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ms01 jan2010 ans

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  • 8/9/2019 ms01 jan2010 ans


    IGNOU MBA MS-01 Solved Assignments 2010


    Course Code : MS-01

    Course Title : Management Functions and BehaviourAssignment Code : MS-01/SEM-I/2010Coverage : All Blocks

    Note: Please attempt all the questions and send it to the Coordinator of the studycenter you are attached with

    1) Explain the tasks of a professional manager. Describe the tasks which are morechallenging in terms of survival and growth of the organization. Illustrate with the help of examples from an organization you are acquainted with. Briefly describe the organizationyou are referring to.

    2) Discuss the various types of decision making. Describe the managerial decisions beingmade in an organization you are familiar with, what are the outcomes of those decisions.Explains with examples.

    3) Explain various types of conflicts. Discuss the strategies which have been used to resolveinterparty conflict in any organization you are familiar with. Briefly describe theorganization you are referring to.

    4) Explain the Importance of the communication in organizations. Discuss various

    communication channels used in an organization you are familiar with and their effectiveness. Briefly describe the organization you are referring to.

    5) Explain the various leadership styles. Discuss the leadership styles of your organizationand how influential it is in improving the performance of your organization or anyorganization you are acquainted with. Briefly describe the organization you are referringto.

    Solution 1: Tasks of professional managers:1. Providing direction to the firm:Envisioning goal is the first task that should never be delegated.

    2. Managing survival and growth.There are two sets: internal and external.Internal factors are choice of technology, efficiency of labour, competency of managerial staff,company image, financial resources etc.External factors are govt. policy, laws and regulation, changing customer taste, attitude andvalues, increasing competition etc.

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    3. Maintaining firms efficiency:A manager has not only to perform and produce results, but to do so in the most efficientmanner. The more output a manager can produce with the same input, the greater will be the


    4.Meeting the competition challenge:A manager must anticipate and prepare for the increasing competition. Competition increasing interms of more producers, products, better quality etc.

    5.Innovation:To finding new and better way to doing any task

    6.Renewal:Managers are responsible for fostering the process of renewal.it has to do with provoding new

    process and resources.

    7. Building human organization:A good worker is a valuable assets of any company. Every manager must constantly lookout for people with potential and attract them to join the company.

    8. Change management:A manager has to perform the task of change agent.its the managers task to ensure that thechange is introduced and incorporated in a smooth manner with the least disturbance andresistance.

    9.Selection:Todays manager4 are faced with a bewildering array of information technology choices that

    promise to change the way work gets done.

    Example:A professional manager for a city has duties which include meeting with elected council todetermine policies that are determined by the council and to notify council members and citizensabout the local govt.operations.discussing of certain reforms, installing a bridge, setting up newtraffic plans, or proposing a new building-all these are many more things which can affectcommunity life are some of the responsibilities of the professional managers in a township. He isalso responsible for preparing annual budget, presenting it to elected officers for sanction andthen implementing it, after is is approved. Listening to citizen grievances with regards toadministration, civic problems, law and order, and presenting matter to the elected officials for appropriate actions are some of the task of professional manager who is in charge of theadministration of a city.


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    IrreversibleThese are type of decisions, which if made once cannot be undone. Whatever is decided wouldthen have its repercussions for a long time to come. It commits one irrevocably when there is noother satisfactory option to the chosen course. A manager should never use it as an all-or-nothing

    but instant escape from general indecision.

    ReversibleThese are the decisions that can be changed completely, either before, during or after theagreement of taking action. Such types of decisions allows one to acknowledge a mistake earlyin the process rather than perpetuate it. It can be effectively used for changing circumstanceswhere reversal is necessary.

    ExperimentalThese types of decisions are not final until the first results appear and prove themselves to besatisfactory. It requires positive feedback before one can decide on a course of action. It is usefuland effective when correct move is unclear but there is a general clarity regarding the direction

    of action.

    Trial and ErrorIn this type of decision making, knowledge is derived out of past mistakes. A certain course of action is selected and is tried out, if the results are positive, the action is carried further, if theresults appear negative, another course is adopted. And so on and so forth a trial is made and anerror is encountered. Till the right combination takes place, this situation continues. It allows themanager to adopt and adjust plans continuously before the full and final commitment. It uses

    both, the positive and negative feedback before selecting one particular course of action.

    Made in stages

    Here, the decisions are made in steps until the whole action is completed. It allows closemonitoring of risks as one accumulates the evidences from out-comes and obstacles at everystage. It permits feedback and further discussion before the next stage of the decision is made.

    CautiousIt allows time for contingencies and problems that may crop up later at the time of implementation. The decision-makers hedge their best of efforts to adopt the right course. Ithelps to limit the risks that are inherent to decision-making. Although this may also limit thefinal gains, it allows one to scale down those projects which look too risky in the first instance.


    Such type of decisions can be altered if certain foreseen circumstances arise. It is an either / orkind of decision with all options kept open. It prepares one to react if the competition makes anew move or if the game plan changes radically. It enables one to react quickly to the ever changing circumstances of competitive markets.

    DelayedSuch decisions are put on hold till the decisionmakers feels that the time is right. A go-ahead isgiven only when required elements are in place. It prevents one from making a decision at the

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    wrong time or before all the facts are known. It may, at times result into forgoing of opportunities in the market that require prompt action.

