Home >Documents >Midterm Continuation

Midterm Continuation

Date post:09-Apr-2018
Category:
View:220 times
Download:0 times
Share this document with a friend
Transcript:
  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    1/75

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    2/75

    A.DEMOCRATIC AND

    REPUBLICAN STATE

    Republic of the Philippines- a constitutional democracy

    - also an indirect orrepresentative democracy

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    3/75

    Indirect Democracy

    - the sovereign people elect theirgovernment officials to represent andserve them.

    - the lower classes are always

    represented by upper class leaders whoare more inclined to work for theirinterests.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    4/75

    The ideal objective of politics and governance is theattainment of a STRONG STATE.

    STRONG STATE

    - kind of a republic when it has achieved

    political will in safeguarding its independence inforeign policy, in maintaining peace and order, inattaining equal protection of the laws for itscitizens, and providing the best standards ofliving for majority of the people.

    Nobody is above the law- the constant credo in a strongstate.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    5/75

    STRONG STATE

    - should not be equated with a totalitarian,

    dictatorial or authoritarian government.

    A strongman or dictator should not beequated to an effective leader of a strong stateneither could the latter be equated to thegeneralissimo or supreme leader of a policestate. The fundamental freedoms guaranteed bythe Bill of Rights are still enforced andrespected in strong states.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    6/75

    SOFT STATE

    - opposite of strong state.

    - political and social instability and economic crisisare common problems of governance.

    - also called banana republics due to their

    vulnerability to external and internal threats,

    which often were constantly the causes of their

    overthrow and replacement by a new one.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    7/75

    Manifestation of Republicanism

    and Democracy in the 1987 Constitution

    1. The principle that our government is government of laws and not

    not of men.2. The observance of the rule of the majority.

    3. The existence of the Bill of Rights.

    4. The right of suffrage.

    5. Observance of the principle of separation of powers and themechanism of checks and balances among the branches ofgovernment.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    8/75

    6. The accountability of public officers.

    7. The separation of Church and State.

    8. Respect for human rights, social justice and humandignity.

    9. Civilian authority is supreme over military at all times.10. Full disclosure by the state of all its transactionsinvolving public

    interests.

    11. Right of the people to revolt against an unjustgovernment.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    9/75

    B. PRESIDENTIALAND CENTRALIZED SYSTEM

    Like the United States government, the Philippine government is

    also a presidential system since 1946. There is now a long-standingdebate among members of Congress on the pros and cons of thepresidential system.

    However, there was a change to presidential-parliamentary systemduring Martial law administration of President Marcos.

    a.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    10/75

    Presidential Systemy The principle of the separation of powers among the

    executive, legislative, and the judicial branches is practiced.y System of check and balance

    - also observed by the three departments of government.Each branch is given by the Constitution specific powers withwhich to check the others.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    11/75

    Philippines- opted for a unitary or centralized system of

    government by tradition and practice.

    Centralized or Unitary system- all powers of government are reserved to the

    central government but may be delegated to the localgovernments.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    12/75

    Advantages of a centralized

    government the provision of uniform laws and policies.

    equal representation and allocation of

    government funds. clearer lines of authority

    prevents the development of independent

    centers ofpower.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    13/75

    Federal system

    -can free the national government todeal effectively and exclusively with moreimportant national issues and concerns.

    Federalism- could also accommodate cultural

    diversity, often ethnic and religious in nature,

    within of a single political system.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    14/75

    PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    JoseLeveriza(1990)

    - defines Public Administration as a productivepartner of politics in bringing the affairs of government

    to

    the

    peo

    ple

    . Itis a

    lso a

    ni

    ns

    tr

    ume

    nto

    f gover

    nme

    nti

    nserving the citizens as well as a ve hicle for spurringtheir participation in the administration of government.

    Social scientists

    - defines thisasa government in action.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    15/75

    Max Weber

    - believed that the rules of bureaucraticbehavior should be clearly set, should be impersonal (applied to all without favoritism), should be based onwritten documents and should apply only at work.

