+ All Categories
Home > Documents > Neb religion

Neb religion

Date post: 12-Jan-2015
Upload: clay-woerner
View: 1,062 times
Download: 3 times
Share this document with a friend
Popular Tags:
Religion Chapter 6
Page 1: Neb  religion


Chapter 6

Page 2: Neb  religion


“a system of beliefs and practices that attempts

to order life in terms of culturally perceived

ultimate priorities.”

- Stoddard and Prorak

“perceived ultimate priorities” often translate

into a list of things a follower “should” do and

ways a follower “should” behave.

Page 3: Neb  religion

• Religion lies at the heart

of nationalism-e.g.

Middle East, Northern

Ireland, Bosnia, Kashmir,

Afghanistan, etc.

• Religion in many non-

western areas practically

constitutes culture.

• Religious cultural


temples, mosques,

shrines, cemeteries,

statues, veils, turbans,

beards and scars

Page 4: Neb  religion

Key Characteristics of Religion

• Set of doctrines or beliefs

relating to a god or gods.

• Structure or hierarchy of


• Rituals for:

– Birth

– Death

– Reaching adulthood

– Marriage

– Prayer

– Routine services on a Fri,

Sat. or Sun.

Page 5: Neb  religion

• Impact of religion-calendars, holidays, architecture, place names, slogans on coins or flags.

• A major forces in combating social ills and promoting

– Education

– Medicine and health care

– The arts

• But also

– Blocked scientific study

– Oppressed dissidents

– Supported imperialism

– Kept women inferior

Page 6: Neb  religion

Religions are divided into • Branches-a large and fundamental division within a

religion-such as Catholic, Protestant and Orthodox

branches of Christianity.

• Denomination-a division or a branch that unites a number

of local congregations into a single administrative body-

Baptist, Lutheran, Methodist denominations of


• Sect-has several meanings-

– A relatively small group that broke away from an bigger group


– An organized ecclesiastical body or

– A dissenting or schismatic religious body or

– A religious denomination-such as sects of Islam

Page 7: Neb  religion

Classifications of Religions

• Universalizing religions – religions that

actively seek converts because members believe

they offer belief systems of universal

appropriateness and appeal.

• Ethnic religions – religions whose adherents

are born into the faith and whose members do

not actively seek converts.

Page 8: Neb  religion

Classifications of Religions

• Monotheistic religions – worship a single deity.

• Polytheistic religions – worship more than one

deity, even thousands.

• Animistic religions – belief that inanimate

objects posses spirits and should be revered.

Page 9: Neb  religion

Religious Typology

• Monotheistic-belief in 1 god

• Polytheistic-belief in many

• Animistic-objects have spirits-trees, mountains, rivers

• Global or Universal-found all over the world-see converts-aim to be universal

• Evangelical-religions that seek new converts

• Cultural religion-limited to a national culture or a single region-Shinto, Daoism, etc.

Page 10: Neb  religion

Religions of the World

• Shamanism –

a community faith tradition in which people follow their shaman, a religious leader, teacher, healer, and visionary.

Page 11: Neb  religion
Page 12: Neb  religion
Page 13: Neb  religion
Page 14: Neb  religion

Where did the Major Religions

of the World Originate, and

How do Religions Diffuse?

Page 15: Neb  religion

From the Hearth of South Asia

• Hinduism –

originated in Indus River Valley over 4000

years ago.

* ritual bathing, karma, reincarnation

sacred text: Vedas

sacred sites: Ganges River

social manifestation: caste system

diffusion: through South Asia and into

Southeast Asia

Page 16: Neb  religion


• Ranks next in size after

Islam, but it the oldest

organized religion.

• No bureaucracy-but does

have holy men.

• Vedas or stories, but not a

book like the Qu’ran, Bible

or Torah.

• Concentrated in South Asian


• Polytheistic-thousands of

gods-many cults-much


Page 17: Neb  religion

From the Hearth of South Asia

• Buddhism –

splintered from Hinduism 2500 years ago. Originated in a region from Nepal south to the Ganges River area.

* anyone can achieve salvation, reach enlightenment

founder: Siddartha (the Buddha)

sacred sites: stupas

diffusion: most strongly into Tibet in the north and into East Asia

Page 18: Neb  religion


• Originated in India as a

reform movement of


• Founded by Siddhartha

Gautama or the Buddha in

5th cent. BC.

• A strongly regional faith-it

remains strong in SE Asia,

China and Japan, but died

out in India.

