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CONSTRUCTION OF KSCB PROJECT BY MIVAN SHUTTERING 201 1 Chapter 1 Introduction KSCB 1000 houses are a DBT (Design Build and Transfer) of low cost, mass housing project for the urban poor initiated by the government of Karnataka. The project consists of 448 houses to be built across an area of 5acres in sathagally consisting of 14 blocks of 32 G+3 houses and 552 houses to be built across an area of 5.62 acres in Rajivnagar. Consisting of 15 blocks of 32 G+3 houses and 3 Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore. Page 1
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CONSTRUCTION OF KSCB PROJECT BY MIVAN SHUTTERING

201 1Chapter 1

IntroductionKSCB 1000 houses are a DBT (Design Build and Transfer) of low cost, mass housing project for the urban poor initiated by the government of Karnataka. The project consists of 448 houses to be built across an area of 5acres in sathagally consisting of 14 blocks of 32 G+3 houses and 552 houses to be built across an area of 5.62 acres in Rajivnagar.

Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore.

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Consisting of 15 blocks of 32 G+3 houses and 3 blocks 24 of G+3 houses

Houses constructed for slum dwellers in Mysore under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) have perhaps turned into a model for providing housing to the urban poor and bagged national recognition. Karnataka Slum Clearance Board (KSCB), Mysore, has been entrusted with the task of building houses for the economically backward sections, under JNNURM. Each house

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comprises a bedroom, a hall, a kitchen, a bathroom and a toilet with a carpet area of 301 sq. ft. The cost of each house is Rs. 3 lakh, including infrastructure development. As part of the steps taken to make Mysore a slum-free city, multi-storeyed structures are being built for the rehabilitation of slum dwellers, whose contribution is 10 per cent of the expenditure incurred on the construction. To bring in innovative and cost-effective technologies in the construction, the KSCB invited tenders from competent companies capable of implementing cost-effective fasttrack innovative technologies under design, build and transfer (DBT).

1.1 Specialty of the projectIn this project, the concept of monolithic construction technology is adapted. That means the whole structure along with the slab is casted at a single pour [At a time]. In order to construct a monolithic structure obviously we require formwork of greater strength, which means the conventional formwork, is not suitable for the construction. Hence we require an aluminum formwork which is called MIVAN SHUTTERING. The concept of Mivan shuttering in the project has lot of advantages: 1. Requires no cranes or heavy lifting equipment. 2. Pour walls and floor slabs monolithically. 3. Remove floor slab formwork without disturbing shoring. 4. Form stairs in place as part of work cycle. 5. Requires no skilled labor. 6. Suitable for single story and high rise construction. 7. Equipment adapts to different designs. 8. No need for use of timber or plywood.

Chapter 2

Literature surveyDepartment of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore. Page 3

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The traditional mode of construction for individual houses comprising load bearing walls with an appropriate roof above or reinforced concrete (RC) framed structure construction with infill masonry walls would be totally inadequate for mass housing construction industry in view of the rapid rate of construction. Further, such constructions are prone to poor quality control even in case of contractors with substantial resources and experience. For undertaking mass housing works, it is necessary to have innovative technologies which are capable of fast rate construction and are able to deliver good quality and durable structure in cost effective manner. Several systems are adopted at different places in the world; eventually the systems which are reasonably economical and easy for operation with skilled labor are useful in India. Certain systems are in vogue and more and more contractors are trying to bring in new technologies. These are essentially based on the basis of mode of construction, namely, pre-cast construction or in-situ construction.

2.1 Cast-in-Situ ConstructionPre-cast and cast-in-situ are techniques that are used for quick construction. Precast includes the wall-panel units and slab units directly added to building structure. The use of aluminum also evolved as one of the technique for quick construction by use of aluminium and steel (tunnel) formwork. As a matter of fact the cost of the formwork may be up to 25% of cost of the structure in building work, and even higher in bridges, it is thus essential that the forms are properly designed to effect economy without sacrificing strength and efficiency.

2.2 3-S SYSTEM OF PRECAST CONSTRUCTION

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An engineered system of building construction, namely 3-S system was developed by B.G.SHIRKE CONSTRUCTION TECH LTD., for achieving, speed, strength, safety and economy in construction practices. The system involves structural elements such as pre-cast hollow column shells pre-cast concrete beams, light weighed reinforced cellular autoclaved concrete slabs for floor and roofs constituting the basic structural formwork.

2.3 Present Technologies Available in INDIASome of the advanced technologies of formwork catering to the speed of construction are given below: To name a few:1)

The Prefabrication Technology: - The Pre-cast concrete elements in roofs,floors and in walls have become more common as these eliminate shuttering; centering & plastering labor and saves material cost.

Fig 1.1: - Prefabricated Technology (Raymond, 2001)

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2)

Tunnel Formwork Technology: - It is a technology constructing large no ofhousing within short time using steel forms to construct walls & slabs in one continuous pour.

Fig 1.2:- Tunnel formwork (Raymond, 2001)3)

Outinard Technology :- Outinards superior engineering, the use of highquality steel and High Performance quality control result in a vastly superior Wall Form system.

Fig 1.3: -Outinard Technology (Raymond, 2001)

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4) Mascon Technology:The Mascon Construction System is a system for forming the cast in-place

concrete structure of a building. It is also a system for scheduling and controlling the work of other construction trades such as; steel reinforcement, concrete placement, and mechanical and electrical trades.

Fig 1.4: - Mascon Technology. (Raymond, 2001)

Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore.

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201 1Chapter 3

ABOUT MIVAN SHUTTERING3.1 Definition of formworkForms or moulds or shutters are the receptacles in which concrete is placed, so that it will have desired shape or outline when hardened. Once concrete develops the adequate strength to support its own weight they can be taken out. Formwork is the term given to either temporary or permanent moulds into which concrete or similar materials are poured.

3.2 Requirements of a good formworkThe essential requirements of formwork or shuttering are: a) It should be strong enough to take the dead and live loads during construction. b) The joints in the formwork should be rigid so that the bulging, twisting, or sagging due to dead and live load is as small as possible. Excessive deformation may disfigure the surface of concrete. c) The construction lines in the formwork should be true and the surface plane so that the cost finishing the surface of concrete on removing the shuttering is the least. d) The formwork should be easily removable without damage to itself so that it could be used repeatedly.