    - also according to him, in an ideal bureaucracyall tasks would be assigned carefully on the basis ofspecialization and hierarchy.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    16/75

    Bureaucracyy administrative system:

    y an administrative system, especially in a government,

    that divides work into specific categories carried out byspecial departments of nonelected officials

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    17/75

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    18/75

    Public Administration- subfield of political science which is concerned with the

    study of the bureaucratic process and government institutionsand includes institutional framework of government, its socialmilieu, and the behavior of the individuals running thebureaucracy.

    - covers all three branches of government the executive,legislative, and judicial their interdependence andinterrelationships.

    - it also plays an important function in the formulation of

    government policy as part of the political process.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    19/75

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    20/75

    Government- embraces all institutions through which the will of the

    state is carried out.

    Administration- refers to the aggregate of those individuals in whose

    responsibility the reins of the government are placed for the

    time being.

    Administrative services

    - refer to the aggregate of public administrativeagencies which perform the ordinary, scientific, and technical

    aspects of the machinery of government which are necessary tocarry on its regular functions.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    21/75

    PHILIPPINE BUREAUCRACY

    - Philippine government is a bureaucracy.

    Government Bureaucracy compose of:

    public organizations the quasi-government bodies

    instrumentalities

    subdivisions and agencies of the three branches of government

    the constitutional commissions.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    22/75

    Note:To ensure smooth and effective public administration, thegovernment bureaucracy must produce organizational results

    with the highest degree of efficiency.

    But to achieve this, the people are expected to supply the resourcesfor support of bureaucratic undertakings.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    23/75

    Note:y In the Philippines, the word bureaucracy had the negative

    meaning of inefficiencyand red tapein public service; whichshould not be case.

    y This was due to the seeming resistance of bureaucrats to change.They prefer the easy path of routine and the preservation of thestatus quo.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    24/75

    Characteristics of the Philippine Bureaucracy

    according to Dr. Onofre D. Corpuz (1957)

    o Vulnerability to nepotism

    o Perpetuation of the spoils systemso Apathetic public reaction to bureaucratic misconduct

    o Availability of external peaceful means of correcting

    bureaucratic weaknesseso Lack of independence from politics

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    25/75

    Note:Part of politics and governance is to reform the bureaucracy.The preference of Filipino bureaucrats for routine and continuity

    closes the door for innovations or new ideas that would have

    encouraged fresh initiatives to emerge in their workplaces.The Philippine bureaucracy should be nonpartisan.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    26/75

    Public Service

    - covers every branch, territorialand political subdivisions,

    instrumentalities and agencies of the

    government, including government owned or controlled corporations with

    original charter.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    27/75

    Section I, Article XI of the 1987

    Constitution states that: Public office is a public trust.

    Public officers and employees must at

    all times must be accountable to thepeople, serve them with utmostresponsibility, integrity and loyalty, and

    efficiency, act with patriotism andjustice, and lead modest lives.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    28/75

    Public Office- the right, authority, and duty created and

    conferred by law, which, for a given period of time(either fixed by law or at the pleasure of the appointingpower such as the tenure of cabinet secretaries) a personis invested with specified functions of government to beexercised by him for the benefit of the people.

    Public officer- the person conferred.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    29/75

    Public office is a public trust

    - means that any government office is

    a trust for the sole objective of effectingthe common good and not for profit, honor,or private interest of one man, family, orclass of men.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    30/75

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    31/75

    Scope and Composition of the Civil

    Service CommissionIt covers every branch, subdivisions,

    instrumentalities and agencies of thegovernment, including government-owned orcontrolled corporations with original charter.

    Composition

    Chairman two (2) Commissioners

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    32/75

    IMPEACHMENT

    - an extra-judicial process

    of removing from office forbetrayal of public trust

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    33/75

    SECTION 2, ARTICLE 11 of the

    Constitution- states that the President, Vice-President,

    members of the Supreme Court, Members of theConstitutional Commissions and the Ombudsman

    may be removed from office on impeachmentfor, and conviction of, culpable violation of the

    constitution, treason, bribery, graft andcorruption, other high crimes, or betrayal of

    public trusts.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    34/75

    PD No. 1606

    - through this the Justices of the Sandiganbayanmay also be removed from office through impeachment.

    House of Representatives

    - shall have the exclusive power to initiate allcases of impeachment.

