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Morphemes , allomorphs and syllables in english and turkish

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  • [Metni yazn]

    2016

    2201

    6201

    6

    MORPHEMES, ALLOMORPHS

    and

    SYLLABLES

    in

    TURKISH

    and

    ENGLISH YKSEL GKNEL

    Y G O K N E L @ O U T L O O K . C O M

  • MORPHEMES, ALLOMORPHS and SYLLABLES in TURKISH and ENGLISH

    2

    ENGLISH MORPHEMES

    Note: In the following examples, the red morphemes show the verbs, the purple morphemes show the adjectives, articles and possessive allo-morphs, the black morphemes show nouns, the green morphemes show adverbs and prepositions, and the blue morphemes show subjects and subject allomorphs.The slides are /s/, //, /n/ and /y/. All human beings in the world possess the same kind of brains. Therefore, the function of their brains does not function differently from each other. All of the languages spoken by people in the world have somewhat common characteristics: Free morphemes: The first aim of using a language is to convey thought and meaning to other people. People express what they think using meaningful language units to other people. These meaningful units are called morphemes in linguistics. Morphemes are defined as the smallest meaningful units in linguistics. There are two kinds of morphemes in languages: free morphemes and bound morphemes. Free morphemes are the morphemes that carry meanings by themselves. They are the verb roots, such as go, run, eat, consult, follow; they are the noun roots, such as table, house, garden, boy; they are the adjective roots, such as easy, calm, brave, sudden, clever, and willing. However, although the demonstrative adjectives or demons-trative pronouns, such as these, those, this, and that and adverbs without ly suffixes, such as always, never, often, seldom, sometimes, soon, now, again are free morphemes, they cannot be attached to deriva-tional or inflectional suffixes like other free morphemes. All verb roots, noun roots, and most adjective roots can be turned into other forms by being attached to various derivational morphemes. There-fore, some free morphemes may be defined as productive free morphemes, but some others that are not affixed by derivational mor-phemes may be defined as unproductive free morphemes. Among the unproductive free morphemes, there are prepositions, such as in, on, by, under, near, which are also free morphemes, but they carry meaning only when they are used followed by their objects. Therefore, they may be defined as unproductive free morphemes. Ad-ditionally, there are the articles, such as a, an, the, some, and any, which are used before nouns to modify them are also unproductive free morphemes. All conjunctions, such as and, but, so, or, as, be-

  • MORPHEMES, ALLOMORPHS and SYLLABLES in TURKISH and ENGLISH

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    cause, until, before, etc, and pronouns I, you, he, she it, we, they are all unproductive free morphemes. Although all these words are called free morphemes, they cannot be attached to any derivational or inflec-tional morphemes. Only productive noun, verb, and adjective free mor-phemes can be attached to derivational or inflectional morphemes.

    Bound morphemes:

    Bound morphemes are the affixes (prefixes, infixes or suffixes). These bound morphemes carry meanings only when they are attached to free pro-ductive morphemes. They are divided into two main parts according to their functions. Some of them change the meaning and the part of speech of a free productive morpheme when they are attached to them, which are named as derivational morphemes; the other kind does not change the meanings of the free productive morphemes, but they only add gram-metical senses to free productive morphemes; they do not change the meanings of the free productive morphemes.

    As the demonstrative adjectives or pronouns, the prepositions, and the articles are not productive free morphemes, they are not affixed by any inflectional or derivational morphemes.

    Some common derivational morphemes are as follows:

    Nouns: Productive nouns may be attached by ful and less derivational mor-phemes to produce adjectives: beauti-ful, care-ful, pain-ful, wonder-ful, use-ful, help-ful, color-ful, harm ful, joy-ful, fear-ful, power-ful, skil-ful, plenty-ful, shame-ful - child-less, sense-less, home-less, care-less, use-less, hope-less, mer-cy-less, harm-less, end-less, heart-less, pain-less, shame-less, sleep-less

    Some nouns may be attached by able derivational morpheme to pro-duce adjectives:

    comfort-able, profit-able, market-able

    Some nouns may be attached by the suffix hood to produce other nouns:

    child-hood, boy-hood, man-hood, mother-hood

  • MORPHEMES, ALLOMORPHS and SYLLABLES in TURKISH and ENGLISH

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    Some verbs may be attached by ment derivational morpheme to pro-duce nouns: agree-ment, argue-ment, develop-ment, commit-ment, govern-ment. move-ment Some verbs may be attached by sion, tion morphemes to produce nouns: education, discussion, action, duration, solution, repetition, connec-tion, reception, interruption, description, collection, deception, etc. Some verbs may be attached by the derivational allomorphs able, ible to produce adjectives: eat-able, understand-able, read-able, predict-able, reason-able, un-think-able, wash-able, avail-able, depend-able, reliable, avoid-able, count-able sensible, irresistible, reducible, convertible, digestible Some verbs may be attached by the er derivational morpheme to produce nouns: drive-er, paint-er, speak-er, box-er, teach-er, writ-er, train-er, walk-er, read-er, conduct-er, kill-er, do-er Some verbs may be attached by the able derivational morpheme to produce adjectives: eat-able, drink-able, read-able, wash-able, understand-able, convert-able Some nouns may be attached by the ful derivational morpheme to produce adjectives: beauty-ful, care-ful, wonder-ful, pain-ful, use-ful, meaning-ful, harm-ful, dread-ful, thank-ful, mercy-ful, doubt-ful Some adjectives may be attached to the en derivational morpheme to produce verbs: wide-en, ripe-en, sharp-en, short-en, dark-en Some nouns may be attached to the ize derivational morpheme to produce verbs:

  • MORPHEMES, ALLOMORPHS and SYLLABLES in TURKISH and ENGLISH

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    memory memorize, apology apologize, summery summarize Some adjectives may be attached to the ness derivational morpheme to produce nouns: bright-ness, happy-ness, lonely-ness, sad-ness, hard-ness Some adjectives may be attached to ify derivational morpheme to produce verbs: clearify, purify, specify Some nouns may be attached to ize derivational allomorphs to pro-duce verbs: apology apologize, memory memorize, victim victimize Some adjectives may be attached to ize derivational morphemes to produce verbs: local-ize, real-ize, mobil-ize, vocal-ize, sivil-ize Some adjectives may be attached by ly derivational morphemes to produce adverbs: happy-ly, glad-ly, sad-ly, thankful-ly, perfect-ly, high-ly, slow-ly, sud-den-ly, prompt-ly, angry-ly, quiet-ly, loud-ly, soft-ly, beautiful-ly, grace-ful-ly, generous-ly, general-ly, certain-ly, hungry-ly, necessary-ly, sharp-ly, rough-ly, smooth-ly, separate-ly, bad-ly, dangerous-ly, bold-ly, sudden-ly, automatical-ly, normal-ly, short-ly, wrong-ly, breathless-ly, proud-ly, great-ly, correct-ly, careful-ly, partial-ly, quick-ly Some prefixes turn words into negative forms. They do not change the lexical meanings of the words. They are as follows: a, dis, il, im, in, ir, non, un Example words:

    apolitical, atheist, asexual disagree, discomfort, dismount

    illegal, illiterate, illogical, illegible impossible, imperfect, immoral, immobile, impolite

    inaccurate, inorganic, ineligible, insane, indecent, incredible irrational, irresponsible, irregular, irresistible

    uncomfortable, unnecessary, unimportant, uncountable, unable, nonsense, nonfiction, nonessent

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    Inflectional morphemes: Inflectional morphemes are bound morphemes (suffix

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