on the number line
1x102 4x101 1x100
1x10-10 1x10-1
Place numbers on the linePlace numbers on the line4x101 1x10-10 1x100 1x102 1x10-1
0
Uncertainty in Uncertainty in Measurement Measurement ndash due to instrument
flaw and estimation Measurements are Measurements are uncertainuncertain
becausebecause Instruments are not free from ERRORInstruments are not free from ERROR Measuring always involves some Measuring always involves some
ESTIMATIONESTIMATION Estimating with a scaleEstimating with a scale
Estimate ONE digit more than the Estimate ONE digit more than the instrument measuresinstrument measures
3 4 5
3 4 5
Length - Length - RulersRulers
3 4 5
How to use a graduated How to use a graduated cylindercylinder
Read the meniscus
How to use a graduated cylinderHow to use a graduated cylinder
Triple Beam BalanceTriple Beam Balance0 100 200
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
How to read a triple beam balanceHow to read a triple beam balance
TemperatureTemperature
UncertaintyUncertainty
AA Precision Precision ndash ndash represents agreement between several measurements of the same quantity
bull Precise data vs Imprecise data
BB Accuracy Accuracy ndash ndash represents agreement between a measurement amp the true value (within the limits of the instrument) enhanced with calibration
bull Accurate data vs Inaccurate data
CC Error Error = =measured value ndashaccepted valuemeasured value ndashaccepted value
accepted valueaccepted valuex 100
Accuracy vs Accuracy vs PrecisionPrecision
DD Exact numbersExact numbers ndash numbers with no uncertainty
EE Significant DigitsSignificant Digits ndash certain digits plus 1 uncertain digit in a measurement indicative of precision
Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is
assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m
Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween
nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m
Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders
00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm
Leading ZerosLeading Zeros
Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant
4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number
300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify
that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Significant DigitsSignificant Digits
Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap
Atlantic
Pacific
decimal
point
decimal
point
1100
1100
11010000 0025
000035000
Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
1000100
CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)
1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =
2) 36g divide 420mL =
Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)
1) 28751g ndash 72g =
2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =
3) 1600m + 150m =
4) 100cm + 382cm =
When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined
There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen
ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure
pressurepressure
140mm
20mm
Gas has no pressure
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also
have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure
Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg
20mm
140 mm
70mm
20mm
MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard
EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in
FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes
Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes
SI Base UnitsSI Base Units
1 Length
2 Mass (SI standard unit)
3 Time
4 Temperature
5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)
6 Electric current ampere (A)
7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)
meter (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
Kelvin (K)
Metric ConversionMetric Conversion
Derived UnitsDerived Units
Area 2-DArea 2-D
Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash
Density Density
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
Scientific NotationScientific NotationShorthand way of expressing Shorthand way of expressing
very large or very small numbersvery large or very small numbers
Consists of Consists of twotwo factors factors Coefficient - a number between 1 and 10 Coefficient - a number between 1 and 10
(only 1 digit to the LEFT of the decimal point)(only 1 digit to the LEFT of the decimal point) Base - a power of 10 Base - a power of 10 ldquopower of 10rdquo shows ldquopower of 10rdquo shows
the number of 10rsquos that are to be multiplied the number of 10rsquos that are to be multiplied togethertogether
Examples on the number lineExamples on the number line
1x102 4x101 1x100
1x10-10 1x10-1
Place numbers on the linePlace numbers on the line4x101 1x10-10 1x100 1x102 1x10-1
0
Uncertainty in Uncertainty in Measurement Measurement ndash due to instrument
flaw and estimation Measurements are Measurements are uncertainuncertain
becausebecause Instruments are not free from ERRORInstruments are not free from ERROR Measuring always involves some Measuring always involves some
ESTIMATIONESTIMATION Estimating with a scaleEstimating with a scale
Estimate ONE digit more than the Estimate ONE digit more than the instrument measuresinstrument measures
3 4 5
3 4 5
Length - Length - RulersRulers
3 4 5
How to use a graduated How to use a graduated cylindercylinder
Read the meniscus
How to use a graduated cylinderHow to use a graduated cylinder
Triple Beam BalanceTriple Beam Balance0 100 200
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
How to read a triple beam balanceHow to read a triple beam balance
TemperatureTemperature
UncertaintyUncertainty
AA Precision Precision ndash ndash represents agreement between several measurements of the same quantity
bull Precise data vs Imprecise data
BB Accuracy Accuracy ndash ndash represents agreement between a measurement amp the true value (within the limits of the instrument) enhanced with calibration
bull Accurate data vs Inaccurate data
CC Error Error = =measured value ndashaccepted valuemeasured value ndashaccepted value
accepted valueaccepted valuex 100
Accuracy vs Accuracy vs PrecisionPrecision
DD Exact numbersExact numbers ndash numbers with no uncertainty
EE Significant DigitsSignificant Digits ndash certain digits plus 1 uncertain digit in a measurement indicative of precision
Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is
assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m
Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween
nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m
Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders
00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm
Leading ZerosLeading Zeros
Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant
4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number
300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify
that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Significant DigitsSignificant Digits
Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap
Atlantic
Pacific
decimal
point
decimal
point
1100
1100
11010000 0025
000035000
Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
1000100
CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)
1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =
2) 36g divide 420mL =
Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)
1) 28751g ndash 72g =
2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =
3) 1600m + 150m =
4) 100cm + 382cm =
When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined
There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen
ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure
pressurepressure
140mm
20mm
Gas has no pressure
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also
have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure
Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg
20mm
140 mm
70mm
20mm
MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard
EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in
FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes
Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes
SI Base UnitsSI Base Units
1 Length
2 Mass (SI standard unit)
3 Time
4 Temperature
5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)
6 Electric current ampere (A)
7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)
meter (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
Kelvin (K)
Metric ConversionMetric Conversion
Derived UnitsDerived Units
Area 2-DArea 2-D
Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash
Density Density
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
Place numbers on the linePlace numbers on the line4x101 1x10-10 1x100 1x102 1x10-1
0
Uncertainty in Uncertainty in Measurement Measurement ndash due to instrument
flaw and estimation Measurements are Measurements are uncertainuncertain
becausebecause Instruments are not free from ERRORInstruments are not free from ERROR Measuring always involves some Measuring always involves some
ESTIMATIONESTIMATION Estimating with a scaleEstimating with a scale
Estimate ONE digit more than the Estimate ONE digit more than the instrument measuresinstrument measures
3 4 5
3 4 5
Length - Length - RulersRulers
3 4 5
How to use a graduated How to use a graduated cylindercylinder
Read the meniscus
How to use a graduated cylinderHow to use a graduated cylinder
Triple Beam BalanceTriple Beam Balance0 100 200
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
How to read a triple beam balanceHow to read a triple beam balance
TemperatureTemperature
UncertaintyUncertainty
AA Precision Precision ndash ndash represents agreement between several measurements of the same quantity
bull Precise data vs Imprecise data
BB Accuracy Accuracy ndash ndash represents agreement between a measurement amp the true value (within the limits of the instrument) enhanced with calibration
bull Accurate data vs Inaccurate data
CC Error Error = =measured value ndashaccepted valuemeasured value ndashaccepted value
accepted valueaccepted valuex 100
Accuracy vs Accuracy vs PrecisionPrecision
DD Exact numbersExact numbers ndash numbers with no uncertainty
EE Significant DigitsSignificant Digits ndash certain digits plus 1 uncertain digit in a measurement indicative of precision
Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is
assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m
Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween
nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m
Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders
00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm
Leading ZerosLeading Zeros
Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant
4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number
300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify
that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Significant DigitsSignificant Digits
Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap
Atlantic
Pacific
decimal
point
decimal
point
1100
1100
11010000 0025
000035000
Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
1000100
CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)
1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =
2) 36g divide 420mL =
Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)
1) 28751g ndash 72g =
2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =
3) 1600m + 150m =
4) 100cm + 382cm =
When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined
There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen
ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure
pressurepressure
140mm
20mm
Gas has no pressure
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also
have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure
Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg
20mm
140 mm
70mm
20mm
MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard
EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in
FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes
Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes
SI Base UnitsSI Base Units
1 Length
2 Mass (SI standard unit)
3 Time
4 Temperature
5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)
6 Electric current ampere (A)
7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)
meter (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
Kelvin (K)
Metric ConversionMetric Conversion
Derived UnitsDerived Units
Area 2-DArea 2-D
Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash
Density Density
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
Uncertainty in Uncertainty in Measurement Measurement ndash due to instrument
flaw and estimation Measurements are Measurements are uncertainuncertain
becausebecause Instruments are not free from ERRORInstruments are not free from ERROR Measuring always involves some Measuring always involves some
ESTIMATIONESTIMATION Estimating with a scaleEstimating with a scale
Estimate ONE digit more than the Estimate ONE digit more than the instrument measuresinstrument measures
3 4 5
3 4 5
Length - Length - RulersRulers
3 4 5
How to use a graduated How to use a graduated cylindercylinder
Read the meniscus
How to use a graduated cylinderHow to use a graduated cylinder
Triple Beam BalanceTriple Beam Balance0 100 200
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
How to read a triple beam balanceHow to read a triple beam balance
TemperatureTemperature
UncertaintyUncertainty
AA Precision Precision ndash ndash represents agreement between several measurements of the same quantity
bull Precise data vs Imprecise data
BB Accuracy Accuracy ndash ndash represents agreement between a measurement amp the true value (within the limits of the instrument) enhanced with calibration
bull Accurate data vs Inaccurate data
CC Error Error = =measured value ndashaccepted valuemeasured value ndashaccepted value
accepted valueaccepted valuex 100
Accuracy vs Accuracy vs PrecisionPrecision
DD Exact numbersExact numbers ndash numbers with no uncertainty
EE Significant DigitsSignificant Digits ndash certain digits plus 1 uncertain digit in a measurement indicative of precision
Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is
assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m
Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween
nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m
Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders
00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm
Leading ZerosLeading Zeros
Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant
4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number
300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify
that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Significant DigitsSignificant Digits
Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap
Atlantic
Pacific
decimal
point
decimal
point
1100
1100
11010000 0025
000035000
Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
1000100
CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)
1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =
2) 36g divide 420mL =
Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)
1) 28751g ndash 72g =
2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =
3) 1600m + 150m =
4) 100cm + 382cm =
When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined
There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen
ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure
pressurepressure
140mm
20mm
Gas has no pressure
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also
have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure
Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg
20mm
140 mm
70mm
20mm
MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard
EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in
FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes
Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes
SI Base UnitsSI Base Units
1 Length
2 Mass (SI standard unit)
3 Time
4 Temperature