3.3 MIVAN: - A Versatile FormworkThe system of aluminum forms (MIVAN) has been used widely in the construction of residential units and mass housing projects. It is fast, simple, adaptable and cost effective. It produces total quality work which requires minimum maintenance and when durability is the prime consideration. This system is most suitable for Indian condition as a tailormade aluminum formwork for castinsitu fully concrete structure.Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore. Page 8

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3.4 BackgroundMivan is basically an aluminium formwork system developed by one of the construction company from Europe. In 1990, the Mivan Company Ltd from Malaysia started the manufacturing of such formwork systems. Now a days more than 30,000 sq m of formwork used in the world are under their operation. In Mumbai, India there are number of buildings constructed with the help of the above system which has been proved to be very economical and satisfactory for Indian Construction Environment. The technology has been used extensively in other countries such as Europe, Gulf Countries, Asia and all other parts of the world. MIVAN technology is suitable for constructing large number of houses within short time using room size forms to construct walls and slabs in one continuous pour on concrete. Early removal of forms can be achieved by hot air curing / curing compounds. This facilitates fast construction, say two flats per day. All the activities are planned in assembly line manner and hence result into more accurate, well controlled and high quality production at optimum cost and in shortest possible time. In this system of formwork construction, cast in situ concrete wall and floor slabs cast monolithic provides the structural system in one continuous pour. Large room sized forms for walls and floors slabs are erected at site. These forms are made strong and sturdy, fabricated with accuracy and easy to handle. They afford large number of repetitions (around 250). The concrete is produced in RMC batching plants under strict quality control and convey it to site with transit mixers. The frames for windows and door as well as ducts for services are placed in the form before concreting. Staircase flights, faade panels, chajjas and jails etc. and other prefabricated items are also integrated into the structure. This proves to be a major advantage as compared to other modern construction techniques.

Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore.

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The method of construction adopted is no difference except for that the sub structure is constructed using conventional techniques. The superstructure is constructed using MIVAN techniques. The integrated use the technology results in a durable structure.

3.5 Modular FormworkThe formwork system is precisely-engineered system fabricated in aluminum. Using this system, all the elements of a building namely, load bearing walls, columns, beams, floor slabs, stairs, balconies etc can be constructed with cast in place concrete. The resulting structure has a good quality surface finish and accurate dimensional tolerances. Further, the construction speed is high and the work can be done in a cost effective manner. The modular nature of the formwork system allows easy fixing and removal of formwork and the construction can proceed speedily with very little deviation in dimensional tolerances. Further, the system is quite flexible and can be easily adapted for any variations in the layout. The availability of concrete from ready mix concrete facility has augured well for the use of this work system. However, the proliferation of RMC facilities in the cities in India and the willingness to use mechanized means of transport and placing of concrete, the use of aluminum formwork system has received a boost. The quality of the resulting concrete is found to be superior. Structurally speaking, the adoption of the closed box system using monolithic concrete construction has been found to be the most efficient alternatives. The stresses in both the concrete and steel are observed to be much lower even when horizontal forces due to wind or earthquake are taken into consideration. The formwork system can be used for construction for all types of concrete systems, that is, for a framed structure involving column beam slab elements or for boxtype structure involving slab-walls combination.

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3.6 SITE MANAGEMENTThe essence of the system is that it provides a production line approach in the construction industry. The laborers are grouped together to form small teams to carry out various tasks within a certain time frame such as, reinforcement, fabrication and erection, formwork erection, concreting etc. Scheduling involves the design and development of the work cycle required to maximize efficiency in the field. The establishment of a daily cycle of work, which when fully coordinated with different trades such as reinforcement fixing, mechanical services installation, and the placing of concrete, includes a highly efficient working schedule in the system, not just for formwork but for all parallel trades as well. Optimum use of the labour force is made by ensuring that each trade has sufficient work on each working day. Experienced site supervisors are sent to site to train supervisory staff and labour for proper handling of the equipment and to assist in establishing the desired work cycle. The disciplined and efficient handling of work ensures that all other trades follow in a united and predetermined manner. The improved coordination and construction management enables the equipment to be used at optimum speed and efficiency and speed of the output are outstanding. Thus a disciplined and systemized approach to construction is achieved.

3.7 SPEED OF CONSTRUCTION 3.7.1 Work cycle

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MIVAN is a system for scheduling & controlling the work of other connected construction trades such as steel reinforcement, concrete placements & electrical inserts. The work at site hence follows a particular sequence. The work cycle begins with the deshuttering of the panels. It takes about 12-15hrs. It is followed by positioning of the brackets & platforms on the level. It takes about 10-15hrs simultaneously. The deshuttered panels are lifted & fixed on the floor .The activity requires 7-10 hrs.Kicker & External shutters are fixed in 7 hrs. The wall shutters are erected in 6-8 hrs One of the major activity reinforcement requires 10-12 hrs. The fixing of the electrical conduits takes about 10 hrs and finally pouring of concrete takes place in these. This is a well synchronized work cycle for a period of 7 days. A period of 10-12 hrs is left after concreting for the concrete to gain strength before the beginning of the next cycle. This work schedule has been planned for 1010-1080 sq m of formwork with 72-25cu m of concreting & approximate reinforcement. The formwork assembling at the site is a quick & easy process. On leaving the MIVAN factory all panels are clearly labeled to ensure that they are easily identifiable on site and can be smoothly fitted together using formwork modulation drawings. All formwork begins from corners and proceeds from there. The system usually follows a four day cycle: Day 1: -The first activity consists of erection of vertical reinforcement bars and one side of the vertical formwork for the entire floor or a part of one floor. Day 2: -The second activity involves erection of the second side of the vertical formwork and formwork for the floor Day 3: - Fixing reinforcement bars for floor slabs and casting of walls and slabs. Day 4: -Removal of vertical form work panels after 24hours, leaving the props in place for 7 days and floor slab formwork in place for 2.5 days.Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore. Page 12

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3.7.2 Design Aspects The comparison is done between buildings constructed by: i) Conventional RC columns, beams, and slab construction (RC moment resisting frame d structure) OR ii) RC load-bearing walls and slabs.