• Four Noble Truths and the

Eight Fold Path are the

guiding principles.

Page 19: Neb  religion

Shinto Shrine

In Kyoto, Japan,

this Shinto shrine

is visible after

walking through a

torii – a gateway

usually formed by

two wooden posts

and topped by two

horizontal beams.

Buddhism is mixed with local religions in some places. In Japan,

Buddhism is mixed with the local religion, Shintoism.

Page 20: Neb  religion
Page 21: Neb  religion


• A Japanese ethnic religion based on animism and shamanism.

• Was modified by introduction of Buddhism-closely related today-many Japanese practice both.

• Reverence for nature and the land-emperor seen as divine.

• Belief in kami or spirits

• Used by militants as a nationalistic religion in 1930s to unify the country in war time.

Page 22: Neb  religion

From the Hearth of Huang He (Yellow)

River Valley

• Taoism –

originated in China more than 2500 years ago

* oneness of humanity and nature

founder: Lao-Tsu

sacred text: “Book of the Way”

social manifestation: Feng Shui

diffusion: East Asia

Page 23: Neb  religion

Chinese Religions

• Confucianism-mainly a philosophy of life founded by K’ung Fu-tze in 6th cent. BC

• Became a state religion of China-emphasized duty, social order and respect of others

• Daoism or Taoism “the Way” founded by Lao Zi, a reverence and harmony with nature-easily co-existed with Confucianism and Buddhism

Page 24: Neb  religion

From the Hearth of the

Eastern Mediterranean

• Judaism –

originated in Southwest Asia about 4000 years ago.

* first major monotheistic religion, covenant between God (one God) and Abraham (the chosen people) sacred text: Torah founder: Abraham

sacred sites: Jerusalem (Western Wall), land between the Mediterranean and the Jordan River

social manifestation: Zionism diffusion: into European cities during the diaspora,

into N. America during WWII, into Israel over

last 50 years

Page 25: Neb  religion


• One of the world’s oldest


• Monotheistic religion that

evolved in Southwest Asia

• 3 branches-Orthodox,

Conservative and Reformed

• Not evangelical-does not seek


• Concentrated in Israel, but

widely scattered in Middle

East, North Africa, Russia,

Ukraine, Europe and the


Page 26: Neb  religion

Shamanism & Traditional Religions

• Community faith and traditional religion which centers around a shaman-religious leader, healer, visionary.

• Small isolated groups in Africa, SE Asia, East Asia and Native America

• Traditional religions in Africa believe in a god creator and provider as well as spirits and an afterlife.

Page 27: Neb  religion

From the Hearth of the Eastern

Mediterranean • Christianity –

originated in Southwest Asia about 2000 years ago.

* monotheistic religion, follow teachings of Jesus to

achieve eternal life

sacred text: Bible

founder: Jesus (son of God)

sacred sites: Bethlehem, Jerusalem

split in the church:

* split into Eastern Orthodox and Roman

Catholic churches in 1054

* Protestant sect split off in 1400s and 1500s

diffusion: into Western Europe, and then world wide

during colonialism and after.

Page 28: Neb  religion


• It has the largest number of followers and is the most widely dispersed with 1.6 billion or 40% of the population

• Roman Catholicism is the largest segment and is found in Europe, North American and Latin America.

• Protestantism dominates in Northern Europe, North America, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.

• Eastern Orthodox is found in Eastern Europe, Russia and Ethiopia.

Page 29: Neb  religion

First Split in Christianity, 1054 CE Western Roman empire = Roman Catholicism

Eastern Roman empire = Eastern Orthodox

Page 30: Neb  religion

•The Eastern Orthodox

Church makes up 14% of

Christianity and is a loose

collection of 14 self-

governing churches in

Eastern Europe and the

Middle East.

•To the right are the spires

of St. Basil’s Cathedral in

the Kremlin of Moscow.

Notice the Orthodox cross

on the onion-domed spire.

Page 31: Neb  religion

•The Cathedral of the Assumption, Moscow

Page 32: Neb  religion
Page 33: Neb  religion
Page 34: Neb  religion
Page 35: Neb  religion
Page 36: Neb  religion

From the Hearth of the Eastern


• Islam –

originated on Arabian peninsula about 1500 years ago.

