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Modular LNG Tanks - Gastech Barcelona Powell_Arup.pdf · •Tank erection is not waiting on...

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Modular LNG Tanks John Powell and Brian Raine Gastech 2017 Tokyo, 4-7 April 2017
  • Modular LNG Tanks

    John Powell and Brian Raine

    Gastech 2017

    Tokyo, 4-7 April 2017

  • 2

    Small to mid-scale LNG 0.5 MMTPA to 2.0 MMTPA

    LNG Marine Fuels

    LNG to Power

    100MW power station needs 800m3 of LNG per day or 24,000m3 per month

    Smaller LNG tanks required

    Volumes between 10,000m3 to 100,000m3 are needed

    These tanks must be delivered at lower cost

    Economies of scale by volume stored is NOT the solution

    Economies of scale by volume of production (number of units produced) IS the solution

    Markets and Opportunities

    (8) Long, B., Bigger and Cheaper LNG Tanks? Overcoming the obstacles confronting freestanding 9% Nickel Steel Tanks up to and beyond 200,000m3, LNG12, 1998, PS5.6

    (9) Veliotis, P.T., Solution to the Series Production of Aluminum LNG Spheres, Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers Transactions, Volume 85, 1977, pp 481-504

    Figure courtesy of Ref (8)

    Figure courtesy of Ref (9)

  • 3

    Objectives for 10,000m3 to 100,000m3 LNG tanks

    - Less than 24 months delivery schedule

    - 20% lower CAPEX cost

    Key drivers

    - Standardize tank design by volume based on site specific seismic isolation

    - Offsite tank pre-fabrication in parallel with foundation construction

    - Dedicated fabrication yard leading to improved productivities and higher quality

    - Offsite pre-commissioning of tank

    - Reduced manhours executed on site


    - Plug and play capability

    The Modular LNG Tank

  • 4

    Papers and Presentations

    - Raine, B. Onshore Mid-Scale LNG Terminal Storage Modularization, Trinidad Oil and Gas Conference, May 2014

    - Raine, B., Powell, J., Onshore Mid-Scale LNG Terminal Storage Modularization, Gastech 2015, Singapore, October 27, 2015


    - In-house development work carried out


    - pre-FEED design, execution planning, scheduling and cost estimating carried out for 40k tanks in US and Caribbean, working with fabricators and transportation contractors


    - Further development focusing on standard design by volume for any location

    Development of Modular Tank Concept

  • 5

    Remark Value

    Number of LNG Storage Tanks 6

    Main tank design standards NFPA59A, API625/620

    LNG storage tank type Single containment

    Foundation type Pile supported, elevated

    Inner Tank

    Material 9Ni ASTM A533 Type1

    Net Capacity 40,000 m3

    Gross Capacity 42,700 m3

    Inner tank diameter (ambient) 37.5 m

    Height (ambient) 39.4 m

    Modular Tank Design Data

    Remark Value

    Outer Tank

    Material Steel A36

    Outer tank diameter 40.0 m

    Min width annular space 1.25 m

    Dome Roof

    Material Steel A36

    Spherical radius 40.0 m

    Insulation material

    Bottom Cellular Glass

    Annular Expanded Perlite

    Suspended deck Glass fiber blanket

  • 6

    Remark Value

    LNG Product

    Temperature -170 oC

    Density (BOG) 440 kg/m3

    Density (Max) 470 kg/m3

    Latent heat of vaporization 511,000 J/gk

    Design Boil off Rate (volume) 0.05 %/day

    Maximum filling rate 850 m3/hr

    Maximum outpumping rate 2,250 m3/hr


    Maximum design pressure 105 mbarg

    Minimum design pressure -5 mbarg

    Modular Tank Design Data

    Remark Value

    Seismic design

    OBE (pga at 5% damping) 0.037 g

    SSE (pga at 5% damping) 0.074 g


    ASCE 7-05 63 m/s


    VGLNG Calcasieu Pass

    FERC RR13

    very soft to firm cohesive 0-10 m

    firm to stiff cohesive 10-30 m

    slightly over consolidated >30 m

  • 7

    Design Modular Tank General Arrangement

    40.0m ID





    Tank Elevation Grillage Plan Foundation Plan(37 Pile caps, 185 piles)(235tons 50ksi steel)

    W30 x 108 (secondary)

    W40 x 215 (primary)

    (590tons 9%Ni steel, ASTM A553 Type 1)

    12 concrete slab(fc=5,000psi)

  • 8

    Design Modular Tank Details

    3/4 (18mm) inner shell

    5/16 (8mm) inner shell

    3/8 (9mm) outer shell

    5/8 (16mm) outer shell

    1/4 (6mm) roof plate

    +0.000 (TOS)


    +2.900 (NMOL)

    +40.280 (U/S)

    +39.902 (DMLL)

    +38.352 (NMLL)

  • 9

    Side Wall Discharge

    (11) Coers, D, (2005) Transshipping LNG Downscaling Field-Erected Storage Tanks for Lower Profile, 2005 (Presentation with photos provided by CB&I)

    (A) Image courtesy of Cheniere

    Image courtesy of Ref (A)Image courtesy of Ref (11)

  • 10

    Side Wall Discharge

    (10) Antalffy, L. P., Aydogean, S., De la Vega, F. F., Malek, D. W., Martin, S., (1998) Technical-economic evaluation of pumping systems for LNG storage tanks with side and

    top entry piping nozzles, LNG12, Perth, 4-7 May, 1998, Poster Session B.8

    Side wall discharge significantly reduces the roof platform weight and cost

    Tanks can be manifolded at ground level, reducing total number of pumps

    Since the tank is elevated the pumps do not need to be recessed in a pit to achieve min NPSH rating