In the case of RC moment-resisting framed structures, the horizontal forces due to wind or earthquake are resisted by the frames resulting in the bending moments in columns to resist bending moment and vertical loads would be more than that required to resist vertical loads without bending moment. Similarly, additional reinforcement will be required in beams at supports. In the case of RC load-bearing walls, monolithic casting of slab along with RC walls results in a box type structure, which is very strong in resisting horizontal forces due to wind or earthquake. In view of large depth of shear walls, the resulting stresses due to bending moment and vertical loads are smaller and in many cases, concrete alone is capable of resisting these forces On evaluating these alternatives, it is seen that the beam column frame system in i) Performs poorly against earthquake forces compared to RCC wall and slab construction. Recent changes in the IS Codes, as well as recommended good practice demand provision of additional reinforcement comply with ductility requirements. ii) The sizing and detailing of columns needed to be that they are 20% stronger than beams they support. 3.7.3 Economics

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The cost per flat (or per m built up area) using MIVAN shuttering system depends upon the number of repetition and period of completion of the project. As the formwork can be reused over 250 times, the initial cost per unit of forming area is less when compared to traditional methods. The reduction of cost is also due to the elimination of brickwork and plaster and also due to reduction in time. The cost of the project gets substantially reduced due to shear wall construction. These are due to the reduced consumption of steel, masonry, and plaster even though the use of concrete decreases. For the same number of repetition, the cost will be less if the period of completion is longer. This is because for a shorter completion period, the area of formwork is more than required for longer completion period. The aluminum formwork provides an integrated scaffolding system which reduces the cost of scaffolding requirements. The mechanical and electrical installation is simplified as conduits are embedded in the structure by precise engineering of outlets and service ducts.Thus, we can conclude that the overall cost of the project is lesser when compared to project using traditional methods of formwork. 3.7.4 QUALITY: High quality Formwork panels ensure consistency of dimensions. On the removal of the formwork mould a high quality concrete finish is produced to accurate tolerances and verticality. The high tolerance of the finish means that no further plastering is required. Typically a 3mm to 4mm skin coat is applied internally prior to finishing and a 6mm build up coat prior to laying tiles. Care must be taken so that the concert and in particular the enforcement does not become contaminated due to excessive or negligent application of the releasing agent. 3.8 The Advantages of this system are:The MIVAN formwork is specifically designed to allow rapid construction of all types of architectural layouts.Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore. Page 14

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1) Total system forms the complete concrete structure. 2) Custom designed to suit project requirements. 3) Unsurpassed construction speed. 4) High quality finish. 5) Cost effective. 6) Panels can be reused up to 250 times. 7) Erected using unskilled labor. Quality and speed must be given due consideration along with economy. Good quality construction will never deter to projects speed nor should it be uneconomical. In fact, time consuming repairs and modifications due to poor quality work generally delay the job and cause additional financial impact on the project. Some experts feel that housing alternatives with low maintenance requirements may be preferred even if the initial cost is high.

3.9 LIMITATION OF MIVAN FORMWORK: Even though there are so many advantages of MIVAN formwork the limitations cannot be ignored. However the limitations do not pose any serious problems. They are as follows: 1) Because of small sizes finishing lines are seen on the concrete surfaces.

Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore.

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2) Concealed services become difficult due to small thickness of components. 3) It requires uniform planning as well as uniform elevations to be cost effective. 4) Modifications are not possible as all members are caste in RCC. 5) Large volume of work is necessary to be cost effective i.e. at least 200 repetitions of the forms should be possible at work. 6) The formwork requires number of spacer, wall ties etc. which are placed @ 2 feet c/c; these create problems such as seepage, leakages during monsoon. 7) Due to box-type construction shrinkage cracks are likely to appear. 8) Heat of Hydration is high due to shear walls

Chapter 4 DETAILS ABOUT PROJECT Details of KSCB project: Detailed topographical survey was conducted for each of these sites and the contour maps are attached at the ends of these report.Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore. Page 16

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Recconnoitary survey was done to get some idea of surroundings, public infrastructure including storm and sewer lines, any land reclamation task needed etc. The site in sathagalli do not need any land reclamation work except for some contour management leveling earthwork. Based on the availability of the land area each site, town planning norms and NBC Housing blocks of four floors (G+3) with eight houses in each floor (32 houses per block with carpet area of 28.145sq. per house) have been architecturally designed as detailed in the drawing. The major advantage of the technology proposed is that more than 90% of the work is completed by only three critical items of work. They are Concrete, Formwork and Reinforcing steel. Hence, Quality Control and time management will be very efficient. Following specifications are considered for Flooring, External, Internal Finishes and Opening. i) Flooring is Granolithic flooring with red oxide finish. ii) External painting is oil bound distemper. iii) Door frames are RCC with CRP structures (12mm thick). iv) Windows and ventilator frames and shutters using Mild Steel Z section and pin head glass. Following are the basic minimum infrastructure is designed and considered for estimation. i) Roads and road site drainage in each layout. ii) Water supply. iii) Under ground drainage system.

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iv) Electricity and street lights. v) Ground water recharges system as a component of Rain Water Harvesting. vi) All the site requires new network of storm water, drain.

Chapter 5GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF THE PROJECT Sanitation: Adequate toilet facilities shall be provided for the workmen within easy access of their place of work. The total number to be provided shall be not less than one per 30 employees in any one site. Toilet facilities shall be provided from the start of building operations, and connection to a sewer shall be made as soon as practicable. Every toilet shall be so constructed that the occupant is sheltered from view and protected from the weather and falling objects.Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore. Page 18

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Toilet facilities shall be maintained in a sanitary condition and sufficient quantity of disinfectant shall be provided. Drinking Water & Washing Facility: An adequate supply of drinking water shall be provided, and unless connected to a municipal water supply, samples of the water shall be tested at frequent intervals by the authority. Washing facilities shall be installed, and when practicable shall be connected to municipal water supply and shall discharge to a sewer. Fire Protection: In addition to the provision of fire extinguishers, as specified in this part of the manual, other fire extinguishing equipment shall also be provided and conveniently located within the building under construction or on the building site, as required by the Authority. All fire extinguishers shall be maintained in a serviceable condition at all times in accordance with good practice. It shall be ensured that all workmen and supervisory staff are fully conversant with the correct operation and use of fire extinguishers provided at the construction site. Access shall be provided and maintained at all times to all fire fighting equipment, including fire hose, extinguishers, sprinkler valves and hydrants. All work waste, such as scrap timber, wood shavings, sawdust, paper, packing materials and oily waste shall be collected and disposed of safely at the end of each days work. Particular care shall be taken to remove all waste accumulation in or near vertical shaft openings like stairways, lift-shaft, etc. An independent water storage facility shall be provided before the commencement of construction operations for fire-fighting purposes. It shall be maintained and be available for use at all times. Clothing:

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It shall be ensured that the clothes worn by the workmen be not of such nature as to increase the chances of their getting involved in accident to themselves or to others. As a rule workmen wearing loose garments shall be prohibited from the worksite. Workmen engaged in processes which splash liquid or other materials which will injure the skin shall have enough protective clothing to cover the body. Individuals engaged in work involving use of naked flames (such as welding) shall not wear synthetic fibre or similar clothing which increases the risk of fire hazards. Workmen shall use safety helmets, hand gloves, safety shoes & safety belts as the case may be for prevention of injury. All necessary safety appliances shall be issued to the workers prior to starting of work. FIRST-AID: A copy of all pertinent regulations and notices concerning accidents, injury and first aid shall be prominently exhibited at the work site. Enough first-aid kit shall be provided at site. A telephone may be provided and telephone numbers of the hospitals shall be prominently displayed. Complete reports of all accidents and action taken thereon shall be forwarded to the competent authorities.Geo technical investigation for the proposed Construction of 448 houses K.S.C.B HOUSES At Sathagahalli, Mysore

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this investigation is, 1. To establish the type of subsoil and depth of Ground water 2. To assess the allowable bearing pressure at different depths based on field and laboratory resting and hence to recommend on the depth and type foundation

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3. To recommend on the ground improvement method, if required, based on the ground condition SCOPE OF THE WORK: The scope of the work includes, 1. Drilling the bore holes at the specified location using Hand auger up to the refusal strata or to a maximum of 6.0m, whichever occurs earlier. 2. Conducting Standard Penetration test at every 1.5m depth or where ever strata changes, in each of the boreholes. 3. Collecting undisturbed and Representative samples in each of the strata for the laboratory tests. 4. Conducting suitable laboratory tests on Soil samples for different Index and Engineering properties. This report consists of the details about the various laboratory tests and field tests performed and the recommendations made based on the results of the tests.

STANDARD PENETRATION TEST: Standard Penetration tests (SPT) were conducted at different depths in all the bore holes as the bore hole was advanced down and the N values were recorded. The SPT was carried out according to IS: 2131-1981 SPT (Standard Penetration Test, Re affirmed in 1992). The number of blows required to drive a 50mm diameter split spoon sampler for a depth of 30cm using a 65kg hammer is recorded as N value. The results of all theDepartment of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore. Page 21

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penetration tests performed in each of the bore holes are shown in their respective Bore logs. The test is halted if, i) 50 blows are required for any 150mm penetration. ii) 100 blows are required for 30cm penetration. iii) 10 successive blows produce no advance. and correspondingly the N value is recorded as REFUSAL. Laboratory tests: The following laboratory tests were carried our as per the Indian Standards IS-2720. a) In situ density and water content b) Grain size analysis c) Atterberg limits d) Shear tests Test results: SOIL PROPERTIES AT SATHAGALLI SITE Bore hole # Depth mt Liquid Plastic Silt clay sand Gravel Field density g/cc Cohesion Kg/cm2 Angle of internal friction in degreesDepartment of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore. Page 22

limit% limit%

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201 10.021 0.030 0.022 0.020 0.020 0.022 0.021 0.030 0.026 27 32 28 29 30 29 32 31 32

1

1.5 1.8

23 21 24 22 21 22 23 21 21

18 NP 18 NP NP NP NP NP NP

33 25 31 23 24 21 22 23 24

60 65 62 66 65 70 60 65 60

7 10 7 11 11 9 18 12 16

1.89 1.92 1.90 1.93 1,93 1.95 1.91 1.92 1.93

2

1.5 2.0

3 4 5 6 7

1.5 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.0

SOIL PROPERTIES AT RAJIV GANDHI NAGARA SITE SOIL PROPERTIES AT SATHAGALLI SITE Bore hole # Depth mt Liquid Plastic Silt clay sand Gravel Field density g/cc Cohesion Kg/cm2 Angle of internal friction in limit% limit%

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1

1.0 2.0

31 29 32 24 26 23 28 22 22 31 23

20 19 21 NP 19 NP 20 NP NP 21 NP

32 28 30 26 30 27 32 -

68 65 65 70 62 65 60 -

0 7 5 4 8 8 8 -

1.89 1.92 1.88 1.92 1.91 1.90 1.89 1.92 1.86 1.89 1.91

0.023 0.035 0.021 0.019 0.023 0.029 0.022 0.031 0.030 0.025 0.019

27 28 26 31 26 28 27 28 28 27 31

2

1.5 3.0

3 4 5

1.5 1.0 1.0 2.0

6 7

1.0 1.0 1.5

Recommendations: Based on the extensive field investigation and laboratory testing, the following conclusions and recommendation are drawnDepartment of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore. Page 24

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Allowable bearing pressure Both shear failure and settlement criteria are considered while arriving at the final value of Allowable Bearing pressure. The values of allowable bearing pressure are calculated at different depth (for a footing width of 1m). This helps the structural designer to select the allowable bearing pressure, which gives a factor of safety of 3.0 against shear failure and for an allowable settlement of 25mm is recommended. Location: Proposed Building at Sathagalli Depth below ground level, m Allowable Bearing Pressure, T/m2 1.5m 25 Minimum Depth: The minimum depth of foundation should be at least 1.5m below the natural ground level. Any compressible, loose, filled up top soil should be avoided as the foundation base. For the present structure the minimum depth of foundation is 1.5m below the natural ground level.

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Type of foundation The type of foundation at a given Allowable bearing pressure is controlled by the magnitude and type of loading. Individual footing may be designed with the above recommended Allowable Bearing pressures and all the column footing should be proportional for equal settlement. The area of coverage of the footings should not be more than half of the total construction area. Other Precautions (i) Any accumulation of water in the foundation trench should be avoided before Concreting for the foundation. (ii) The bottom of the foundation trench should be well compacted before Concreting.

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201 1Chapter 6

COST COMPARISION BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL METHOD AND MIVAN TECHNOLOGY For all engineering works it is required to know beforehand and probable cost of construction known as estimated cost.in preparing all estimate,the quantities of different items of work are calculated by simple mensuration method and from these quantities cost is calculated. Since mivan Technology is adopted in this project the number of construction activities has been reduced, which inturn increases the quantities in some activity. For Example, The number of activities such as Blockwork,Plastering and painting is reduced. Whereas the quantities of steel and concrete increases. Before advent of mivan Technology,the conventional method (i,e Framed structures with load bearing wall) is adapted for high rise building for KSCB Projects.Some of the slum clearance project in mysore which is located in the area Gokulam,B.M Shree Nagar and Yadavagiri. These projects are constructed by conventional method Eventhough it is a modular structures. Hence inorder to know the cost difference as well as feasibility of the project we are carring out estimation for conventional method and it is compared with the cost and quantities while using mivan technology. In conventional method we have considered same carpet area but instead of concrete wall,we have taken Non-load bearing wall with framed structure. The analysis of the structure is carried out by using STAAD PRO software,by taking dimension of the column as 200X450 and the beam size of 200X375.a .Quantity Estimation for Different Items with Mivan Technology Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore. Page 27