    BEING DECISIVEThe ability to take timely, clear and firm decisions is an essential quality of leadership, but the

    type of decision needed, varies according to the circumstances. Learning to recognize theimplications of taking each type of different decisions leads to error minimization.

    Being PositiveTaking decisive action does not mean making decisions on the spur of the moment. Although, itmay be necessary in emergencies and as also occasionally desirable for other reasons. A trueleader approaches the decisions confidently, being aware of consequences and fully in commandof the entire decisionmaking process.

    Making Fast DecisionsIt is important to be able to assess whether a decision needs to be made quickly or it can wait.

    Good decision-makers often do make instant decisions but they then assess the long-termimplications.

    Identifying issuesIt is crucial to diagnose problems correctly. Before any decision is made identifying and definingthe issue removes the criticality. This also means deciding who else needs to be involved in theissue, and analyzing the implication of their involvement.

    Prioritizing factorsWhile making a decision, a manager needs to prioritize on important factors. Some factors in a

    process are more important than others. The use of Paretos rule of Vital Few and Trivial may

    help in setting up of the priorities. Giving every factor affecting a decision equal weight makessense only if every factor is equally important. The Pareto rule concentrates on the significant 20 percent and gives the less important 80 percent lower priority.

    Using advisersIt is advisable to involve as many people as are needed in making a decision. In makingcollective decisions, specific expertise as well as experience of a person both can be usedsimultaneously. The decision-maker, having weighed the advice of experts and experiencedhands, must then use authority to ensure that the final decision is seen through.

    Whetting decisions

    If one does not have the full autonomy to proceed, it is advisable to consult the relevant authority not just for the final go, but also for the input. It is always in the interest of the subordinate tohave the plans whetted by a senior colleague whose judgment is trusted and who is experienced.Even if there is no need to get the decision sanctioned, the top people are likely to lend their cooperation well if they have been kept fully informed all the way long, of the decision path.


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    In this installment of our guide to organizational management we look at managerial decisionmaking...

    Effective managers are tasked with making decisions ranging from large to small on a daily basis. An effective organization employs managers who are problem-solvers and who can make

    decisions constantly.

    It is critical to first prioritize issues and problems based on the issues potential effect on theorganization. Those that stand to have the greatest impact should be dealt with first, and all

    problems need to be addressed in a systematic way prior to a decision being made.

    Because a first impression is just that, and does not necessarily reflect the entire situation, amanager must avoid jumping to conclusions. Collecting information from more than one sourceto avoid bias, and completely assessing all pertinent (and verifiable) information prior torendering a decision is strongly recommended.

    Collecting information in order to obtain a complete understanding of the issue is only the firststep, however. Once the information is available, then it is wise to brainstorm different solutionsand possible options in order to get more than one perspective. Such options can start out aswide-ranging, and then can be narrowed down to fit the scope of the problem.

    Having identified a set of options and solutions, feedback and suggestions on them, along withalternatives, should be sought from consultations with others. For the most part, group decisions(particularly where the group contains people who the end decision will affect) are preferable tothose made by individuals as a pool of knowledge, skills and experience can be drawn upon.

    Tools, techniques and analysis methods (such as: Pareto Analysis; Paired Comparison Analysis;

    Grid Analysis; PMI; Six Thinking Hats; Starbursting; Decision Trees) can then be applied. Theseare not conclusive, but they do offer an objective and somewhat scientific approach to decisionmaking. Theyre particularly useful when the decision-makers judgment is liable to be clouded by

    being too closely involved with the issue at hand.

    Then comes the time to weigh the pros and cons of a decision. Which option or solution givesmost to the organization whilst taking least from it? Few decisions will be as clear cut to hold nodrawbacks. Negatives are acceptable though, so long as the positives sufficiently outweigh them.

    Degrees of Outcome Predictability

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    CertaintyRisk UncertaintyAmbiguity


    Full knowledge of available alternativesFull knowledge of what outcome will result from each alternativeFew certain decisions in the real world.

    Risk Knowledge of what the alternatives areKnow the probabilities of outcomes resulting from each alternative.

    UncertaintyGoals are known, but information about alternatives and future outcomes is incomplete(probabilities unknown)Some alternatives may be completely unknown


    Objectives to be achieved are unclear Little, if any, knowledge of alternatives

    Solution 3 : Types of Conflict

    By evaluating a conflict according to the five categories below -- relationship, data, interest,structural and value -- we can begin to determine the causes of a conflict and designresolution strategies that will have a higher probability of success.

    Relationship Conflicts

    Relationship conflicts occur because of the presence of strong negative emotions,misperceptions or stereotypes, poor communication or miscommunication, or repetitivenegative behaviors. Relationship problems often fuel disputes and lead to an unnecessaryescalating spiral of destructive conflict. Supporting the safe and balanced expression of perspectives and emotions for acknowledgment (not agreement) is one effective approachto managing relational conflict.

    Data Conflicts

    Data conflicts occur when people lack information necessary to make wise decisions, aremisinformed, disagree on which data is relevant, interpret information differently, or havecompeting assessment procedures. Some data conflicts may be unnecessary since they arecaused by poor communication between the people in conflict. Other data conflicts may begenuine incompatibilities associated with data collection, interpretation or communication.Most data conflicts will have "data solutions."