5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)
6 Electric current ampere (A)
7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)
meter (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
Kelvin (K)
Metric ConversionMetric Conversion
Derived UnitsDerived Units
Area 2-DArea 2-D
Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash
Density Density
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
3 4 5
3 4 5
Length - Length - RulersRulers
3 4 5
How to use a graduated How to use a graduated cylindercylinder
Read the meniscus
How to use a graduated cylinderHow to use a graduated cylinder
Triple Beam BalanceTriple Beam Balance0 100 200
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
How to read a triple beam balanceHow to read a triple beam balance
TemperatureTemperature
UncertaintyUncertainty
AA Precision Precision ndash ndash represents agreement between several measurements of the same quantity
bull Precise data vs Imprecise data
BB Accuracy Accuracy ndash ndash represents agreement between a measurement amp the true value (within the limits of the instrument) enhanced with calibration
bull Accurate data vs Inaccurate data
CC Error Error = =measured value ndashaccepted valuemeasured value ndashaccepted value
accepted valueaccepted valuex 100
Accuracy vs Accuracy vs PrecisionPrecision
DD Exact numbersExact numbers ndash numbers with no uncertainty
EE Significant DigitsSignificant Digits ndash certain digits plus 1 uncertain digit in a measurement indicative of precision
Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is
assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m
Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween
nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m
Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders
00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm
Leading ZerosLeading Zeros
Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant
4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number
300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify
that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Significant DigitsSignificant Digits
Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap
Atlantic
Pacific
decimal
point
decimal
point
1100
1100
11010000 0025
000035000
Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
1000100
CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)
1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =
2) 36g divide 420mL =
Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)
1) 28751g ndash 72g =
2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =
3) 1600m + 150m =
4) 100cm + 382cm =
When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined
There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen
ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure
pressurepressure
140mm
20mm
Gas has no pressure
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also
have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure
Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg
20mm
140 mm
70mm
20mm
MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard
EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in
FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes
Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes
SI Base UnitsSI Base Units
1 Length
2 Mass (SI standard unit)
3 Time
4 Temperature
5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)
6 Electric current ampere (A)
7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)
meter (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
Kelvin (K)
Metric ConversionMetric Conversion
Derived UnitsDerived Units
Area 2-DArea 2-D
Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash
Density Density
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
How to use a graduated How to use a graduated cylindercylinder
Read the meniscus
How to use a graduated cylinderHow to use a graduated cylinder
Triple Beam BalanceTriple Beam Balance0 100 200
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
How to read a triple beam balanceHow to read a triple beam balance
TemperatureTemperature
UncertaintyUncertainty
AA Precision Precision ndash ndash represents agreement between several measurements of the same quantity
bull Precise data vs Imprecise data
BB Accuracy Accuracy ndash ndash represents agreement between a measurement amp the true value (within the limits of the instrument) enhanced with calibration
bull Accurate data vs Inaccurate data
CC Error Error = =measured value ndashaccepted valuemeasured value ndashaccepted value
accepted valueaccepted valuex 100
Accuracy vs Accuracy vs PrecisionPrecision
DD Exact numbersExact numbers ndash numbers with no uncertainty
EE Significant DigitsSignificant Digits ndash certain digits plus 1 uncertain digit in a measurement indicative of precision
Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is
assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m
Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween
nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m
Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders
00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm
Leading ZerosLeading Zeros
Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant
4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number
300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify
that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Significant DigitsSignificant Digits
Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap
Atlantic
Pacific
decimal
point
decimal
point
1100
1100
11010000 0025
000035000
Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
1000100
CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)
1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =
2) 36g divide 420mL =
Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)
1) 28751g ndash 72g =
2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =
3) 1600m + 150m =
4) 100cm + 382cm =
When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined
There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen
ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure
pressurepressure
140mm
20mm
Gas has no pressure
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also
have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure
Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg
20mm
140 mm
70mm
20mm
MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard
EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in
FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes
Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes
SI Base UnitsSI Base Units
1 Length
2 Mass (SI standard unit)
3 Time
4 Temperature
5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)
6 Electric current ampere (A)
7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)
meter (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
Kelvin (K)
Metric ConversionMetric Conversion
Derived UnitsDerived Units
Area 2-DArea 2-D
Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash
Density Density
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
How to use a graduated cylinderHow to use a graduated cylinder
Triple Beam BalanceTriple Beam Balance0 100 200
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
How to read a triple beam balanceHow to read a triple beam balance
TemperatureTemperature
UncertaintyUncertainty
AA Precision Precision ndash ndash represents agreement between several measurements of the same quantity
bull Precise data vs Imprecise data
BB Accuracy Accuracy ndash ndash represents agreement between a measurement amp the true value (within the limits of the instrument) enhanced with calibration
bull Accurate data vs Inaccurate data
CC Error Error = =measured value ndashaccepted valuemeasured value ndashaccepted value
accepted valueaccepted valuex 100
Accuracy vs Accuracy vs PrecisionPrecision
DD Exact numbersExact numbers ndash numbers with no uncertainty