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Estimation Work For "F" BlockCONSTRUCTION OF KSCB PROJECT BY MIVAN SHUTTERINGDescription Sathgalli Site "F"Block Sl No. Unit Item Earthwork Earthwork Earthwork Earthwork Concrete Concrete Concrete Concrete Concrete Concrete Concrete Concrete Formwork Formwork Formwork Formwork Formwork Formwork SteelSteel

Sathgalli Site "F"BlockRemarks

Category Mass excavation Excavation- Ordinary soil Excavation-Hard rock Back filling PCC below Foundation PCC below Below flooring Footing Plinth wall Super structure- walls Super structure- Slab Staircase Plinth Protection PCC Footing Foundation wall Super structure- Wall Super structure-Slab Staircase Rebar Railing- Corridor Below plinth beam n Entrance steps CU M CU M CU M CU M CU M CU M CU M CU M CU M CU M CU M CU M SQ M SQ M SQ M SQ M SQ M SQ M Tons M/T

Qty with 5% wastage Per Per house block 13.13 15.34 1.97 16.72 0.79 0.82 1.64 2.43 10.57 4.27 0.15 0.00 1.25 3.75 25.69 182.36 36.99 2.37 0.79 0.03 420.00 490.85 63.00 534.93 25.20 26.25 52.50 77.70 338.10 136.50 4.90 0.00 39.90 120.00 822.15 5835.5 2 1183.5 6 75.92 25.20 0.84

Actual BOQ Qty 400.00 467.48 60.00 509.46 24.00 25.00 50.00 74.00 322.00 130.00 4.67 0.00 38.00 114.29 783.00 5557.6 4 1127.2 0 72.30 24.00 0.80

Operatin g rate**

201 1 Amount

Per house 87.89 93.00 641.00 75.48 3019.28 3122.68 3629.34 3639.68 3619.00 3644.85 3650.00 0.00 175.78 175.78 175.78 175.78 175.78 175.78 44255.20 65142.00 2647.00 956.45 1240.80 1551.00 172.68 1153.56 1426.54 1261.97 1261.77 2377.68 2561.57 5954.39 8837.60 38237.00 15547.56 559.31 0.00 219.18 659.20 4516.17 32055.25 6501.44 417.01 34850.97 1709.98 113.78 125.53

Per block 35156.00 43475.64 38460.00 38454.04 72462.72 78067.00 181467.0 0 269336.3 2 1223583. 90 497522.0 3 17897.78 0.00 7013.62 21094.39 144517.5 3 1025768. 06 208046.1 8 13344.34 1115231. 04 54719.28 3640.95 4017.09 2 Hztl, 2 Vtl for 3m" " " " " "

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Includes general area

"

"

21 22 23 24 25

CU 0.04 1.38 1.31 M SQ Plastering Entrance steps 0.13 4.20 4.00 M SQ Joinery Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore. 221.76 Doors 7.28 232.85 M Windows and SQ Joinery 4.56 145.95 139.00 ventilators M SQ 1025.8 Flooring 32.06 977.00 M 5 Masonry

288917.8 Page 29 9028.68 0 226368.4 7074.01 5 177143.7 5535.74 8

CONSTRUCTION OF KSCB PROJECT BY MIVAN SHUTTERING

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b. Estimation for Different Items with conventional method

Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore.

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Estimation Work For "F" BlockDescription Sathgalli Site "F"Block Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore. Sl No. Unit Item Category Qty with 5% wastage Per Per hous block Actual BOQ Qty Operatin g rate** Sathgalli Site Page 31 "F"Block Amount Per house Per blockRemark s

CONSTRUCTION OF KSCB PROJECT BY MIVAN SHUTTERING

201 1

Detailed Estimate for the construction with Conventional method:1. Earth work excavation for footing of building by using excavator = 1.6x1.3x1.7 = 3.53m3/one footing Total Number of footings =54 = 3.53x54x =187.272m3/Block For one house= 187.272 = 5.85m3/house 32 2. Back filling available excavated earth in sides of footings up to plinth = 50% of excavated area = 0.5x187.272 =93.63m3/Block For one house= 93.63 = 2.92m3/house 32 3. P.C.C below foundation of mix 1:4:8 using 40mm down size = 1.5x1.2x0.1=0.18 m3 x54 No of footing = 9.72 m3/block For one house = 9.72 = 0.303m3/house 32 4. Footing concrete of mix 1:2:4 using 20mm down size = 1.2x1.5x1.5=2.7 m3 x54 No of footing = 145.8 m3/block For one house = 145.8 = 4.55m3/house 32 5. Concrete for plinth beam

Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore.

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CONSTRUCTION OF KSCB PROJECT BY MIVAN SHUTTERING

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Total running length of plinth= 272.90m Required volume of concrete=272.9x0.2x0.2 =10.916 m3/block For one house = 10.916 = 0.34m3/house 32 6. Concrete for column Floor to floor height = 3m Dimension of column= 0.2x0.45= 0.09 No.of columns= 54 Total quantity for each floor =3x0.09x54=14.58 m3 No.of floors = 4 =14.58x4 = 58.32m3 7. Concrete for beam Running length of the beam = 272.90m for each floor Dimension of beam =0.375x0.2 =0.075 Total Quantity= 272.90x0.075 =20.46m3 No.of floors = 20.46x4 =81.87 m3 8. Concrete for slabDepartment of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore. Page 33

CONSTRUCTION OF KSCB PROJECT BY MIVAN SHUTTERING

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=1.2x1.5x1.5 =2.7x54 =145.8 m3 No.of floors =4 =145.8=34.125m 4 Areax0.12=34.125 Area= 34.125 =284.375m3 0.12 Peripheral area= Thickness of slab= 0.12 =303.75x0.12=34.125 m3 =34.125x No.of floors =34.125x4= 136.5m 9. Form work for Pcc:=(1.5+1.2)2X0.1 =0.54 mX54 =29.16 m2/block For one house = 29.16 = 0.91m2/house 32 10. Form work for columns PCC=(1.5+1.2)x2=5.4x0.1 =0.54x54Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore. Page 34

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=29.16 m3 11. Columns =(0.45+0.2)x2 x2.625=3.412x54No of footing =737.1 m2/block For one house = 737.1 = 23.03m2/house 32 12. Form work for plinth Running length = 272.9x0.2x2 sides =109.16 m2/block For one house = 109.16 = 3.41m2/house 32 13. Form work for beam Running length=(0.375x2+0.2) x272.90 =259.255 m2 No.of blocks = 4 = 259.255x4=1037.02 m2/block For one house = 1037.02 = 32.4m2/house 32 14. Steel Columns Floor to floor height= 3m Column rods inside footing=1.5+0.3=1.8m Column rods above the terrace = 0.75mDepartment of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore. Page 35