    Interest Conflicts

    Interest conflicts are caused by competition over perceived incompatible needs. Conflicts of interest result when one or more of the parties believe that in order to satisfy his or herneeds, the needs and interests of an opponent must be sacrificed. Interest-based conflict

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    will commonly be expressed in positional terms. A variety of interests and intentionsunderlie and motivate positions in negotiation and must be addressed for maximizedresolution. Interest-based conflicts may occur over substantive issues (such as money,physical resources, time, etc.); procedural issues (the way the dispute is to be resolved);and psychological issues (perceptions of trust, fairness, desire for participation, respect,etc.). For an interest-based dispute to be resolved, parties must be assisted to define and

    express their individual interests so that all of these interests may be jointly addressed.Interest-based conflict is best resolved through the maximizing integration of the parties'respective interests, positive intentions and desired experiential outcomes.

    Structural Conflicts

    Structural conflicts are caused by forces external to the people in dispute. Limited physicalresources or authority, geographic constraints (distance or proximity), time (too little or toomuch), organizational changes, and so forth can make structural conflict seem like a crisis.It can be helpful to assist parties in conflict to appreciate the external forces and constraintsbearing upon them. Structural conflicts will often have structural solutions. Parties'appreciation that a conflict has an external source can have the effect of them coming to

    jointly address the imposed difficulties.

    Value Conflicts

    Value conflicts are caused by perceived or actual incompatible belief systems. Values arebeliefs that people use to give meaning to their lives. Values explain what is "good" or"bad," "right" or "wrong," "just" or "unjust." Differing values need not cause conflict. Peoplecan live together in harmony with different value systems. Value disputes arise only whenpeople attempt to force one set of values on others or lay claim to exclusive value systemsthat do not allow for divergent beliefs. It is of no use to try to change value and belief systems during relatively short and strategic mediation interventions. It can, however, behelpful to support each participant's expression of their values and beliefs foracknowledgment by the other party.


    The conflict resolution requires great managerial skills. Here we are trying to give a solution to aconflict turning it in a constructive side.

    If one party exercises the principles of interaction, listens, and us the six steps of collaborativeresolution, that party may be able to end the conflict constructively. At the very least, he or shemay be able to prevent the conflict from turning into a fight by choosing an alternative todestructive interaction?"

    There is a difference between resolving a conflict and managing conflict. Resolving a conflictends the dispute by satisfying the interests of both parties. Managing a conflict containsspecialized interaction that prevents a dispute from becoming a destructive battle. Managing aconflict attends to the personal issues so as to allow for a constructive relationship, even thoughthe objective issues may not be resolvable. For example, the former Soviet Union and the UnitedStates managed their conflict during the Cold War by using a variety of mechanisms. Theobjective issues in the dispute were not resolved, and neither were the personal issues, which

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    contained significant perceptual differences. However, both sides attended significantly to therelationship to keep the disagreement from turning into a destructive battle.

    Our goal in conflict always should be to seek a resolution based on mutual gain. Realistically,however, resolution is not always possible. When this is the case, we must manage the conflict to

    ensure that the relationship is constructive and that open communication is maintained. WeListen to Conflict to understand the other party and demonstrate the acceptance required tomaintain the relationship

    1. The Framework for conflict resolutionWhen conflicts arise, we assess a variety of factors before selecting our approach to the situation.We may choose to compete, or dominate, where we try to impose our will on the other sidethrough physical or psychological means, or we may choose to accommodate, or surrender, andcede victory to the other side. Likewise, we may decide to withdraw by either doing nothing or refusing to participate in the conflict altogether, or we may collaborate and reach a constructiveand mutually acceptable solution. And if none of those approaches proves effective, we might

    choose third-party intervention, a form of collaboration in which an individual or group externalto the conflict intercedes to move both parties toward agreement.

    While each of the above orientations represents a way to manage conflict, only two collaborationand third-party intervention-are, by definition, focused on mutual gain and resolution. These twoapproaches consider the interests of both parties and are most likely to use empathic listening asthe primary tool to enhance understanding. The other methods deal unilaterally with the conflictand fail to manage the interdependence of the dispute.

    In order to understand the mechanisms behind the four orientations to conflict, it is useful toexamine how these orientations can be applied. The study of negotiation, one form of conflict

    resolution, provides two opposite approaches for dealing with disputes. Most often, we think of negotiation in the formal sense seen in the business or diplomatic environment, where two or more parties bargain to reach agreement. However, two types of negotiation, competitive

    bargaining and collaboration, also provide good models for understanding different ways of resolving our conflicts.

    2. Competitive BargainingWhen most people think of negotiation, they think of competitive bargaining. In this type of negotiation, a seller asks for more than he expects and a buyer offers less than she is willing to

    pay. Then, through a series of concessions, the two sides meet somewhere in the middle whereeach side is reasonably satisfied. This form of negotiation also is frequently called distributive

    bargaining or concession-convergence. It maintains a competitive, win-lose orientation, with thegoals of one party and the attainment of those goals in direct conflict with the goals of the other

    party. In other words, competitive bargaining is a positional conflict in which "winning" isdetermined by how much of the original position was obtained. The parties believe that resourcesare fixed and limited, and that they must battle to maximize their share of the wealth.

    In competitive bargaining, each party uses strategy, tactics, and tricks to achieve its objective,and whether one of both parties will achieve their goal depends upon their ability to "play the

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    game." Each party seeks to extract information from the other party that will help in identifyingappropriate counteroffers, while revealing as little accurate information as possible about its own

    preferences. The final agreement often depends on the willingness of one party to stake out atough and extreme position that causes the other party to make concessions. Labor managementdisputes and international negotiations often use this model of conflict resolution.

