National Music: Wagner & Liszt
Franz Liszt Richard Wagner
Map 22. 3: The Unification of Germany
NationalismA people with a Common:
Geography, Language, History, Religion, Ethnicity, Culture…
Community of the ImaginationThe “National Project”:
• Arts: Music, Painting, Literature• Folklore, Dance, Costume/Dress• History
A people with:Common Geography, Language, History, Religion, Ethnicity, Culture
Nationalism & Liberalism, Or…
Nationalism & Liberalism, various attemptsFrance, 1789, 1830, 1848, 1871….
Germany, 1830, 1848….
Italy & Garibaldi….
Great Britain & Reform
Nationalism & Or….Bismark & Germany
Italy & Victor Emmanuel
The Fiction of Nationalism
Linguistic, Ethnic InterminglingGr. Brt. -- Scots, Welsh, Cornish, Irish
France -- Brittany, Basques
Spain -- Basques, Catalan
Belgium -- Waloons (Dutch dialect), Flanders (Flemish = French dialect)
Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Russian Empire• GIVE IT UP!!!!!
Everywhere, esp. Central/Easter-Europe:• JEWS
Lines on a Map & Implications for Future
Map 22.4: Europe in 1871
The Austrian Empire: Toward a Dual Monarchy
Post-1848 = re-establish centralized, autocratic Hapsburg rule
German-speaking gov’t alienates minorities, esp. Hungarians
Ausgleich, Compromise, 1867 -- post Franco-Austrian War
Creates a dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary• Separate contitutions & gov’t
German and Magyars dominate minorities• Minority/Nationality prob. persists until WWI
Francis Joseph Emperor of Austria/King of HungarySome things in held in common
• monarch, army, foreign policy, finances
Ethnic Groups in the Dual Monarchy
Imperial RussiaAlexander II, 1855-1881 -- need for reform in face of Crimean defeat
Emancipation of serfs, March 3, 1861• Deal w/ backwardness of agriculture, uneducated
peasantry (army!) & peasant revolts
Problems with emancipation• Landowners kept best land• Peasants pay for own “freedom” (village commune: mir)
Zemstvos (local assemblies) -- nobility dominateGrowing dissatisfaction, reform mov’ts, radicalsAssassination of Alexander II (1881)Alexander III (1881-1894)
• Return to traditional methods of repression
Great Britain: The Victorian Age
Did not experience revolts in 1848 Reforms -- 1832, 1860’s = polit. participation
Economic growth -- workers’ wages
Queen Victoria (1837 – 1901) reflected the ageDuty & moral respectability
Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881) -- Tory Extension of voting rights
Reform Act, 1867 prop. rq.s, double # voters!
William Gladstone (first administration, 1868 – 1874)
Liberal reforms: patronage, secret ballot, officers
Education Act of 1870 -- universal elem. sch.