CONSTRUCTION OF KSCB PROJECT BY MIVAN SHUTTERING

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Lap length at each floor = 50D = 50x12=600mm = 0.6m = 0.6xno.of floors = 0.6x4 = 2.4m 12mm diameter of 6 no.of bars provided for each column =50D =50x12=0.6m =0.6x3=1.8 m Additional length of rod = 1.8m =1.8+1.8+0.75+12 =16.35m No.of bars = 6x16.35 =98.1x54 =5296.4m Weight of 12mm bars= D2 162 =122 162 = 0.88 =5296.4x0.88 =4661.7 kg/block For one house = 4661.7 = 145kg/houseDepartment of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore. Page 36

CONSTRUCTION OF KSCB PROJECT BY MIVAN SHUTTERING

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32 =0.145 tons 15. Column stirrups are to be provided with 8mm diameter bars at200mm c/c Length of one stirrup = (0.370+0.12)x2=0.980m No.of stirrups= 13500 =67.5 200 =68 no.of stirrups = 68x0.980 =66.15x54 =3572.1m Weight of 8mm bars= D2 162 =82 162 =1.393 tons For one house = 1.393 = 0.043 tons 32 16. Form work for beams with stirrups Running length of beam=272.90+(0.45x54) =297.2m Details of beam: 6 No of bars of dia 12mm at 175mm c/c =297.2mx6 No.of rodsDepartment of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore. Page 37

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=1783.2m Providing additional 16 No Lap joints at 40D =480=500mm Lap length Total length of Lap joints = 0.5x16x6=48m Total length = 1783.2+48m = 1831.2m No.of floors= 4 No`s =4x1931.2m =7324.8m D2 =6.445 tons 162

Stirrups: Total running length=297.2m 175mm 1699 No`s For each floors (0.325+0.150)x2 1.05mx1699 =1,783.95x0.39 For each floors= 695.7405 KgsDepartment of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore. Page 38

CONSTRUCTION OF KSCB PROJECT BY MIVAN SHUTTERING

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No.of floors= 4x695.7405 Kgs =2.782.96 kgs

Total 6.445+2.782 =9.227 tons 17. Providing 12mm thick cement plaster in single coat with cement mortar 1:3, to ceiling including rounding off corners wherever required smooth rendering, Providing and removing scaffolding, including cost of materials, labour, curing complete as per specifications.(P.No.96, I.No.15.9) For Ceiling Bed room 1 Living 1 Bed room 2 Living 2 Bed room 3 Living 3 Kitchen 1 Kitchen 2 Kitchen 3 WC1 WC2 Corridor 1 Corridor 2 Bath 1 WC1 Passage 1 Bath 2 WC 2 Passage 2 Bath 3 WC 3 Passage 3 Passage 4 Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 2 4 2 1 1 2 2 2 4 4 4 2 2 2 3 3,05 3,05 2,50 8,80 3,05 3,05 2,00 2,75 2,00 1,16 1,10 1,08 9,33 1,00 0,90 0,90 1,90 1,00 0,80 1,00 0,90 0,90 1,05 2,05 3,80 3,05 3,05 2,95 3,80 2,75 2,00 1,70 1,22 1,22 6,75 1,08 0,90 1,00 0,80 1,00 0,90 0,90 1,90 1,00 0,80 1,28 12,51 23,18 30,50 107,36 18,00 23,18 11,00 22,00 6,80 5,66 2,68 7,26 10,03 1,80 1,80 1,44 7,60 3,60 2,88 3,80 1,80 1,44 4,03Page 39

Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore.

CONSTRUCTION OF KSCB PROJECT BY MIVAN SHUTTERING

201 1310,34 124,63

18.Providing 12mm thick cement plaster in single coat with cement mortar 1:6 to brick masonry including rounding off corners wherever required smooth rendering, : Providing and removing scaffolding, including cost of materials, labour, curing complete For inside Bed room 1 Living 1 Bed room 2 Living 2 Bed room 3 Living 3 Kitchen 1 Kitchen 2 Kitchen 3 WC1 WC2 Corridor 1 Corridor 2 Bath 1 WC1 Passage 1 Bath 2 WC 2 Passage 2 Bath 3 WC 3 Passage 3 Passage 4 Deduction MD D D2 KW W W1 W2 V Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 2 4 2 1 1 2 2 2 4 4 4 2 2 2 3 10,20 13,70 11,10 23,70 12,00 13,70 9,50 9,50 7,40 4,76 4,64 15,65 20,81 3,80 3,80 3,40 5,80 3,80 3,40 5,80 3,80 3,40 4,66 3,00 3,00 3,00 3,00 3,00 3,00 3,00 3,00 3,00 3,00 3,00 3,00 3,00 3,00 3,00 3,00 3,00 3,00 3,00 3,00 3,00 3,00 3,00 61,20 82,20 133,20 284,40 72,00 82,20 57,00 114,00 44,40 57,12 27,84 46,95 62,43 22,80 22,80 20,40 69,60 45,60 40,80 34,80 22,80 20,40 41,94 1466,88 15,12 15,12 25,20 9,86 28,77 2,47 1,64 2,43Page 40

Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm

8 8 16 8 14 2 2 12

0,90 0,90 0,75 0,90 1,50 0,90 0,60 0,45

-

2,10 2,10 2,10 1,37 1,37 1,37 1,37 0,45

Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore.

CONSTRUCTION OF KSCB PROJECT BY MIVAN SHUTTERING

201 116,80 12,60 130,01 1336,87 754,17 754,17 15,12 28,77 2,47 1,64 2,43 50,43 703,74 2040,61

OP OP1

Sqm Sqm

8 8

1,00 0,75 Quantity

2,10 2,10

For Outside Sqm Deduction MD W W1 W2 V 1 251,39 3,00

Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm

8 14 2 2 12

0,90 1,50 0,90 0,60 0,45

-

2,10 1,37 1,37 1,37 0,45

Quantity Net Quantity

94,50

19. Providing lime rendering for plastering to wall and ceiling , including cost of materials, labour, curing. For Ceiling For Inside Sqm Sqm 1 1 310,34 1466,88 310,34 1466,88 1777,22

16,02

Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore.