    The competitive bargaining process is unappealing to many of us and often produces unwiseagreements. Some of us simply do not have the skills or the temperament to play the game. Wesee the process as being unnecessary tough, deceitful, or manipulative. Perceptions of power &control also are a significant factor in the effectiveness of competitive bargaining. If you do nothave the power in the relationship, or if you perceive that you do not, you are more likely toobtain an unsatisfactory resolution. Your lack of power will prevent you from using authority or aggression to resolve, or win, the dispute. In competitive bargaining this form of aggression isoften played as a trump card to achieve the win for the party who is able to acquire the most


    The positional approach of competitive bargaining also causes unnecessary issue rigidity. Our egos become so invested in our positions that we are prevented from accepting alternatives.Therefore, even if a better solution is created, it is unlikely that we will back down. Another

    problem with competitive bargaining is that it often ignores the personal issues that affect theresolution process. In competitive bargaining, we care about the other party's needs only as ameans to identify an opportunity for trade. For example, we will trade one day at the beach (theother party's need) for one day visiting museums (our need). But even if the trade satisfies oneneed, competitive bargaining still requires some amount of persuasion, deception, andmanipulation if we are going to resolve all of the objective issues in a satisfactory manner. Over time, this usually breaks down the trust between the parties and places a significant strain on therelationship.

    Competitive bargaining tends not to resolve conflict. It merely manages it for his short term. It is based on an attitude of limits and is fundamentally a process of reaching a settlement within a bargaining range. Both parties know that they are going to have to settle for something less thanthey would prefer, but they each hope that the deal will be better than their bottom line. Partieswho do not think they got the best deal possible or who believe that they "lost" typically try tofind ways to recoup their losses later. Even if one party believes that it "won," it still knows thatit left something on the bargaining table and will try to acquire it in future negotiations. Labor and management, for example, may reach an agreement, but it is not long before they are back atthe bargaining table, renegotiating issues that one or both sides thought had been settled


    There is an alternative that breaks the destructive cycle of competitive bargaining. It buildsrelationships and opens the door to constructive resolution. The alternative not only helps youcorrectly identify the objective issues, but also manages, if not resolves, the personal issues in thedispute. It is based on principles of interaction that endeavor to understand all of the underlyinginterests that must be satisfied to reach sustained agreement.

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    3. CollaborationThe collaborative approach to conflict resolution, also called mutual gains or integrative

    bargaining, argues for the possibility of solutions that all sides find acceptable. It embodies thenotion of "win-win," a core component of our principle of mutual gain. Collaboration is aboutidentifying a common, shared, or joint goal and developing a process to achieve it. It is a process

    in which both parties exchange information openly, defines their common problems, and createsoptions to solve these problems. And while the collaborative process cannot guarantee thatagreement will always be reached, more often than not, the analysis of interests, needs, anddesires helps the resolution process and ultimate agreement.

    There are many reasons why people don't pursue this model of conflict resolution. First, peoplein conflict often do not recognize the potential for collaboration. This often is the result of anattitude of limits, either-or thinking, or a fixed-pie mentality. When parties remain positional or see only a limited number of solutions that will satisfy their interests, they do not use their creativity to solve the problem.

    The history of the relationship between the two parties also can prevent collaboration. Over time,destructive conflict can build resentment, if not contempt. And, as John Gottman notes in WhyMarriages Succeed or Fail (1994), contempt breeds the intent to "insult and psychologicallyabuse" the other party. This is not always major abuse; it may be small, nit-picking criticismsthat add up over time. The personal issues become so overwhelming that the objective issues of the conflict cannot be examined, and parties often cannot be in the same room together, let aloneidentify ways of resolving the conflict.

    Another barrier to collaboration relates to the complexity of most conflicts. Some elements areconducive to collaboration, and some elements require competitive bargaining. Each mode of conflict resolution requires different skill sets, and you can send mixed messages unless you

    handle them carefully.Finally, people often have a lack of faith in their problem-solving ability. Parties that enter theresolution process believing that they can work together usually find a way to collaborate. Thosewho do not have a solid self-concept will be less willing to follow the Principles of interaction&use listening to seek collaborative resolution.

    There are many obstacles that make collaboration more difficult. Given our inherentcompetitiveness and the various factors that surround many of our disputes, it is a wonder thatconstructive collaboration occurs at all. However, it does occur if one or both of the parties inconflict outcomes, the following conditions must be established at some point during the process:

    Face-to-face interaction: The Listening to Conflict approach to dispute resolution requiresdeveloping an understanding of the total message another party is trying to communicate. Themost effective way to accomplish this is through face-to-face interaction, where we can see thenonverbal expressions that give us clues to underlying emotional needs.

    High acquaintance potential: Without the ability to accept and have positive regard for the other party, collaboration will not be possible. We have to like the person as a person and be willing to

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    establish a relationship that goes beyond the issues of the dispute. This will allow the personalissues to be dealt with separately from the objective issues in the particular conflict so that wecan explore options for mutual gain.

    Constituency support: The parties in conflict will not be able to collaborate if outside

    constituencies try to force competitive and positional norms. Third parties must be supportive of the collaborative process or risk nullifying the positive steps taken toward collaboration byreneging on constructive agreements established between the two interacting parties. We must

    prevent or resolve any conflict with our constituencies prior to interacting with the other party inthe primary dispute.