EE Significant DigitsSignificant Digits ndash certain digits plus 1 uncertain digit in a measurement indicative of precision
Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is
assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m
Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween
nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m
Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders
00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm
Leading ZerosLeading Zeros
Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant
4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number
300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify
that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Significant DigitsSignificant Digits
Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap
Atlantic
Pacific
decimal
point
decimal
point
1100
1100
11010000 0025
000035000
Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
1000100
CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)
1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =
2) 36g divide 420mL =
Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)
1) 28751g ndash 72g =
2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =
3) 1600m + 150m =
4) 100cm + 382cm =
When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined
There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen
ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure
pressurepressure
140mm
20mm
Gas has no pressure
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also
have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure
Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg
20mm
140 mm
70mm
20mm
MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard
EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in
FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes
Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes
SI Base UnitsSI Base Units
1 Length
2 Mass (SI standard unit)
3 Time
4 Temperature
5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)
6 Electric current ampere (A)
7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)
meter (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
Kelvin (K)
Metric ConversionMetric Conversion
Derived UnitsDerived Units
Area 2-DArea 2-D
Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash
Density Density
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
Triple Beam BalanceTriple Beam Balance0 100 200
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
How to read a triple beam balanceHow to read a triple beam balance
TemperatureTemperature
UncertaintyUncertainty
AA Precision Precision ndash ndash represents agreement between several measurements of the same quantity
bull Precise data vs Imprecise data
BB Accuracy Accuracy ndash ndash represents agreement between a measurement amp the true value (within the limits of the instrument) enhanced with calibration
bull Accurate data vs Inaccurate data
CC Error Error = =measured value ndashaccepted valuemeasured value ndashaccepted value
accepted valueaccepted valuex 100
Accuracy vs Accuracy vs PrecisionPrecision
DD Exact numbersExact numbers ndash numbers with no uncertainty
EE Significant DigitsSignificant Digits ndash certain digits plus 1 uncertain digit in a measurement indicative of precision
Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is
assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m
Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween
nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m
Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders
00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm
Leading ZerosLeading Zeros
Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant
4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number
300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify
that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Significant DigitsSignificant Digits
Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap
Atlantic
Pacific
decimal
point
decimal
point
1100
1100
11010000 0025
000035000
Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
1000100
CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)
1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =
2) 36g divide 420mL =
Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)
1) 28751g ndash 72g =
2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =
3) 1600m + 150m =
4) 100cm + 382cm =
When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined
There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen
ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure
pressurepressure
140mm
20mm
Gas has no pressure
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also
have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure
Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg
20mm
140 mm
70mm
20mm
MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard
EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in
FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes
Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes
SI Base UnitsSI Base Units
1 Length
2 Mass (SI standard unit)
3 Time
4 Temperature
5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)
6 Electric current ampere (A)
7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)
meter (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
Kelvin (K)
Metric ConversionMetric Conversion
Derived UnitsDerived Units
Area 2-DArea 2-D
Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash
Density Density
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
How to read a triple beam balanceHow to read a triple beam balance
TemperatureTemperature
UncertaintyUncertainty
AA Precision Precision ndash ndash represents agreement between several measurements of the same quantity
bull Precise data vs Imprecise data
BB Accuracy Accuracy ndash ndash represents agreement between a measurement amp the true value (within the limits of the instrument) enhanced with calibration
bull Accurate data vs Inaccurate data
CC Error Error = =measured value ndashaccepted valuemeasured value ndashaccepted value
accepted valueaccepted valuex 100
Accuracy vs Accuracy vs PrecisionPrecision
DD Exact numbersExact numbers ndash numbers with no uncertainty
EE Significant DigitsSignificant Digits ndash certain digits plus 1 uncertain digit in a measurement indicative of precision
Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is
assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m
Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween
nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m
Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders
00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm
Leading ZerosLeading Zeros
Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant
4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number
300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify
that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Significant DigitsSignificant Digits
Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap
Atlantic
Pacific
decimal
point
decimal
point
1100
1100
11010000 0025
000035000
Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
1000100
CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)
1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =
2) 36g divide 420mL =
Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)
1) 28751g ndash 72g =
2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =
3) 1600m + 150m =
4) 100cm + 382cm =
When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined
There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen
ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure
pressurepressure
140mm
20mm
Gas has no pressure
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also
have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure
Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg
20mm
140 mm
70mm
20mm
MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard
EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in
FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes
Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes
SI Base UnitsSI Base Units
1 Length
2 Mass (SI standard unit)
3 Time
4 Temperature
5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)
6 Electric current ampere (A)
7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)
meter (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
Kelvin (K)
Metric ConversionMetric Conversion
Derived UnitsDerived Units
Area 2-DArea 2-D
Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash
Density Density
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
TemperatureTemperature
UncertaintyUncertainty
AA Precision Precision ndash ndash represents agreement between several measurements of the same quantity
bull Precise data vs Imprecise data
BB Accuracy Accuracy ndash ndash represents agreement between a measurement amp the true value (within the limits of the instrument) enhanced with calibration
bull Accurate data vs Inaccurate data
CC Error Error = =measured value ndashaccepted valuemeasured value ndashaccepted value
accepted valueaccepted valuex 100
Accuracy vs Accuracy vs PrecisionPrecision
DD Exact numbersExact numbers ndash numbers with no uncertainty
EE Significant DigitsSignificant Digits ndash certain digits plus 1 uncertain digit in a measurement indicative of precision
Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is
assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m
Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween
nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m
Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders
00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm
Leading ZerosLeading Zeros
Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant
4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number
300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify
that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Significant DigitsSignificant Digits
Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap
Atlantic
Pacific
decimal
point
decimal
point
1100
1100
11010000 0025
000035000
Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
1000100
CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)
1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =
2) 36g divide 420mL =
Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)
1) 28751g ndash 72g =
2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =
3) 1600m + 150m =
4) 100cm + 382cm =
When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined
There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen
ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure
pressurepressure
140mm
20mm
Gas has no pressure
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also
have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure
Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg
20mm
140 mm
70mm
20mm
MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard
EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in
FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes
Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes
SI Base UnitsSI Base Units
1 Length
2 Mass (SI standard unit)
3 Time
4 Temperature
5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)
6 Electric current ampere (A)
7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)
meter (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
Kelvin (K)
Metric ConversionMetric Conversion
Derived UnitsDerived Units
Area 2-DArea 2-D
Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash
Density Density
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
UncertaintyUncertainty
AA Precision Precision ndash ndash represents agreement between several measurements of the same quantity
bull Precise data vs Imprecise data
BB Accuracy Accuracy ndash ndash represents agreement between a measurement amp the true value (within the limits of the instrument) enhanced with calibration
bull Accurate data vs Inaccurate data
CC Error Error = =measured value ndashaccepted valuemeasured value ndashaccepted value
accepted valueaccepted valuex 100
Accuracy vs Accuracy vs PrecisionPrecision
DD Exact numbersExact numbers ndash numbers with no uncertainty
EE Significant DigitsSignificant Digits ndash certain digits plus 1 uncertain digit in a measurement indicative of precision
Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is
assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m
Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween
nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m
Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders
00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm
Leading ZerosLeading Zeros
Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant
4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number
300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify
that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Significant DigitsSignificant Digits
Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap
Atlantic
Pacific
decimal
point
decimal
point
1100
1100
11010000 0025
000035000
Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
1000100
CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)
1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =
2) 36g divide 420mL =
Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)
1) 28751g ndash 72g =
2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =
3) 1600m + 150m =
4) 100cm + 382cm =
When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined
There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen
ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure
pressurepressure
140mm
20mm
Gas has no pressure
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also
have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure
Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg
20mm
140 mm
70mm
20mm
MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard
EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in
FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes
Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes
SI Base UnitsSI Base Units
1 Length
2 Mass (SI standard unit)
3 Time
4 Temperature
5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)
6 Electric current ampere (A)
7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)
meter (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
Kelvin (K)
Metric ConversionMetric Conversion
Derived UnitsDerived Units
Area 2-DArea 2-D
Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash
Density Density
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
Accuracy vs Accuracy vs PrecisionPrecision
DD Exact numbersExact numbers ndash numbers with no uncertainty
EE Significant DigitsSignificant Digits ndash certain digits plus 1 uncertain digit in a measurement indicative of precision
Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is
assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m
Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween
nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m
Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders
00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm
Leading ZerosLeading Zeros
Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant
4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number
300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify
that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Significant DigitsSignificant Digits
Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap
Atlantic
Pacific
decimal
point
decimal
point
1100
1100
11010000 0025
000035000
Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
1000100
CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)
1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =
2) 36g divide 420mL =
Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)
1) 28751g ndash 72g =