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Chapter 7

CONSTRUCTION PROCESSThe technology is based on adopting an aluminium formwork or mould for construction of the walls and the roof of a house in one pour of concrete to have one house per day on an average, according to the authorities. The supplier of the mould with whom the construction agency has entered into an agreement is Wall Ties and Form Inc., which is based in Kansas, U.S. and high grade aluminum alloy is used as the raw material, the officials said. The mould can be handled manually and gives leak-proof joints when fitted in place. In this technology, the steel bars along with the electrical conduits and water supply pipes are placed inside the mould of walls and slab. The concrete is then poured from the top inside the mould of both the wall and the slab at one time. All walls and roofs with electrical conduit, water supply and sanitary fixtures are available at the same time when the mould is taken out. After this, all doors and windows are fixed in places left in the concrete walls for that purpose. The surface of the concrete walls and slab are smooth and ready to receive paints directly. FOUNDATION:

Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore.

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CONSTRUCTION OF KSCB PROJECT BY MIVAN SHUTTERING

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The excavation for the substructure is done by power shovel and dozers, after that a plain concrete bed is laid before the footing is placed. However for water logged areas raft foundation is laid. The foundation is monolithic with 1200mm in depth below the ground level with footing of 800mm width which includes the pedestal of 600mm above the ground level with a thickness of 150mm and continuous with a wall thickness of 120mm as a main wall and with 100mm thick of partition walls in water closet, bathroom and kitchen. After the foundation is over the filling with earth is done with with the help of compaction then later the surface is leveled by the earth vibrator. After the finishing is done, over the compacted layer plain cement concrete is poured and the level and the accuracy is checked by with the help of ordinary dumpy level.

Reinforcement for superstructure:Before laying of formwork The reinforcement of walls include 8mm and 12mm diameters bars of Fe415 grade. The 12 mm bars is mainly used in opening such as doors and windows to carry the load (since the lintel is not provided) extra reinforcement is done in opening. The cover blocks for the walls are provided to maintain the uniform distance in the reinforcement laid.Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore. Page 43

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The wall ties and forms are basically used to cast the whole structure at a time insitu. The grade of concrete used is M20 with super plasticizer(Kem suplast TB 101 SChembond chemicals) having 70% - 80% of 12mm down size aggregate and remaining with 20mm down size to avoid the bleeding and segregation of concrete since the concrete is poured from a height of 3m. This design is for only to walls where as for slabs the concretes used is 100%screed used with 12mm down size aggregate, flyash and admixture with plastizer(SUPER Plastizer- RHEOBUILD 918 RMBASF). The concrete is vibrated with a wacker vibrator(needle type) With 25mm diameter of the needle(for walls) and 35mm diameter(for slabs). The concrete is compacted in 3 layers and the quality control is checked by a wooden hammer by hammering the form work to find the complete compaction of concrete for ensuring the compactness and to avoid the honey combing.

. Figure showing reinforcement for F Block:

Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore.

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Since the structure consists of 8 houses in a floor only 4 houses are casted at a time therefore for casting another half is carried out after the 7th day of the 4 houses, since the construction joint is common to occur which may lead to cracks and the compactness or unity is not found so to remove that a compound form BASF RHEOMIX141 is used. This compound is applied to the surface of the walls where the continuation of walls or roof takes place there by forming a rigid joint with waterproofing. The electrical conduit ducts are laid during the erection of the fabricated reinforcement there by the drilling of holes on the walls is avoided. However the plumbing and sanitary lines are not concealed inside the walls, but opening is made before the section is casted. TENSILE TEST RESULTS FOR BLOCK F: Sl # 1 2 3 4 5 6 Nominal Dia (mm) 8 8 8 12 12 12 Mass (wt) Kg/mt 0.395 0.408 0.392 0.860 0.857 0.858 UTS (N/mm2) 596.20 654.17 620.79 589.84 599.05 583.72 Elongation % 27.5 25.0 25.0 23.3 23.3 26.7Page 45

Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore.

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RHEOMIX 141 Description RHEOMIX 141 is a (SBR) styrene-butadiene co-polymer latex specifically designed for use with cement compositions. It is used in mortar and concretes as an admixture to increase resistance to water penetration, improve abrasion resistance and durability. It is used with cement as a reliable water-resistant bonding agent.

Primary uses Concrete repair. Floor screeds and toppings. External rendering. Waterproofing and tanking. Fixing slip bricks and tiles. Corrosion protection of steel. Composition RHEOMIX 141 is a milky, white liquid, produced from styrene and butadiene by high pressure emulsion polymerisation. The latex consists of microscopic particles of synthetic rubber dispersed in an aqueous solution. RHEOMIX 141 modified mixes may be slightly darker than corresponding unmodified mixes. Dosage rate For all normal use the standard dose of 5ltr of RHEOMIX 141 per 50kg cement is adequate. For extreme conditions and/or when adhesion, waterproofing, water vapour resistance or chemical resistance are critical, the dosage should be increased to 10ltr of

Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore.

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RHEOMIX 141 per 50kg cement. For this higher dosage, the extra water addition required is low and, therefore, use of wet aggregate may result in excessive workability. Compatibility RHEOMIX 141 is specifically designed for use with Portland cements. It is also compatible with sulphate-resisting cement, Types II and V. Lime (more than 10% cement weight), air entraining agents and masonry cement must not be used in conjunction with RHEOMIX 141.

Casting of slab:The slab is casted along with the walls at a time, but the concrete used is 100% screed which has only 20mm downsize aggregate. The reinforcement is normal with 12mm diameter bar as main reinforcement and 8mm diameter bar as distribution steel. The cover block used is pvc cover block with 25mm thick.

Figure showing concreting for first floor roof slab in Block FDepartment of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore. Page 47

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Curing of concrete: The form work is deshuttered within one day and as soon as the forms are removed the surface of wall will be still in green state so a curing compound called BASF MASTERKURE181 a coloured compound is used for application. This compound is available in both clear and coloured stated, since here the coloured compound is used to ensure the full application of the compound. This compound forms a membrane which avoids the water to evaporate from the surface of the walls there by complete curing is done not by wasting the resource. The ponding method is used for curing of slab. The structure is cured for 3 days as per the schedule but to avoid the shrinkage cracks and other, the curing was extended to 7 days as per the revised schedule.

Curing of internal walls of Block F MASTERKURE 181 : Acrylic based, concrete curing compound DESCRIPTION : MASTERKURE 181 is a ready to use clear membrane curing compound based on selected acrylic resins, which when applied on to freshly placed concrete surfaces provides an efficient curing membrane with excellent non yellowing properties. It can be supplied with a fugitive dye as MASTERKURE 181FD.Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore. Page 48

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The curing membrane also acts as a primer for selected surface coatings thereby avoiding the need to remove it before application of such coatings. MASTERKURE 181 conforms to ASTM C309 : Type 1, Class B.