    Cooperative tasks: Acceptance goes a long way toward diffusing head-to-head competition inconflict, but unless a joint or mutual task is established, there will be no need to collaborate. Weat least must frame the conflict as a problem to be solved together in order to establish acollaborative environment.

    Shared exploration: Sharing in the process of understanding the problem and creating solutionskeeps both parties involved. This saves one party from the trap of inventing all of the solutions,and the inevitable dependence and resentment that accompanies that responsibility. When both

    parties are involved, there will be stronger commitment to the final solutions.

    No fixed agenda: An agenda creates a positional interaction that is based on satisfying the needsof one party without understanding how the interests of both are related. Having an agenda sendsthe message that you are not interested in the other party's issues and needs issues and needs. Theonly agenda should be to follow the steps of collaboration and work toward mutual gain.

    Adherence to collaborative process steps. Successful resolution requires that we follow the steps

    of collaboration. If we skip a step, we risk sending the other party mixed signals that will; propelthat party toward a defensive, competitive mode.

    The Six Steps of CollaborationWith the above conditions in mind, a constructive environment can be established. However,collaboration also requires that resolution proceed through a series of steps that create a moreeffective interaction. The steps progress logically &should be departed from only to return to a

    previous step as a means to enhance the relationship & increasing understanding. Skipping stepsreduces the chance for collaborative agreement and should be avoided. The six steps are asfollows:

    The Six Steps of Collaboration1. Prepare for the Interaction.

    2. Initiate the Exchange.3. Facilitate the Relationship.4. Understand the Interests.5. Examine the Solutions.6. Reach Consensus

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    Solution 1: Importance of communication

    For manager employee relations:

    Effective communication of information and decision is an essentialcomponent for management-employee relations. The manager cannotget the work done from employees unless they are communicatedeffectively of what he wants to be done? He should also be sure of some basic facts such as how to communicate and what results can beexpected from that communication. Most of management problemsarise because of lack of effective communication. Chances of misunderstanding and misrepresentation can be minimized with propercommunication system .

    For motivation and employee morale:Communication is also a basic tool for motivation, which can improvemorale of the employees in an organization. Inappropriate or faultycommunication among employees or between manager and hissubordinates is the major cause of conflict and low morale at work.Manager should clarify to employees about what is to be done, howwell are they doing and what can be done for better performance toimprove their motivation. He can prepare a written statement, clearlyoutlining the relationship between company objectives and personalobjectives and integrating the interest of the two.

    For increase productivity:With effective communication, you can maintain a good humanrelation in the organization and by encouraging ideas or suggestionsfrom employees or workers and implementing them wheneverpossible, you can also increase production at low cost.

    For employees:It is through the communication that employees submit their workreports, comments, grievances and suggestions to their seniors ormanagement. Organization should have effective and speedy

    communication policy and procedures to avoid delays,misunderstandings, confusion or distortions of facts and to establishharmony among all the concerned people and departments.

    Importance of written communication:Communication may be made through oral or written. In oralcommunication, listeners can make out what speakers is trying to say,but in written communication, text matter in the message is a

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    reflection of your thinking. So, written communication or messageshould be clear, purposeful and concise with correct words, to avoidany misinterpretation of your message. Written communicationsprovides a permanent record for future use and it also gives anopportunity to employees to put up their comments or suggestions in


    So, effective communication is very important for successful workingof an organization. Business writing software with grammar checkerand text enrichment tool, which enhances a simple sentence into moreprofessional and sophisticated one, can be used for writing effectivebusiness communications. For more information, please visit grammar correction tool .

    2. The Communication Channels3. The communication channel selected for transmitting a message plays a significant

    role in maintaining the quality of the original message in its passage from the senderto receiver. The sender, given the opportunity to weigh the merits of using an oral orwritten communication, or a combination of the two, selects the most effective forthe situation.

    4. Regardless of the communication channel selected, the sender will encounterobstacles. In the previous chapter, the various barriers to effective communicationwere analyzed. Considering the possible barriers, the sender must choose thechannel which he feels will best guarantee transfer of the essence and meaning of his message without misunderstanding or distortion.

    5. To counteract possible interference in the communication channel, the messageshould attract attention, contain redundancy, continue repetition, or use acombination of these approaches.

    6. To attract attention, the message must be different from others competing for therecipient's time. A short handwritten message instead of the usual typed message isone method that can attract attention.

    7. To provide redundancy, the message must be rephrased several times (thetechnique used in newspaper articles), and/or summarized in the final paragraph.The sender should avoid too much redundancy because this tends to clutter thecommunication channel.

    8. To provide repetition, the message must be transmitted through more than onechannel, as in spoken and written form, or transmitted more than once through thesame channel, as in TV advertising.

    9. Now, let's turn our attention to the basic communication channels within anorganization. There are three channels: formal, informal, and unofficial.

    10. Formal. The communication within the formal organizational structure that transmitsgoals, policies, procedures, and directions.

    11. Informal. The communication outside the formal organizational structure that fillsthe organizational gaps, maintains the linkages, and handles the one-time situations.

    12. Unofficial. The interpersonal communication within (or among) the social structureof the organization that serves as the vehicle for casual interpersonal exchanges, andtransmittal of unofficial communications.

    13. A more detailed examination of each of these communication channels will provide abetter understanding of these functions.

