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NCAT agriculture specialists Tammy Hinman Andy...

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  • by NCAT agriculture specialists Tammy Hinman and Andy Pressman

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    3 Extend the growing season on either side

    3 More protective environmentfrost, temperature fluctuations, precipitation, wind or excess moisture that delays planting or cultivation

    3 Reduce risk and enhance quality of the harvest

    3 Typically higher yield than field grown

    Benef its of high tunnels

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Benef its, continued

    Photo courtesy of Martin and Christa Stosiek, Markristo Farm, Hillsdale, NY

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    3 Low technology

    3 Low cost

    3 Increase cash flow

    Hoop houses

    Photo courtesy of SPIN Farming

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Low tunnel High tunnel

    Photo courtesy of SPIN Farming Photo by Michael McNair, NCAT

    Types of hoop houses

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Low tunnels

    Negatives (-):Labor intensiveLimits harvests

    Photo courtesy of www.plasticulture.orgPhoto courtesy of SPIN Farming

    Positives (+):InexpensiveEasy to installEasy to change covers

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    High tunnels

    Solo bay Multi bay

    Photo by Rex Dufour, NCAT Photo courtesy of Alex Hitt

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    High tunnel shapes

    Photo by Rex Dufour, NCATPhoto courtesy of Ledgewood Farm

    Gothic vs. Quonset

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Lengths and widths

    Photos by Andy Pressman, NCAT

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    3 10 x 90 = 200 lineal perimeter and 900 square foot area

    3 30 x 70 = 200 lineal perimeter and 2,100 square foot area

    Source: Blomgren and Tracy Frisch. 2007. High Tunnels. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont Center for Sustainable Agriculture

    Narrow tunnel heat loss

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Moveable hoop houses

    Photo courtesy of Chefs Garden

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Season extensions

    Photo courtesy of Alex HittPhoto courtesy of Ledgewood Farm

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Hoop house uses - crops

    Photo courtesy of www.plasticulture.org Photo courtesy of www.haygrove.co.uk

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Why not livestock?

    Photo courtesy of www.haygrove.co.ukPhoto courtesy of www.haygrove.co.uk

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Site selection

    Photo courtesy of SPIN Farming

    Photo courtesy of Alex Hitt

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Orientation

    Photo courtesy of Ledgewood Farm

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Ventilation

    Photo courtesy of Alex HittPhoto by Rex Dufour, NCAT

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Here we go!

    Photo by Andy Pressman, NCAT

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Ground posts

    Photo by Andy Pressman, NCAT

    Photo courtesy of Ledgewood Farm

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Wood, steel, PVC, electric conduit

    Photo by Andy Pressman, NCAT

    Photo courtesy of SPIN Farming

    Frame

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Frame, continuedCrossties, drops, braces, trusses

    Photo courtesy of Ledgewood Farm

    Bow

    Photo by Andy Pressman, NCAT

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Frame, continued

    Purlin

    Photo courtesy of Ledgewood Farm

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Base boards

    Photo courtesy of Ledgewood Farm Photo courtesy of Ledgewood Farm

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Hip boards

    Photo courtesy of Ledgewood Farm Photo courtesy of Ledgewood Farm

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    End walls

    Photo by Michael McNair, NCAT Photo by Rex Dufour, NCAT Photo by Katherine Adam, NCAT

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    205.206(f) states that producers must not use lumber that has been treated with arsenates or other prohibited materials where it can contact soil or livestock.

    205.206(c)(6) states that plastic or other synthetic mulches must be removed from the field at the end of the growing or harvest season.

    CONTACT YOUR CERTIFIER

    NOP regulations

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Plastic

    Agriculture plastics (a) IR Blocking plastic (b) Anti-condensate additives

    Double vs. single layer Interior row covers

    Photo courtesy of Ledgewood Farm

    Photo courtesy of www.plasticulture.org

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Photo by Michael McNair, NCAT Photo by Rex Dufour, NCAT

    Roll-up sides

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    These illustrations adapted from: Blomgren, T. and Frisch, T. 2007. Hightunnels. University of Vermont Center for Sustainable Agriculture.