2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =
3) 1600m + 150m =
4) 100cm + 382cm =
When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined
There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen
ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure
pressurepressure
140mm
20mm
Gas has no pressure
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also
have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure
Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg
20mm
140 mm
70mm
20mm
MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard
EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in
FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes
Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes
SI Base UnitsSI Base Units
1 Length
2 Mass (SI standard unit)
3 Time
4 Temperature
5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)
6 Electric current ampere (A)
7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)
meter (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
Kelvin (K)
Metric ConversionMetric Conversion
Derived UnitsDerived Units
Area 2-DArea 2-D
Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash
Density Density
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
DD Exact numbersExact numbers ndash numbers with no uncertainty
EE Significant DigitsSignificant Digits ndash certain digits plus 1 uncertain digit in a measurement indicative of precision
Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is
assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m
Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween
nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m
Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders
00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm
Leading ZerosLeading Zeros
Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant
4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number
300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify
that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Significant DigitsSignificant Digits
Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap
Atlantic
Pacific
decimal
point
decimal
point
1100
1100
11010000 0025
000035000
Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
1000100
CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)
1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =
2) 36g divide 420mL =
Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)
1) 28751g ndash 72g =
2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =
3) 1600m + 150m =
4) 100cm + 382cm =
When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined
There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen
ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure
pressurepressure
140mm
20mm
Gas has no pressure
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also
have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure
Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg
20mm
140 mm
70mm
20mm
MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard
EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in
FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes
Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes
SI Base UnitsSI Base Units
1 Length
2 Mass (SI standard unit)
3 Time
4 Temperature
5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)
6 Electric current ampere (A)
7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)
meter (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
Kelvin (K)
Metric ConversionMetric Conversion
Derived UnitsDerived Units
Area 2-DArea 2-D
Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash
Density Density
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is
assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m
Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween
nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m
Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders
00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm
Leading ZerosLeading Zeros
Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant
4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number
300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify
that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Significant DigitsSignificant Digits
Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap
Atlantic
Pacific
decimal
point
decimal
point
1100
1100
11010000 0025
000035000
Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
1000100
CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)
1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =
2) 36g divide 420mL =
Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)
1) 28751g ndash 72g =
2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =
3) 1600m + 150m =
4) 100cm + 382cm =
When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined
There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen
ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure
pressurepressure
140mm
20mm
Gas has no pressure
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also
have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure
Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg
20mm
140 mm
70mm
20mm
MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard
EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in
FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes
Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes
SI Base UnitsSI Base Units
1 Length
2 Mass (SI standard unit)
3 Time
4 Temperature
5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)
6 Electric current ampere (A)
7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)
meter (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
Kelvin (K)
Metric ConversionMetric Conversion
Derived UnitsDerived Units
Area 2-DArea 2-D
Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash
Density Density
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween
nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m
Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders
00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm
Leading ZerosLeading Zeros
Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant
4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number
300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify
that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Significant DigitsSignificant Digits
Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap
Atlantic
Pacific
decimal
point
decimal
point
1100
1100
11010000 0025
000035000
Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
1000100
CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)
1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =
2) 36g divide 420mL =
Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)
1) 28751g ndash 72g =
2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =
3) 1600m + 150m =
4) 100cm + 382cm =
When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined
There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen
ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure
pressurepressure
140mm
20mm
Gas has no pressure
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also
have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure
Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg
20mm
140 mm
70mm
20mm
MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard
EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in
FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes
Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes
SI Base UnitsSI Base Units
1 Length
2 Mass (SI standard unit)
3 Time
4 Temperature
5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)
6 Electric current ampere (A)
7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)
meter (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
Kelvin (K)
Metric ConversionMetric Conversion
Derived UnitsDerived Units
Area 2-DArea 2-D
Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash
Density Density
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders
00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm
Leading ZerosLeading Zeros
Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant
4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number
300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify
that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Significant DigitsSignificant Digits
Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap
Atlantic
Pacific
decimal
point
decimal
point
1100
1100
11010000 0025
000035000
Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
1000100
CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)
1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =
2) 36g divide 420mL =
Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)
1) 28751g ndash 72g =
2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =
3) 1600m + 150m =
4) 100cm + 382cm =
When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined
There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen
ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure
pressurepressure
140mm
20mm
Gas has no pressure
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also
have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure
Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg
20mm
140 mm
70mm
20mm
MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard
EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in
FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes
Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes
SI Base UnitsSI Base Units
1 Length
2 Mass (SI standard unit)
3 Time
4 Temperature
5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)
6 Electric current ampere (A)
7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)
meter (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
Kelvin (K)
Metric ConversionMetric Conversion
Derived UnitsDerived Units
Area 2-DArea 2-D
Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash
Density Density
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant
4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number
300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify
that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Significant DigitsSignificant Digits
Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap
Atlantic
Pacific
decimal
point
decimal
point
1100
1100
11010000 0025
000035000
Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
1000100
CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)
1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =
2) 36g divide 420mL =
Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)
1) 28751g ndash 72g =
2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =
3) 1600m + 150m =
4) 100cm + 382cm =
When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined
There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen
ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure
pressurepressure
140mm
20mm
Gas has no pressure
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also
have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure
Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg
20mm
140 mm
70mm
20mm
MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard
EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in
FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes
Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes
SI Base UnitsSI Base Units
1 Length
2 Mass (SI standard unit)
3 Time
4 Temperature
5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)
6 Electric current ampere (A)
7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)
meter (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
Kelvin (K)
Metric ConversionMetric Conversion
Derived UnitsDerived Units
Area 2-DArea 2-D
Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash
Density Density
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number
300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify
that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m
Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros
Significant DigitsSignificant Digits
Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap
Atlantic
Pacific
decimal
point
decimal
point
1100
1100
11010000 0025
000035000
Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
1000100
CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)
1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =
2) 36g divide 420mL =
Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)
1) 28751g ndash 72g =
2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =
3) 1600m + 150m =
4) 100cm + 382cm =
When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined
There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen
ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure
pressurepressure
140mm
20mm
Gas has no pressure
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also
have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure
Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg
20mm
140 mm
70mm
20mm
MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard
EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in
FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes
Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes
SI Base UnitsSI Base Units
1 Length
2 Mass (SI standard unit)
3 Time
4 Temperature
5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)
6 Electric current ampere (A)
7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)
meter (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
Kelvin (K)
Metric ConversionMetric Conversion
Derived UnitsDerived Units
Area 2-DArea 2-D
Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash
Density Density
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
Significant DigitsSignificant Digits
Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap
Atlantic
Pacific
decimal
point
decimal
point
1100
1100
11010000 0025
000035000
Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
1000100
CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)
1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =
2) 36g divide 420mL =
Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)
1) 28751g ndash 72g =
2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =
3) 1600m + 150m =
4) 100cm + 382cm =
When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined
There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen
ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure
pressurepressure
140mm
20mm
Gas has no pressure
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also
have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure
Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg
20mm
140 mm
70mm
20mm
MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard
EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in
FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes
Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes
SI Base UnitsSI Base Units
1 Length
2 Mass (SI standard unit)
3 Time
4 Temperature
5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)
6 Electric current ampere (A)
7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)
meter (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
Kelvin (K)
Metric ConversionMetric Conversion
Derived UnitsDerived Units
Area 2-DArea 2-D
Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash
Density Density
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
1100
1100
11010000 0025
000035000
Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest
1000100
CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)
1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =
2) 36g divide 420mL =
Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)
1) 28751g ndash 72g =
2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =
3) 1600m + 150m =
4) 100cm + 382cm =
When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined
There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen
ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure
pressurepressure
140mm
20mm
Gas has no pressure
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also
have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure
Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg
20mm
140 mm
70mm
20mm
MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard
EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in
FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes
Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes
SI Base UnitsSI Base Units
1 Length
2 Mass (SI standard unit)
3 Time
4 Temperature
5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)
6 Electric current ampere (A)
7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)
meter (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
Kelvin (K)
Metric ConversionMetric Conversion
Derived UnitsDerived Units
Area 2-DArea 2-D
Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash
Density Density
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)
1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =
2) 36g divide 420mL =
Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)
1) 28751g ndash 72g =
2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =
3) 1600m + 150m =
4) 100cm + 382cm =
When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined
There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen
ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure
pressurepressure
140mm
20mm
Gas has no pressure
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also
have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure
Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg
20mm
140 mm
70mm
20mm
MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard
EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in
FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes
Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes
SI Base UnitsSI Base Units
1 Length
2 Mass (SI standard unit)
3 Time
4 Temperature
5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)
6 Electric current ampere (A)
7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)
meter (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
Kelvin (K)
Metric ConversionMetric Conversion
Derived UnitsDerived Units
Area 2-DArea 2-D
Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash
Density Density
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined
There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen
ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure
pressurepressure
140mm
20mm
Gas has no pressure
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also
have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure
Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg
20mm
140 mm
70mm
20mm
MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard
EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in
FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes
Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes
SI Base UnitsSI Base Units
1 Length
2 Mass (SI standard unit)
3 Time
4 Temperature
5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)
6 Electric current ampere (A)
7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)
meter (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
Kelvin (K)
Metric ConversionMetric Conversion
Derived UnitsDerived Units
Area 2-DArea 2-D
Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash
Density Density
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also
have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure
Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg
20mm
140 mm
70mm
20mm
MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard
EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in
FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes
Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes
SI Base UnitsSI Base Units
1 Length
2 Mass (SI standard unit)
3 Time
4 Temperature
5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)
6 Electric current ampere (A)
7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)
meter (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
Kelvin (K)
Metric ConversionMetric Conversion
Derived UnitsDerived Units
Area 2-DArea 2-D
Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash
Density Density
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard
EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in
FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes
Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes
SI Base UnitsSI Base Units
1 Length
2 Mass (SI standard unit)
3 Time
4 Temperature
5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)
6 Electric current ampere (A)
7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)
meter (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
Kelvin (K)
Metric ConversionMetric Conversion
Derived UnitsDerived Units
Area 2-DArea 2-D
Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash
Density Density
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
SI Base UnitsSI Base Units
1 Length
2 Mass (SI standard unit)
3 Time
4 Temperature
5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)
6 Electric current ampere (A)
7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)
meter (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
Kelvin (K)
Metric ConversionMetric Conversion
Derived UnitsDerived Units
Area 2-DArea 2-D
Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash
Density Density
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
Metric ConversionMetric Conversion
Derived UnitsDerived Units
Area 2-DArea 2-D
Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash
Density Density
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
Derived UnitsDerived Units
Area 2-DArea 2-D
Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash
Density Density
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
The The LiterLiter
The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33
1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops
=
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
Prefix Abbreviation Meaning
Scientific Notation
mega- 1000000 1 x 106
kilo- 1000 1 x 103
hecto- 100 1 x 102
deka- 10 1 x 101
BASE UNIT(g m L)
-------------- 1 100
deci- 01 1 x 10-1
centi- 001 1 x 10-2
milli- 0001 1 x 10-3
micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6
nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9
pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
Length RelationshipsLength Relationships
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional
analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m
1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km
60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s
11 10010000
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables
Ascending values for independent variable
B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve
Used to see a relationship
C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph
Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an
Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data
from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL
HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line
B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3
C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum
y = 27134x
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20
Volume (mL)
Mas
s (g)
BACK
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet
Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K
q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)
m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)
C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)
- different for every substance- different for every substance
T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)
Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances
in reference packetin reference packet