    Philippine Senate

    - shall have the sole power to try and decide all

    cases of impeachment.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    35/75

    SECTION 27, ARTICLE 11 ON HONESTY AND

    INTEGRITY, GRAFT AND CORRUPTION

    The state shall maintain honesty

    and integrity in the public serviceand take positive measures againstgraft and corruption.

    An indispensable part of governance is PUBLICSERVICE.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    36/75

    Graft and C

    orrupti

    on

    Anathema to good governance.

    The twin evils of graft and corruptionand abuse of power often plague thePhilippine bureaucracy.

    Corruption in the government drainsmillions of pesos from the publiccoffers.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    37/75

    Grafty Acquisition of money, position, etc

    by dishonest or questionable means,by taking advantage of public officerto obtain fees, perquisites, profits on

    contracts or legislation, or pay forwork not done, or service notperformed.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    38/75

    CorruptionyAn improper consideration to

    commit a violation of duty,impairment of integrity, virtue or

    moral principle. It is done in

    collusion with others.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    39/75

    OMBUDSMANOMBUDSMANyAs protectors of the people shall act

    promptly on compliance filed in any form ormanner against public officials or employeesof the government, or any subdivisionagency or instrumentality, thereof,including government owned or controlled

    corporations (Section 12. Art 11).

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    40/75

    TANODBAYANTANODBAYANyTransformed as the office of Special

    Prosecutor, which continues to

    function and exercise its powers asprovided by law, except those conferredon the Office of the Ombudsman

    created under the Constitution.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    41/75

    SANDIGANBAYANSANDIGANBAYANyThe Anti graft Court known as

    Sandiganbayan was retained in the 1987Constitution and continues to function andexercise its jurisdiction over civil andcriminal cases involving graft and corruptpractices committed by public officers and

    employees including those in governmentowned and in controlled corporations inrelation to their office as may be provided bylaw.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    42/75

    CODE OF ETHICS FOR PUBLIC SERVICECODE OF ETHICS FOR PUBLIC SERVICE

    Executive Order No. 217 issued by the PresidentManuel L. Quezon on August 1939 provides:

    yHave faith in Divine Providence that guidesthe destinies of men and nations.yLove your country for it is the home of your

    people, the seat of your affections, and the

    source of your happiness and well being.yRespect the constitution, which is the

    expression of your sovereign will. Thegovernment is your government.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    43/75

    CODE OF ETHICS FOR PUBLIC SERVICECODE OF ETHICS FOR PUBLIC SERVICE

    ySafeguard the purity of suffrage andabide by the decisions of the majority.

    y

    Value your honor as you value your life.yLead a clean and frugal life.yLive up to the noble traditions of our

    people.yContribute to the welfare of your

    community and promote social justice.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    44/75

    NATURE OF PUBLIC OPINIONNATURE OF PUBLIC OPINION

    y Ademocratic and republican polity is basically agovernment by public opinion; after all, publicinterests are the paramount ends of state.

    yOne of the most powerful forces at work in anysociety.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    45/75

    NATURE OF PUBLIC OPINIONNATURE OF PUBLIC OPINION

    y Lawson states that, public opinion can onlybe the sum of private opinions, and further,that in any polity, on any issue, private

    opinions will surely be found, onexamination, to be varied and conflicting,held with different degrees of intensity bypersons with very different degrees of access

    to the political decision making processes.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    46/75

    PUBLICPUBLIC

    yThe modern public as Kierkegaard hadnoted is not a real community made up ofreal persons.

    yShould refer to those citizens who reallytake active interest in politics and whotake steps to make that interest known

    and felt.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    47/75

    PUBLICPUBLIC

    y In public opinion polls, public means arepresentative sample of the entirepopulation, including those who have no

    opinion.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    48/75

    OPINIONOPINIONyConviction that a certain thing is

    probably true often combined with an

    evaluation.yPublic opinion as the collective nature

    of a body of individual opinions

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    49/75

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    50/75

    WHO SHAPE PUBLIC OPINION?WHO SHAPE PUBLIC OPINION?

    yMedia it includes not only press, radio andtelevision, but also the telephone, mobilephones, the Internet and

    telecommunication satellite broadcasts(CNN, BBC, etc.)