    14.Formal Communication

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    15. Formal communication - written or oral - follows the chain of command of the formalorganization; the communication flows from the manager to his immediatesubordinates. Each recipient then re-transmits the message in the selected form tothe next lower level of management or to staff members, as appropriate. Themessage progresses down the chain of command, fanning out along the way, until allwho have a need to know are informed. Formal communication also flows upward

    through the organization on the same basis.16. Formal communication normally encompasses the transmittal of goals, policies,

    instructions, memoranda, and reports; scheduled meetings; and supervisory-subordinate interviews.

    17.Informal Communication18. No organization operates in a completely formal or structured environment.

    Communication between operations depicted in an organizational chart do notfunction as smoothly or as trouble-free as the chart may imply. In mostorganizations operating effectively, channels of communication have developedoutside the hierarchical structure.

    19. The informal communication process supplements the formal process by filling thegaps and/or omissions. Successful managers encourage informal organizationallinkages and, at the same time, recognize that circumvention of established lines of authority and communication is not a good regular practice. When lines of authorityhave been bypassed, the manager must assume responsibility for informing thosenormally in the chain of command of the action taken.

    20. There is a fine line between using informal communications to expedite the work of the organization and the needless bypassing of the chain of command. Theexpediting process gets the job done, but bypassing the chain of command causesirritation and can lead to hard feelings. To be effective, the manager must find a wayto balance formal and informal communication processes.

    21.Unofficial Communication22. Astute program and functional managers recognize that a great deal of

    communication taking place within their organizations is interpersonal. News of revised policies and procedures, memoranda, and minutes of meetings are subjects

    of conversation throughout the organization. These subjects often share the floorwith discussions of TV shows, sports news, politics, and gossip.23. The "grapevine" is a part of the unofficial communication process in any

    organization. A grapevine arises because of lack of information employees considerimportant: organizational changes, jobs, or associates. This rumor mill transmitsinformation of highly varying accuracy at a remarkable speed. Rumors tend to fallinto three categories: those reflecting anxiety, those involving things hoped for, andthose causing divisiveness in the organization. Some rumors fade with the passing of time; others die when certain events occur.

    24. Employees take part in the grapevine process to the extent that they form groups.Any employee not considered a part of some group is apt to be left out of thisunofficial communication process.

    25. The grapevine is not necessarily good or bad. It serves a useful function when it actsas a barometer of employees' feelings and attitudes. Unfortunately, the informationtraveling along the grapevine tends to become magnified or exaggerated. Employeesthen become alarmed unnecessarily by what they hear. It is imperative that amanager be continually alert to the circulation of false information. When discovered,positive steps should be taken to provide the correct information immediately.


    Solution : 5

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    Leadership Styles

    Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction,

    implementing plans, and motivating people. Kurt Lewin (1939) led a

    group of researchers to identify different styles of leadership. Thisearly study has been very influential and established three major

    leadership styles. The three major styles of leadership are (U.S. Army

    Handbook, 1973) :

    o Authoritarian or autocratic

    o Participative or democratic

    o Delegative or Free Reign

    Although good leaders use all three styles, with one of them normally

    dominant, bad leaders tend to stick with one style.

    Authoritarian (autocratic)

    I want both of you to. . .

    This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want

    done and how they want it accompished, without getting the advice of

    their followers. Some of the appropriate conditions to use it is when

    you have all the information to solve the problem, you are short on

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    time, and your employees are well motivated.

    Some people tend to think of this style as a vehicle for yelling, using

    demeaning language, and leading by threats and abusing their power.

    This is not the authoritarian style, rather it is an abusive,

    unprofessional style called bossing people around . It has no place in

    a leader's repertoire.

    The authoritarian style should normally only be used on rare

    occasions. If you have the time and want to gain more commitment

    and motivation from your employees, then you should use the

    participative style.

    Participative (democratic)

    Let's work together to solve this. . .

    This style involves the leader including one or more employees in thedecision making process (determining what to do and how to do it).

    However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority.

    Using this style is not a sign of weakness, rather it is a sign of strength

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    that your employees will respect.

    This is normally used when you have part of the information, and your

    employees have other parts. Note that a leader is not expected to

    know everything -- this is why you employ k n o w l e d g e a b l e and

    s k i l l f u l employees. Using this style is of mutual benefit -- it allows

    them to become part of the team and allows you to make better


    Delegative (free reign)

    You two take care of the problem while I go. . .

    In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions.

    However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are

    made. This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation

    and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. You cannot do

    everything! You must set priorities and delegate certain tasks.

    This is not a style to use so that you can blame others when things go

    wrong, rather this is a style to be used when you fully trust and

    confidence in the people below you. Do not be afraid to use it,

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    however, use it wisely!

    NOTE: This is also known as laissez faire (or laisser faire), which

    is the noninterference in the affairs of others. [French : laissez, second

    person pl. imperative of laisser, to let, allow + faire, to do.]

    ForcesA good leader uses all three styles, depending on what forces are

    involved between the followers, the leader, and the situation. Some

    examples include:

    o Using an authoritarian style on a new employee who is just learning

    the job. The leader is competent and a good coach. The employee is

    motivated to learn a new skill. The situation is a new environment for

    the employee.

    o Using a participative style with a team of workers who know their job.

    The leader knows the problem, but does not have all the information.

