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Mineral Makro - FBS.ppt

Date post:25-Oct-2015
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  • M I N E R A L SSubstances that occur naturally in nonliving things such as rocks and metal ores

    Have names reflecting the place where theyre found or characteristics such as their color

    ELEMENTS, substances composed of only one kind of atom

    INORGANICS, do not contain the C, H and O atoms

    By the end of the 19th century, scientists knew the names and chemical properties of 82 elements Today, 109 elements have been identified.

    16 MINERALS are ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS for human beings

  • Major Minerals: 100 mg/hrTrace Elements: < 100 mg/hr

    How much human have in their bodyHow much human need to take in to maintain a steady supply

  • : Calcium : Phosphorus : Other Major Minerals : Magnesium, Sulfur, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride Trace Element : Iron, Zinc, Iodide, Selenium, Copper, Manganese, Fluoride, Chromium, Molybdenum, Cobalt, Tin, Nickel , Vanadium and Silicon


  • An alkaline earth metal with valence 2 Packed into BONES AND TEETH Present in EXTRACELLULAR FLUID (the liquid around body cells) and WITHIN THE CELLS OF SOFT TISSUES

  • Regulating fluid balance by controlling the flow of water in and out of cells Making it possible for cells to send massages back and forth from one to another Keeping muscles moving smoothly and preventing cramping

  • Ca is needed for :Intracellular and hormone-like signalingNeurotransmitterMuscle contractionFor the regulation of cell growth and differentiationBlood clotting

  • Absorption depend on :Vitamin D statusPhosphateSodiumAnimal protein intakeVitamin C

  • Slows bone growth and mineralization in childhood and adolescenceBone mineral loss in adults increases the risk of fracturesElevated blood pressure

  • Essential for strong bones and teeth

    Need PHOSPHORUS to transmit the genetic code (genes and chromosomes that carry information about human characteristic) from one cell to another when cells divide and reproduce

  • In addition :Helps maintain the pH balance

    Vital for metabolizing carbohydrates, synthesizing proteins, and carrying fats and fatty acids among tissue and organs

    Part of myelin, the fatty sheath that surrounds and protects each nerve cell

  • Participates in energy metabolism and storage (as ATP, GTP, creatine phosphate, arginine phosphate, etc)

  • D e f i c i e n c yPhosphate inadequacy ~ low food consumption or starvation OLD PEOPLE

    Accelerated bone mineral loss osteoporosis and increase fracture risk

  • Excessive IntakePhosphate intake ~ exceed Ca intake induce :parathyroid gland hyperplasia and parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion,impair vitamin D activation,accelerate bone mineral loss and fracture risk

    Extremely high intake calcification of extraosseous (non-bone) tissues, including arteries, kidneys, muscles and tendons

  • An alkaline earth metal with valence 2 An essential cofactor for a large number reactions ~ ATP, GTP Part of > 300 different enzyme that trigger chemichal reactions throughout human body Participates in muscle and nerve depolarization Stabilizes DNA and RNA A component of the mineral in bone

  • ADEQUATE SUPPLY HEART HEALTHY, because enables to convert food to energy using less oxygen

  • DEFICIENCYSIGNConfusion, disorientation, personality changes, loss of appetite, depression, muscle contractions and cramps, tingling, numbness, hypertension, abnormal heart rhythms, coronary spasm and seizure

    Induced by :diarrhea, malabsorption, vomiting, overuse of laxative or diuretics medications, alcohol abuse, diabetes or hyperparathyroidism

  • Excessive Intake> 350 mg from supplements and other nonfood sources diarrhea, nausea, appetite loss, muscle weakness, mental impairment, difficulty breathing, extremely low blood pressure and irregular heartbeat

    Risk of toxicity is greater with impaired kidney function

  • F U N C T I O NThe main cationic osmolyte in blood and extracellular fluid

    Mediates active transport of numerous nutrients and metabolites in intestines, kidney and many other tissues

    Enzyme cofactor



  • DeficiencyIntakes have to macth sodium losses sweating and diuresis >>> sodium needs

    Low intake dizziness and weakness due to hypotension

  • Excessive intake :Increase blood pressure, especially in genetically susceptible individuals and when other hypertensive factors (obesity) are present

  • FUNCTION : Electrolyte balance Transport Acid productionhydrochloric acid in stomach contributes to protein digestion and inactivation of ingested microorganism Enzyme activation Immune defenseImmune cells use directed release hypochlorous acid to combat pathogens in blood and tissues

  • DeficiencyIntakes have to macth sodium losses sweating and diuresis >>> sodium needs

    Low intake dizziness and weakness due to hypotension

  • Excessive intake :Increase blood pressure, especially in genetically susceptible individuals and when other hypertensive factors (obesity) are present

  • A constituents of 3 amino acids : CYSTINE, CYSTEINE, THIONINEMost prevalent in insulin and in the keratin of skin, hair and nailsThe tertiary structure of proteins is due in part to covalent bonding between cysteine residues where the SH groups are oxidized to form disulfide bridges important in the activity of some enzyme

  • Occurs in carbohydrate ~ a component of heparin (an anticoagulant found in liver and some other tissues), and of chondroitin sulfate (found in bone and cartilage)

    An essential component of 3 vitamins : thiamin, biotin and pantothenic acid

    Food Sources :meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dried beans, broccoli and cauliflower

  • Kalium, an alkali metal with valence 1 The main cationic osmolyte within cells The element plays a major role in body electricitymaintenance of cellular polarity, neuronal signaling, heart impulse transmission and muscle contraction Nutrient and metabolite transport Enzyme activation

  • R E Q U I R E M E N T :Increased losses often due to use of certain diuretics and laxativesInadequate intake (hypokalemia) increased risk of heart arrhytmia, muscle weakness, paralysis, alkalosis (increased blood pH) and eventually deathHigher than minimal intake lowering the risk of hypertension

  • Excessive IntakeRising plasma concentration (hyperkalemia) muscle weakness, arrhytmia and eventually death due to cardiac arrest

    The risk of hyperkalemia ~ high in patients with renal failure

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