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MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness Consciousness our awareness of...

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MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness
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Page 1: MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness  Consciousness  our awareness of ourselves and our environments  Biological Rhythms

MODULES 17 - 19

States of Consciousness

Page 2: MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness  Consciousness  our awareness of ourselves and our environments  Biological Rhythms

Waking Consciousness

Consciousness our awareness of ourselves and our environments

Biological Rhythms Circadian Rhythm

the biological clock

Page 3: MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness  Consciousness  our awareness of ourselves and our environments  Biological Rhythms

Sleep and Dreams

REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep recurring sleep stage vivid dreams “paradoxical sleep”

Sleep periodic, natural, reversible loss of

consciousness

Page 4: MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness  Consciousness  our awareness of ourselves and our environments  Biological Rhythms

Brain Waves and Sleep Stages

Alpha Waves slow waves of a

relaxed, awake brain Delta Waves

large, slow waves of deep sleep

Hallucinations false sensory

experiences

Page 5: MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness  Consciousness  our awareness of ourselves and our environments  Biological Rhythms

Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

4

3

2

1

Sleepstages

Awake

Hours of sleep

REM

Page 6: MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness  Consciousness  our awareness of ourselves and our environments  Biological Rhythms

Sleep Deprivation

Effects of Sleep Loss fatigue impaired concentration depressed immune system greater vulnerability to accidents

Page 7: MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness  Consciousness  our awareness of ourselves and our environments  Biological Rhythms

Sleep Deprivation

2,400

2,700

2,600

2,500

2,800

Spring time change(hour sleep loss)

3,600

4,200

4000

3,800

Fall time change(hour sleep gained)

Less sleep,more accidents

More sleep,fewer accidents

Monday before time change Monday after time change

Accident frequency

Page 8: MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness  Consciousness  our awareness of ourselves and our environments  Biological Rhythms

Sleep Disorders

Insomnia persistent problems in falling or staying asleep

Narcolepsy uncontrollable sleep attacks

Sleep Apnea temporary cessation of breathing during sleep momentary reawakenings

Page 9: MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness  Consciousness  our awareness of ourselves and our environments  Biological Rhythms

Night Terrors and Nightmares

Night Terrors occur within 2 or 3

hours of falling asleep, usually during Stage 4

high arousal-- appearance of being terrified

seldom remembered

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

4

3

2

1

Sleepstages

Awake

Hours of sleep

REM

Page 10: MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness  Consciousness  our awareness of ourselves and our environments  Biological Rhythms

Dreams: Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud--The Interpretation of Dreams (1900) wish fulfillment discharge otherwise unacceptable feelings

Manifest Content remembered story line

Latent Content underlying meaning

Page 11: MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness  Consciousness  our awareness of ourselves and our environments  Biological Rhythms

Dreams: Freud

Dreams sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts

passing through a sleeping person’s mind hallucinatory imagery discontinuities incongruities delusional acceptance of the content difficulties remembering

Page 12: MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness  Consciousness  our awareness of ourselves and our environments  Biological Rhythms

Dreams

As Information Processing helps facilitate memories

As a Physiological Function periodic brain stimulation

REM Rebound REM sleep increases following

REM sleep deprivation

Page 13: MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness  Consciousness  our awareness of ourselves and our environments  Biological Rhythms

Sleep Across the Lifespan

Page 14: MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness  Consciousness  our awareness of ourselves and our environments  Biological Rhythms

Hypnosis

Hypnosis a social interaction in which one

person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur

Page 15: MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness  Consciousness  our awareness of ourselves and our environments  Biological Rhythms

Hypnosis

Posthypnotic Amnesia supposed inability to recall what

one experienced during hypnosis induced by the hypnotist’s

suggestion

Page 16: MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness  Consciousness  our awareness of ourselves and our environments  Biological Rhythms

Hypnosis - Research

Orne & Evans (1965) hypnotized group told to dip hand in

fake acid, then throw the “acid” in assistant’s face

control group instructed to “pretend”

unhypnotized subjects performed the same acts as the hypnotized ones

Page 17: MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness  Consciousness  our awareness of ourselves and our environments  Biological Rhythms

Hypnosis

Posthypnotic Suggestion suggestion to be carried out after

the subject is no longer hypnotized used by some clinicians to help

control undesired symptoms and behaviors

Page 18: MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness  Consciousness  our awareness of ourselves and our environments  Biological Rhythms

Hypnosis

Dissociation a split in consciousness allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur

simultaneously with others Hidden Observer

Hilgard’s term describing a hypnotized subject’s awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis

Page 19: MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness  Consciousness  our awareness of ourselves and our environments  Biological Rhythms

Drugs and Consciousness

Psychoactive Drug a chemical substance that alters perceptions and

mood Physical Dependence

physiological need for a drug marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms

Psychological Dependence a psychological need to use a drug for example, to relieve negative emotions

Page 20: MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness  Consciousness  our awareness of ourselves and our environments  Biological Rhythms

Dependence and Addiction

Tolerance diminishing effect with

regular use Withdrawal

discomfort and distress that follow discontinued use

Small Large

Drug dose

Littleeffect

Bigeffect

Drugeffect

Response tofirst exposure

After repeatedexposure, moredrug is neededto produce same effect

Page 21: MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness  Consciousness  our awareness of ourselves and our environments  Biological Rhythms

Psychoactive Drugs

Depressants – reduce neural activity Alcohol Barbituates Opiates

Stimulants – excite neural activity Caffeine Nicotine Amphetamines Cocaine

Page 22: MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness  Consciousness  our awareness of ourselves and our environments  Biological Rhythms

Cocaine Euphoria and Crash

Page 23: MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness  Consciousness  our awareness of ourselves and our environments  Biological Rhythms

Psychoactive Drugs

Hallucinogens – psychedelic drugs

LSD Ecstasy THC

Page 24: MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness  Consciousness  our awareness of ourselves and our environments  Biological Rhythms

Psychoactive Drugs

Page 25: MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness  Consciousness  our awareness of ourselves and our environments  Biological Rhythms

Near-Death Experiences

Near-Death Experience an altered state of

consciousness reported after a close brush with death

often similar to drug-induced hallucinations

Page 26: MODULES 17 - 19 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness  Consciousness  our awareness of ourselves and our environments  Biological Rhythms

Near-Death Experiences

Dualism the presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact

Monism the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing


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