    yGovernment also through the use andcontrol of government media, government

    administration could popularize itsstandpoint on certain issues concerningpublic interests.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    51/75

    WHO SHAPE PUBLIC OPINION?WHO SHAPE PUBLIC OPINION?

    yAcademe School administrators, teachers,students and employees can help in shaping thequality of public opinion or perceptions of publicissues and concerns.

    y

    Church and other religious institutions In thePhilippines, the doctrine of the separation of

    Church and State did not hinder the Church andother religious groups from their involvement inpublic concerns.

    y Others the family, the work place, andassociational groups influence on the individualsopinion can also initially contribute to the shapingof public opinion

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    52/75

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    53/75

    CITIZENS PARTICIPATION IN POLITICS:CITIZENS PARTICIPATION IN POLITICS:

    BEHAVIORBEHAVIORy Besides responding to questions asked by opinion pollsters,

    media reporters and or in some special cases, to talk showhosts, citizens engage in politics when they campaign

    political candidates, cast their votes, write letters to theeditor on current public issues and concerns, donate fundsto groups working for causes or doing relief andrehabilitation projects, demonstrate, or simply join massmovement.

    y Milbrath and Goel classify seven modes of individualpolitical participation: Apathetic Inactives; PassiveSupporters; Contact Specialists; Communicators; Party andCampaign Workers; CommunityActivists; and Protesers

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    54/75

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    55/75

    Quiz # 2 - Midterm12/11/2009

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    56/75

    1yThe Anti graft Court that was

    retained in the 1987 Constitution and

    continues to function and exercise itsjurisdiction over civil and criminal

    cases involving graft and corrupt

    practices committed by public officersand employees

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    57/75

    2yAct as the protector of the

    people who shall act promptlyon compliance filed in any formor manner against public

    officials or employees of thegovernment

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    58/75

    3The central personnel agency of

    the government.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    59/75

    4It includes not only press, radio and

    television, but also the telephone,mobile phones, the Internet and

    telecommunication satellite

    broadcasts

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    60/75

    5yThe collective nature of a

    body of individual opinions

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    61/75

    6yIn the Philippines, the word

    bureaucracy had the negativemeaning of__________and________in public service.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    62/75

    7Anathema to good

    governance.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    63/75

    8yThere is a separation of powers

    among the executive,legislative, and the judicialbranches in this type of

    government system.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    64/75

    9yThe right, authority, and duty

    created and conferred by law,which, for a given period oftime

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    65/75

    10yTransformed as the office of Special

    Prosecutor, which continues to

    function and exercise its powers asprovided by law, except those conferred

    on the Office of the Ombudsman

    created under the Constitution.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    66/75

    11yAproductive partner of

    politics in bringing theaffairs of government to the

    people.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    67/75

    12What Presidential Decree that the

    Justices of the Sandiganbayanmay also be removed from officethrough impeachment?

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    68/75

    13States that the President, Vice-President,

    members of the Supreme Court,

    Members of the ConstitutionalCommissions and the Ombudsman maybe removed from office on impeachment

    for, and conviction of, culpable violationof the constitution, treason, bribery, graft

    and corruption, other high crimes, or

    betrayal of public trusts.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    69/75

    14Favoritism shown by somebody

    in power to relatives andfriends, especially inappointing them to good

    positions

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    70/75

    15Kind of a republic when it has achieved

    political will in safeguarding its

    independence in foreign policy, inmaintaining peace and order, in attaining

    equal protection of the laws for its

    citizens, and providing the best standardsof living for majority of the people.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    71/75

    16Another term for soft

    state

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    72/75

    17yAcquisition of money, position, etc

    by dishonest or questionable means,by taking advantage of public officerto obtain fees, perquisites, profits oncontracts or legislation, or pay for

    work not done, or service notperformed.

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    73/75

    18yA political practice in which a

    winning political party givesgovernment jobs and publicappointments to its supporters

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    74/75

    19yNo participatory activity,

    not even voting

  • 8/8/2019 Midterm Continuation

    75/75

    20yJoin in public street

    demonstrations, riot ifnecessary, protest vigorously ifgovernment does something

    morally wrong

of 75

Embed Size (px)
Recommended