    The employees know their jobs and want to become part of the team.

    o Using a delegative style with a worker who knows more about the job

    than you. You cannot do everything! The employee needs to take

    ownership of her job. Also, the situation might call for you to be at

    other places, doing other things.

    o Using all three: Telling your employees that a procedure is not

    working correctly and a new one must be established (authoritarian).

    Asking for their ideas and input on creating a new procedure

    (participative). Delegating tasks in order to implement the new

    procedure (delegative).

    Forces that influence the style to be used included:

    o How much time is available.

    o Are relationships based on respect and trust or on disrespect?

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    o Who has the information - you, your employees, or both?

    o How well your employees are trained and how well you know the


    o Internal conflicts.o Stress levels.

    o Type of task. Is it structured, unstructured, complicated, or simple?

    o Laws or established procedures such as OSHA or training plans.

    Four of the most basic leadership styles are:




    This article will briefly define each style and describe the situations in which each onemight be used.

    Autocratic Leadership Style

    This is often considered the classical approach. It is one in which the manager retainsas much power and decision-making authority as possible. The manager does notconsult employees , nor are they allowed to give any input. Employees are expected toobey orders without receiving any explanations. The motivation environment isproduced by creating a structured set of rewards and punishments.

    This leadership style has been greatly criticized during the past 30 years. Somestudies say that organizations with many autocratic leaders have higher turnover andabsenteeism than other organizations. Certainly Gen X employees have proven to behighly resistant to this management style. These studies say that autocratic leaders:

    --Rely on threats and punishment to influence employees

    --Do not trust employees

    --Do not allow for employee input

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    Yet, autocratic leadership is not all bad. Sometimes it is the most effective style to use.These situations can include:

    --New, untrained employees who do not know which tasks to perform or whichprocedures to follow

    --Effective supervision can be provided only through detailed orders and instructions

    --Employees do not respond to any other leadership style

    --There are high-volume production needs on a daily basis

    --There is limited time in which to make a decision

    --A managers power is challenged by an employee

    --The area was poorly managed

    --Work needs to be coordinated with another department or organization

    The autocratic leadership style should not be used when:

    --Employees become tense, fearful, or resentful

    --Employees expect to have their opinions heard

    --Employees begin depending on their manager to make all their decisions

    --There is low employee morale, high turnover and absenteeism and work stoppage

    Bureaucratic Leadership Style

    Bureaucratic leadership is where the manager manages by the book Everything mustbe done according to procedure or policy. If it isnt covered by the book, the manager refers to the next level above him or her. This manager is really more of a policeofficer than a leader. He or she enforces the rules.

    This style can be effective when:

    --Employees are performing routine tasks over and over.

    --Employees need to understand certain standards or procedures.

    --Employees are working with dangerous or delicate equipment that requires a definiteset of procedures to operate.

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    --Safety or security training is being conducted.

    --Employees are performing tasks that require handling cash.

    This style is ineffective when:

    --Work habits form that are hard to break, especially if they are no longer useful.

    --Employees lose their interest in their jobs and in their fellow workers.

    --Employees do only what is expected of them and no more.

    Democratic Leadership Style

    The democratic leadership style is also called the participative style as it encouragesemployees to be a part of the decision making. The democratic manager keeps his or

    her employees informed about everything that affects their work and shares decisionmaking and problem solving responsibilities. This style requires the leader to be a coachwho has the final say, but gathers information from staff members before making adecision.

    Democratic leadership can produce high quality and high quantity work for long periodsof time. Many employees like the trust they receive and respond with cooperation, teamspirit, and high morale. Typically the democratic leader:

    --Develops plans to help employees evaluate their own performance

    --Allows employees to establish goals

    --Encourages employees to grow on the job and be promoted

    --Recognizes and encourages achievement.

    Like the other styles, the democratic style is not always appropriate. It is mostsuccessful when used with highly skilled or experienced employees or whenimplementing operational changes or resolving individual or group problems.

    The democratic leadership style is most effective when:

    --The leader wants to keep employees informed about matters that affect them.

    --The leader wants employees to share in decision-making and problem-solving duties.

    --The leader wants to provide opportunities for employees to develop a high sense of personal growth and job satisfaction.

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    --There is a large or complex problem that requires lots of input to solve.

    --Changes must be made or problems solved that affect employees or groups of employees.

    --You want to encourage team building and participation.

    Democratic leadership should not be used when:

    --There is not enough time to get everyones input.

    --Its easier and more cost-effective for the manager to make the decision.

    --The business cant afford mistakes.

    --The manager feels threatened by this type of leadership.

    --Employee safety is a critical concern.

    Laissez-Faire Leadership Style

    The laissez-faire leadership style is also known as the hands-off style. It is one inwhich the manager provides little or no direction and gives employees as much freedomas possible. All authority or power is given to the employees and they must determinegoals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own.

    This is an effective style to use when:

    --Employees are highly skilled, experienced, and educated.

    --Employees have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on their own.

    --Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants are being used

    --Employees are trustworthy and experienced.

    This style should not be used when:

    --It makes employees feel insecure at the unavailability of a manager.

    --The manager cannot provide regular feedback to let employees know how well theyare doing.

    --Managers are unable to thank employees for their good work.

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    --The manager doesnt understand his or her responsibilities and is hoping theemployees can cover for him or her.

    Varying Leadership Style

    While the proper leadership style depends on the situation, there are three other factorsthat also influence which leadership style to use.