    Layout

    3 by 14 feet

    1-foot path 2-foot path

    3 by 14 feet

    1-foot path

    Lateral bed layout

    40-inch bed

    18-inch path

    Longitudinal layout

    3 by 14 feet

    1-foot path 2-foot path

    3 by 14 feet

    1-foot path

    Lateral bed layout

    40-inch bed

    18-inch path

    Longitudinal layout

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Soil fertility

    Bed preparation

    Crops and crop sequences

    Weeds and pest management in the hoop house

    Production in your hoop house

    Photo by Michael McNair, NCAT

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Start with healthy soil with good structure

    Maintain soil structure through adding organic matter and growing green manures

    Avoid salinization

    Soil management

    Photo courtesy of www.myevergreenfarm.com

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Photo courtesy of www.myevergreenfarm.com

    Adding nutrients

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Hoop house cropping systems

    Photos courtesy of www.haygrove.co.uk

    See the ATTRA pub Scheduling Vegetable Planting for Continuous Harvest for more information at www.attra.ncat.org

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Photo courtesy of Cory and Shanti Rade, Whipstone Farm Photo by Michael McNair, NCAT

    Raised beds

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Photo courtesy of Burnin Daylight Farm

    Photo courtesy of Cory and Shanti Rade, Whipstone Farm

    Containers

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Photo by Michael McNair, NCAT

    Plastic

    Photo by Andy Pressman, NCAT

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Photo by Katherine Adam, NCAT

    Irrigation options Drip is a good option for most hoop house crops

    You are less likely to have scald and disease problems

    Photo courtesy of The Drip Store

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Mulches offer weed management options in the hoop house

    Weed management

    Photo by Dr. Lewis Jett, West Virginia University

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Common diseases in hoop houses:

    Leaf mold

    Canker

    Verticillium wilt

    Powdery mildew

    Some root rot

    Disease management

    Photo by Leanne Pundt, University of Connecticut Extension

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Encourage beneficials

    Prevent entry through screening

    Scout and monitor

    Introduce beneficials/ insectary crops

    Insect management

    Photo from www.clipart.com

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Common hoop house insect pests

    Photo by Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org

    Photo courtesy of Central Science Laboratory, Harpenden Archive, Bugwood.org

    Photo by Frank Peairs, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org

    See ATTRAs Biorational Database www.attra.ncat.org

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    1. Develop an enterprise budget for crops in the hoop house

    2. Plan your crops for markets

    Economics and marketing

    Photo courtesy of Martin and Christa Stosiek, Markristo Farm

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    This is adapted from Blomgren, T. and Frisch, T. 2007. Hightunnels. University of Vermont Center for Sustainable Agriculture.

    Sample enterprise budget - Hoop house tomatoFixed costsConstruction costs Materials LaborSite prep (tractor, labor) $60 $48High tunnel layout $10 $48Frame and construction $5,000 $576Lumber, hardware, labor $800 $384Endwall finishing $50 $12Water service $50 $12Irrigation $100 $32Backup heater $225 Weed mat $200Harvest containers $200

    Subtotals $6,895 $1,244Total construction costs $8,139

    Fixed costsHigh tunnel construction (divided over 15 years) $543Interest (construction financed at 7% for 15 years) $285Taxes, land, office expenses, fees $800

    Total fixed costs $1,627Total fixed costs (6 month tomato crop $814

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)This is adapted from Blomgren, T. and Frisch, T. 2007. Hightunnels. University of Vermont Center for Sustainable Agriculture.

    Sample enterprise budget, continuedVariable costsMaterials and machinery CostPlants $700Fertilizer and compost $175Irrigation field supplies $10Stakes, string, clips $200Heater fuel $75Bees for pollination $100Poly covering (divided by 4 years) $200Misc. supplies, repairs, maintenance $150

    Subtotal $1,610Labor costsBed prep and fertilizer $144Transplanting, irrigation, weed mat $144Site mowing and weeding $144Pruning and trellising $576Harvesting, grading packing $480High tunnel cleanup $120Annual maintenance $96Environmental management $360

    Subtotal $2,064Total variable costs $3,674

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    *Based on a yield of 3,500 pounds per 14x144 hoop house. The tomatoes are assigned a value of $2.50 per pound.

    Net return - Hoop house tomato production

    Total costs $4,488Revenues $8,750*Net return $4,262

    Photo courtesy of Dr. Lewis Jett; West Virginia University

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Photos courtesy of Dr. Lewis Jett, West Virginia University

    Marketing your hoop house crops

    Wholesale marketing Direct marketing

    Direct wholesale (restaurants)

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Direct marketing options

    Photos courtesy of Markristo Farm

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Wholesale

    Photo courtesy of Markristo Farm

  • The National Center for Appropriate Technology www.ncat.org 800-275-6228 (1-800-ASK-NCAT)

    Questions?

    [email protected]

    [email protected]

    visit www.attra.ncat.org for more information

    Thank you!

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