  • 11

    Tank prefabrication Tank Transportation Project Sites

    Fabrication yard enabling works Supply of all heavy lift equipment Enabling works for receiving tank

    Tank foundation line foundation Supply of all marine equipment Construction of tank foundation

    Material procurement Load out at fabrication yard Hydrotesting

    Steel grillage foundation Tow to project site Perlite insulation

    Tank ring prefabrication Offload at project site Tank hook up

    Tank erection Set down at project site on plinths Bund construction

    Tank roof prefabrication Demobilization Final pre-commissioning of tank

    Roof Erection Ready for cooldown


    Preparation for transportation

    Execution Scope of Works

  • 12

    Envisage regional fabrication facilities

    Existing fab yards will reduce start up costs

    Plate delivered to yard, cut, bent and prepped

    Grillage erected in place

    Tanks erected as complete fabricated rings

    Dome roof pre-assembled, no airlift

    No hydrotest at fabrication yard

    Pump platform pre-assembled lifted into place

    Pump columns pre-installed on tank bottom lifted through roof after platform installation

    Lifts made with 600te crawler crane

    Fab yard bulkhead suitable for 5,000te loadout, but temporary ramps can span weak bulkheads

    Execution Tank Fabrication

    Images courtesy of Great Basin Industries and Mammoet

  • 13

    SPMTs used for moving tank

    Extent of seafastenings route dependent

    Sheltered water tows 300x100 barge

    Open water use heavy transportation vessel or larger barge

    Longer tows seek to transport multiple tanks

    Execution Tank transportation

    (B) Smith Group, Australia

    (C) Mammoet

    Image courtesy of Ref (B) Image courtesy of Ref (C)Figures courtesy of Ref (C)

  • 14

    Tank erection is not waiting on construction of the project site tank foundation

    - No onsite construction before permits obtained

    - Many projects require significant onsite enabling works

    Tank fabrication and erection starts when material delivered to the fabrication yard

    - Carbon steel material required first are on short lead times

    - 9% Ni lead times of 12 to 18 months can be offset with material pre-ordering

    - Established fabrication yard allows tank erection to start ahead of a stick built tank

    Labor intensive activities transferred from the project site to a dedicated fabrication yard

    - Project sites often remote from large resource centers

    - Specialist welders 9% Ni tank incurs a further premium for remote sites

    - Established fabrication yard can provide a more reliable resource

    Improved productivities and quality at established fabrication yard

    - Can invest in training and equipment to increase productivities and reduce costs

    - Prefabrication of tank parts can be done in covered areas

    Execution Plan Key Benefits

  • 15

    Project site tank design drivers

    - Soils

    - Seismicity

    Bespoke foundation every time

    Tank is elevated on bearings

    Tune bearings to provide base isolation

    Set target inertial loading based on 33% overstress on hydrostatic design case

    Project site environmental conditions and tow route will influence tank design but are not significant for standard tank design benefits

    Further Developments Base isolation enables standard tank design

    (D) KOGAS

    (13) Symans, M. D., Seismic Protective Systems: Seismic Isolation, FEMA, Instruction Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples, Seismic Isolation 15-7-1

    Figure courtesy of Ref (13) Image courtesy of Ref (D)

    Figure courtesy of Ref (13)

  • 16

    Membrane tanks are well suited to modular concept

    - Highly modular design based on 56 facets

    - Stainless steel liner material short lead time

    - Multiple suppliers for membrane system

    - Only ONE structural tank using carbon steel

    - Smaller insulation volume more LNG storage

    - Tank does not require hydrotest

    - Robust design for transportation

    - Tank can undergo multiple warmup and cooldown

    - Good leak detection using nitrogen purge

    - Pump sump can be located in tank bottom

    Further Developments Membrane Modular LNG Tanks

    (E) GTT

    Image courtesy of Ref (C)

  • 17


    Comparison of 9%Ni and Membrane Modular LNG Tanks

    Dimension 9%Ni Modular LNG Tank Membrane Modular LNG Tank

    Net LNG storage volume (m3) 40,000

    Outer tank diameter (m) 40.0

    Inner tank diameter (m) 37.5 38.8

    Design Maximum Liquid Level (m) 38.8 36.3

    Outer tank height to roof joint (m) 42.3 39.5

    Roof rise (m) 5.4 5.4

    Overall tank height from ground (m) 50.4 47.6

    Tank weights total/transport (te) 4,250 / 3,800 3,350 / 3,350

    Schedule from NTP to RFCD 22 months 20 months

    Costs (9% Ni stick built = 100%) 90% 80%

  • 18

    Comparison of 9%Ni and Membrane Modular LNG Tanks

  • 19

    Technical feasibility of the modular LNG tank has been studied and proven

    Membrane modular LNG tanks offer clear advantages over 9% Ni modular LNG tanks

    Plug and Play capability is achievable

    - based on a standard design that can be installed for any site, anywhere in the world

    - resulting in cheaper and quicker prefabricated small to medium sized tanks

    Not every site wants or can permit a Single Containment Modular LNG Tank design

    Full Containment Modular LNG Tank designs are too heavy to transport cost effectively

    Precast concrete full containment with membrane liner offers significant opportunities to reduce cost and schedule

    The LNG to Power market needs cheaper tanks

    Modular LNG tank designs addresses this need