    1. The managers personal background. What personality, knowledge, values, ethics,and experiences does the manager have. What does he or she think will work?

    2. The employees being supervised. Employees are individuals with differentpersonalities and backgrounds . The leadership style managers use will varydepending upon the individual employee and what he or she will respond best to.

    3. The company. The traditions, values, philosophy, and concerns of the company will

    influence how a manager acts.

    Leadership & Impact On Organisation Climate - PresentationTranscript

    1. LEADERSHIP & IMPACT ON ORGANISATION CLIMATE2. Different leadership styles on the organizational climate and performance directs

    the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Leadershipis a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective

    3. Leadership Styles The Affiliative Style The Coercive Style The Pacesetting Style

    The Democratic Style The Authoritative Style The Coaching Style LeadershipStyles4. Leadership Styles Overall impact on climate When the style works best

    Underlying EI competencies The style in a phrase Leaders modus operandiMost strongly positive Negative appropriate when a new direction is required or aclarification of the goals to be achieved appropriate in emergencies and severesituations Self confidence, empathy, change catalyst Drive to achieve, initiative,self control Come with me Do what I tell you focuses on the goal or vision ofthe future and inspires others to follow Demands immediate complianceAuthoritative (a.k.a. 'The Visionary') Coercive (a.k.a. 'TheDictator)

    5. Leadership Styles Overall impact on climate When the style works bestUnderlying EI competencies The style in a phrase Leaders modus operandiPositive Positive a useful style to adopt when attempting to involve a wide rangeof people in decision making or building a consensus healing dysfunctionalrelationships within a team Collaboration, team leadership, communicationEmpathy, building relationships, communication What do you think PeopleCome First Forges consensus through participation focus on people,

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    teambuilding, bonding and forging alliances; create teams and a motivatorDemocratic (a.k.a. 'The Listener') Affiliative (a.k.a. 'ThePeople Person')

    6. Leadership Styles Overall impact on climate When the style works bestUnderlying EI competencies The style in a phrase Leaders modus operandi

    Positive Negative is especially useful in building skills to develop managers andfuture leaders To get quick results from a highly motivated and competent team;useful to raise the stakes when a competent and motivated team is working wellDeveloping others, empathy, self-awareness Conscientiousness, drive toachieve, initiative Try this Do as I do, now focuses on helping to improvepeople's strengths sets an example by working to extremely highstandards of performance Coaching (a.k.a. 'The Nurturer')Pacesetting (a.k.a. 'The Superman/Superwoman')

    7. Leadership styles offers clear guidance to the manager, using these styles asappropriate as situation requireo All of these styles are useful at different times, but used at the wrongtime they can be disastrous e.g. too much listening when immediate action isrequired, or only providing a vision when a team needs building or rebuilding.o The type of leadership styles use will affect performance and results

    Leadership Styles

    8. Flexibility i.e. how free employees feel to innovate unencumbered by red tape;o Level of standards that people set;o The sense of accuracy about performance feedback and aptness ofrewards;o The clarity people have about mission and values;o The level of commitment to a common purpose

    6 key factors that influence organization climate

    9. How different leadership styles affects the organizational climate andperformance

    o Reap strong loyalty by building strong emotional bondso Drives up flexibility and does not impose unnecessary strictures on howwork is doneo Offers ample positive feedback for motivationo Creates a sense of belonging for employeeso Most effective among the 6 leadership styleso Motivates people and able to lead them to a clear directiono Maximizes commitment to the businesss goals and strategy withdefined standards

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    o Gives employees the freedom to innovate, experiment and takecalculated risks.o appropriate in severe situations and emergency i.e. during a turnaroundor when a hostile takeover is loomingo Able to break failed business habits and shock people into new ways of

    workingo Can work with problem employees when all else has failed


    o Exclusive focus on praise can allow poor performance to go uncorrectedo Perception that mediocrity is toleratedo Rarely offers constructive advice on how to improve (directionless)


    o Will not work when working with a team of experts/peers who are moreexperienced.o Can undermine an effective team if authoritative becomes overbearingo top-down decision overrides new ideaso Staff unable to act on their own initiative, loss of ownershipo has a damaging effect on rewards systemo Undermines motivation to employees

    Authoritative Coercive

    10.How different leadership styles affects the organizational climate andperformance

    o Helps employees to identify their strengths and weaknesses; establishlong-term development goals and helps to attain themo Employees are more responsible when they know what is expected ofthem and how their work fits in the pico Works well when all employees are self-motivated, highly competentand need little direction/coordinationo Get work done on time and even ahead of scheduleo Drives up flexibility and responsibility when letting employees have a

    say in decisionso Employees tend to be very realistic about what they can and cannot beaccomplished


    o Ineffective if employees are resistant to learning or changing their wayso May create fear or apathy through ongoing performance feedback

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    o overwhelmed by demands of excellence; morale will dropo Employee dont feel trust to work in their own way or to take initiative asideas will be shot downo Work becomes task focused, dependant and routine, with no sense offlexibility and responsibilityo employees may not be competent or informed enough to offer soundadviceo Unable to reach to a consensus/decision

    Pacesetting Democratic

    11.o Leaders who used styles that positively affect the climate had better

    financial results than those who did not;o Studies have shown that leaders who have mastered 4 or more styles(esp. the authoritative, democratic, affiliative and coaching styles) have the verybest climate and business performance


    ======The End=====