FIELDS OF APPLICATION MASTERKURE 181 is recommended for curing freshly placed or deshuttered concrete and mortar, both indoors and outdoors, such as; Concrete floors slip formed concrete repaired patches Runways and pavements Bridge abutments exposed architectural concrete TYPICAL PERFORMANCE DATA ASTM C309 specifies the maximum permissible water loss after application of the curing compound as 0.55 kg/m2 in 72 hours. Typical results for MASTERKURE 181 on concrete test Application rate 5 m2/L APPLICATION : Use MASTERKURE 181 as supplied without dilution. It should be applied after the final finishing operation as soon as the concrete or mortar surface has hardened sufficiently to prevent marring. The surface should be damp but with no free water on it. In the case ofDepartment of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore. Page 49

Measured loss of water in 72 hours 0.47 kg/m2

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formed concrete, apply immediately after striking the formwork. Delaying the application until the next day will allow substantial loss of moisture reducing the effectiveness of the curing membrane. For best results, apply an even coat by a low pressure spray equipment (knapsack sprayer) or a wide short nap roller, or brush. With all methods, take adequate care to prevent marring of concrete surface. Apply the curing compound evenly on all exposed concrete surfaces. It is important to avoid leaving patches of untreated areas. Use MASTERKURE 181FD with the fugitive dye to identify areas treated, or ensure that there are no breaks during application till a well marked area is completely treated. PROPERTIES Supply form: liquid Colour : clear / colored Density: 0.79 kg/L Drying time (hr : min) at 20oC (ASTM C 309) : 1.35 (Specified : 4 hrs max)

Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore.

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Mix design report THIS DESIGN IS FOR SLAB WITH 100% SCREED Strength : 20 N/mm2 Aggregate size : 20 mm down size Water cement ratio : 0.43 Slump : 12525 mm Slump with super P : 12525 mm Air % : non air entrained MIX ANALYSIS

Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore.

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Mix design report THIS DESIGN IS FOR SLAB WITH 90% SCREED Strength : 20 N/mm2 Aggregate size : 12 mm down size Water cement ratio : 0.50 Slump : 12525 mm Slump with super P : 12525 mm Air % : non air entrained MIX ANALYSIS

Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore.

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3 Days Compressive strength:Sl no Dimensions (mm) Breaking load (KN) Compressive strength N/mm2 1 2 3 150 X 150 150 X 150 150 X 150 160 150 170 7.11 6.66 7.56 Average Compressive strength N/mm2 7.11

7 Days Compressive strength:Sl no Dimensions (mm) Breaking load (KN) Compressive strength N/mm2 1 150 X 150 307 13.642Page 53

Average Compressive strength N/mm2

Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore.

CONSTRUCTION OF KSCB PROJECT BY MIVAN SHUTTERING

201 114.098

2 3

150 X 150 150 X 150

320 324.5

14.232 14.422

28 Days Compressive strength:Sl no Dimensions (mm) Breaking load (KN) Compressive strength N/mm2 1 2 3 150 X 150 150 X 150 150 X 150 542 563 556 24.088 25.022 24.71 Average Compressive strength N/mm2 24.60

Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore.

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Finishes:Painting The building finishes requires very less maintenance since the formwork used will provide a smooth finish surface since no need to provide an extra coating of plastering with cement mortar. The finished internal surface of the house is coated with one coat of putty and two coats of oil based distemper.

Doors and windows:

Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore.

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The door provided is a composite type which is highly durable and water proof. Since the door frame is casted along with the wall there is no need to fix the frame as done in conventional method. The windows are steel framed with glazed finish. To provide effective ventilation and day lighting. The glass is fixed to the window panel with the help of silicone sealant which has high durability and also has good aesthetic view when compared to conventional lappa.

Person applying silicone sealant SILICONE SEALANT( Anabond AB101): Anabond Room Temperature Vulcanising Silicone Sealants are single component sealants which when cured will provide a permanent elastic joint seal. The cured sealant exhibits the following properties: Retains elastomeric qualities even under severe temperature change i.e. 500C to 2000 C.

Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore.

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Excellent U.V. resistance and Weathering properties. Suitable for both indoor and outdoor applications.

Application: As a Glazing and Caulking Sealant between Glass and Aluminium in constructions. As a Sealant for Bus and Rail Coach building freight. As a joining/ insulating/ sealing material in industry. This sealant is used 3 numbers for a house this is available in 300ml bottle. Plumbing and sanitation: Since the plumbing and sanitary lines are laid outside the building it will be very useful in fast installation and also in repair when ever is needed. All the plumbing fixtures are installed and the sanitation lines are through underground which flow in separate without overlapping of the waterlines and sanitation.

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CONCLUSIONThe task of housing due to the rising population of the country is becoming increasingly monumental. In terms of technical capabilities to face this challenge, the potential is enormous; it only needs to be judiciously exploited. Civil engineers not only build but also enhance the quality of life. Their creativity and technical skill help to plan, design, construct and operate the facilities essential to life. It is important for civil engineers to gain and harness the potent and versatile construction tools. Traditionally, construction firms all over the world have been slow to adopt the innovation and changes. Contractors are a conservative lot. It is the need of time to analyze the depth of the problem and find effective solutions. MIVAN serves as a cost effective and efficient tool to solve the problems of the mega housing project all over the world. MIVAN aims to maximize the use of modern construction techniques and equipments on its entire project. We have tried to cover each and every aspect related to aluminium (MIVAN) form construction. We thus infer that MIVAN form construction is able to provide high quality construction at unbelievable speed and at reasonable cost. This technology has great potential for application in India to provide affordable housing to its rising population. Thus it can be concluded that quality and speed must be given due consideration with regards to economy. Good quality construction will never deter to projects speed nor will it be uneconomical. In fact time consuming repairs and modification due to poorDepartment of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore. Page 58

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quality work generally delay the job and cause additional financial impact on the project. Some experts feel that housing alternatives with low maintenance requirements may be preferred even if at the slightly may preferred even if at the higher initial cost.

RESULT By comparing the cost of the project by both methods, we can conclude that Mivan technology is the economic method for mass housing projects. As from the cost comparison, the Mivan technology reduces the overall cost of the project by% By adopting Mivan technology in the project not only reduces the cost but also increases the speed of construction, since some of the construction activities are completely eliminated and others are reduced to a extent.

Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore.

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Department of Civil Engineering, VVIET, Mysore.

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