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MGT 656 - · PDF fileTransformational Leadership and Charisma House (1976) published a theory...

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  • MGT 656 Leadership Theory and Practice


  • Transformational Leadership

    It belongs to a new paradigm in leadership research which focuses more on affective and charismatic aspects

    Leadership is conceptualized as a process that changes and transforms people

    It involves an exceptional form of leadership that often moves followers to accomplish more than what is expected of them.

  • Emergence of Transformational

    Leadership Concept Emergence begun with the classic work

    by James McGregor Burns titled


    Burns distinguished between two types of


    Transactional and Transformational

  • Transactional leadership

    The basic idea of transactional leadership focus on the exchanges that occur between leaders and their followers

    Managers rewarding employees for completing a project

    The exchange dimension of transactional leadership is very common and is observable throughout the organization

  • Transformational Leadership

    Transformational leadership is a process where a person engages with others and creates a connection that raises the level of motivation and morality in both the leader and follower

    Mahatma Gandhi

    Nelson Mandela

    Sheikh Mujibur Rahman

    Barack Obama

  • Pseudotransformational Leadership

    (Bass, 1998) Why do we not consider Hitler, Saddam as

    transformational leaders?

    They were surely transforming but in a negative way. The point at issue is raising the level of morality

    Pseudotransformational leadership refers to leaders who are self-consumed, exploitative, power-oriented, with warped moral values

  • Pseudotransformational Leadership

    (Bass, 1998) Pseudotransformational leadership is a

    personalized leadership

    It focuses on leaders own interests rather

    than on the interests of the others

  • Authentic Transformational

    Leadership Authentic transformational leadership is

    socialized leadership

    It is concerned with the collective good

    Socialized transformational leaders

    transcend their own interests for the sake

    of others

  • Transformational Leadership and

    Charisma House (1976) published a theory of

    charismatic leadership at about the same

    time Burnss book was published

    Charisma means a special gift that certain

    individuals possess

    Weber (1947) provided the most well

    known definition of charisma

  • Transformational Leadership and

    Charisma According to Weber, charisma is a personality

    characteristic that gives a person superhuman or exceptional powers and is reserved for a few, is of divine origin, and results in the person being treated as a leader.

    Even though Weber defines charisma as a personality characteristic, he also recognized the important role played by the followers to validate the charisma in these leaders

    For House (1976), the personality characteristics of a charismatic leader include being dominant, having a strong desire to influence others, being self-confident and having a strong sense of ones own moral values

  • Charismatic Leadership: Personality characteristics,

    Behaviors, & Effects on followers

  • Charismatic Leadership and

    Behaviors Set strong role models: Gandhi

    Shows Competence: Barack Obama

    Articulate Goals: Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Martin Luther King

    Communicates high expectations and raises self efficacy: Mashrafi Bin Mortaza

    Arouses task related motives: John. F. Kennedy Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country

  • New research on charismatic

    leadership Shamir, House & Arthur (1993) postulated

    that charismatic leadership transforms

    followers self concepts and tries to link

    the identity of the followers to the

    collective identity of the organization.

    Charismatic leaders forge this link by

    emphasizing the intrinsic rewards and

    deemphasizing the extrinsic rewards

  • Transformational Leadership Model

    (Bass, 1985) Bass provided an expanded version of

    transformational leadership which is based on the works of Burns (1978) and House (1976)

    Bass conceptualized transformational and transactional leadership in a single continuum rather than a mutually independent continua.

    Basss work gives more importance to followers and situations

  • Transformational Leadership Model

    (Bass, 1985)

    Leadership Continuum

  • Leadership Factors

  • Transformational Leadership Factors

    Idealized Influence: Emotional component of leadership; high morals, ethical conduct, strong role models Nelson Mandela

    Idealized influence is measured by two components

    Attributional component attributions of leaders made by followers based on the perceptions they have of their leaders

    Behavioral Component Followers observations of leader behavior

  • Transformational Leadership Factors

    Inspirational Motivation: descriptive of leaders who communicates high expectations to followers, inspiring them through motivation to become committed to the organizational shared visions

    A manager using encouraging words and pep talks to motivate sales persons to achieve their target

  • Transformational Leadership Factors

    Intellectual Stimulation: Stimulate followers to be creative and innovative and challenge their own beliefs

    A manager who promotes employees who provide new idea for solving a problem

    Individualized Consideration: Supportive culture where the leader listen to the individual needs of the followers

    A perceptive leader who matches jobs with personalities conventional: structured job, openness: unstructured job

  • Transformational Leadership vs.

    Transactional Leadership Transformational leadership produces greater effects

    Transactional leadership results in expected outcomes, transformational leadership results in performance that goes well beyond what is expected

    Transformational leadership moves followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the group or organization

    Transactional leadership does not individualize the needs of the followers

  • The Additive Effect of

    Transformational Leadership

  • Transactional Leadership Factors

    Contingent Reward: It is an exchange

    process between the leader and the

    follower. The efforts of the followers are

    exchanged for specific rewards

    The dean negotiating the number of

    publication required for a promotion of a

    faculty member

  • Transactional Leadership Factors

    Management-by-Exception: It is leadership that involves corrective criticism, negative feedback, and negative reinforcement

    It has two forms

    Active Looks closely for mistakes and rule violations and then take corrective actions

    Passive intervenes only after standards have not been met or problems have arisen

  • Nonleadership Factors

    Laissez-Faire: It represents the absence

    of leadership

    A manager who calls no meetings, has no

    long term plans and makes little contact

    with the employees

  • Other Transformational

    Perspectives (Bennis & Nanus, 1985) Bennis & Nanus (1985) identified four common

    strategies used by leaders in transforming organizations - Have a clear vision of the future state of the


    Be a social architect for their organization create a shape or form for the shared meanings people maintained within their organizations

    Create trust in the organizations by making their own positions clearly known

    Use creative deployment of self through positive self-regard leaders play on their strengths rather than focusing on the weaknesses

  • Other Transformational Perspectives

    (Kouzes & Posner, 1987, 2002) Kouzes & Posner (1987, 2002) propose a model

    consisting five fundamental practices that enable leaders to get extraordinary things accomplished

    Model the way

    Inspire a shared vision

    Challenge the process

    Enable other to act

    Encourage the heart

    This model has a prescriptive quality; lets people know what they have to do to become effective leaders

  • Strengths

    Widely researched

    Intuitively appealing

    It treats leadership as a process that occurs between followers and leaders; not sole emphasis or burden of success on the leader

    Includes not only exchange of rewards but also leaders attention to the need of the followers

    Substantial research on validating the claim that it is an effective form of leadership by relating it with the outcomes satisfaction, performance etc.

  • Criticisms

    Lacks conceptual clarity since it involves a wide range of activities and characteristics

    The validity of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) which is generally used for measuring transformational leadership has been questioned

    Treats leadership as personality characteristics rather than as behaviors which people can learn

    Research have not yet established a causal link between transformational leaders and change in the followers and / or organizations

    It has the potential to be abused history is abound with

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