* monotheistic religion, revelations Muhammad

received from Allah, Five Pillars.

sacred text: Qu’ran founder: Muhammad

sacred sites: Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem split in the church:

* shortly after Muhammad’s death, split into Sunni Muslims (great majority)

Shi’ite Muslims (concentrated in Iran)

diffusion: across Arabian peninsula, across North

Africa, into Spain and also east into Southeast Asia

Page 37: Neb  religion

The Diffusion of Islam

Page 38: Neb  religion


• Islam is the 2nd largest

and fastest growing

religion with 1 billion


• It has 2 main sects or

divisions-Sunni, the

majority and Shiite

centered in Iran & Iraq.

• It is dominant in North

Africa, Southwest Asia

and extends into Central

and Southeast Asia

Page 39: Neb  religion
Page 40: Neb  religion

Nation of Islam • Founded in 1930s as an African-

American modified form of Islam.

• Ideology of nationalism and modified Islam founded on the principle of freeing blacks from white oppression.

• 1950s –60s Malcolm X his militant speeches increased followers

• Over 7 m. Muslims in the US, about 1 million are Nation of Islam Muslim.

• Louis Farrakhan’s anti-semitism brought negative attention.

Page 41: Neb  religion

Government Impact on Religion

The Soviet Union:

- Had an official

policy of atheism

- Discouraged

religious practice

- Drew boundaries

for political

control that

separated ethnic

groups in small


Page 42: Neb  religion

Armenia and Azerbaijan Soviet Union’s divide-and-diminish plan

Page 43: Neb  religion

Disposition of the Deceased -

Each religion approaches the disposition of the deceased in

different ways, and cultural landscapes reflect the religious







Page 44: Neb  religion

Antwerp, Belgium

Religion’s impact in

history and culture is

evident in its centrality

in many places

Page 45: Neb  religion

Hearths of Religion and Philosophy by 500 BCE

Page 46: Neb  religion

Hindu Temple –

Angkor Wat, Cambodia. This temple suffers from neglect

and destruction now, as Buddhism has supplanted Hinduism

in most of Cambodia.

Page 47: Neb  religion

Buddhist Stupas -

72 stupas, each containing a sculpture of the Buddha in

meditation were built around 800 CE and still stand in

Borobudur, Indonesia.

Page 48: Neb  religion

Western Wall, Jerusalem

Page 49: Neb  religion

Jewish neighborhoods in European Cities

the Old Jewish Cemetery in Prague, the Czech Republic

Page 50: Neb  religion

Switzerland concentrations of Catholics and Protestants

by canton and commune

Page 51: Neb  religion


(for call to prayer) stands on the Sabah

State Mosque

in Kota Kinabalu,


Page 52: Neb  religion

Diffusion of Islam

into Europe large mosque in Paris,


Page 53: Neb  religion

Rise of Secularism

• Secularism –

indifference to or rejection of organized

religious affiliations and ideas.

- Where is secularism on the rise and why?

Page 54: Neb  religion

The Rise of Secularism

• World wide 4/6 billion adhere to a religion

• Separation of Church & State a new concept

• Today in the Developed World religion has declined in importance

• Secularism is most common in urban, industrialized nations

• Anti-religious ideologies like communism discouraged organized worship

Page 55: Neb  religion

Migration plays a large role in the diffusion

of religions, both universalizing and ethnic.

As Europe becomes more secular, migrants

from outside of Europe continue to settle in

the region. Imagine Europe 30 years from

now. Predict where in Europe secularism will

be the most prominent and where religious

adherence will strengthen.

Page 56: Neb  religion

How is Religion seen in the Cultural Landscape?

Page 57: Neb  religion

Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage

• Sacred Sites

places or spaces people infuse with religious


• Pilgrimage

purposeful travel to a religious site to pay

respects or participate in a ritual at the site.

Page 58: Neb  religion

Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Vatican City-Pope John Paul II greeted pilgrims in St.

Peter’s Square

Page 59: Neb  religion

Sacred Sites and Rituals At Saint Declan’s Holy Well in Ardmore, Ireland

Pilgrims hang scraps of clothing as offerings

This practice is common at sacred sites in Far Eastern


Page 60: Neb  religion

Sacred Sites of Jerusalem Jerusalem is sacred to three major religions:

Judaism (Western Wall)

Christianity (Church of the Holy Sepulchre)

Islam (Dome of the Rock)

Page 61: Neb  religion

Sacred Landscapes of Hinduism Hinduism – pilgrimages follow prescribed routes, and

rituals are followed by millions.


India on the

Ganges River

where Hindus




Page 62: Neb  religion

• The Ganges is a sacred river to Hindus, a symbol of life without end. Pilgrims come from all over to bathe in its holy waters.

Page 63: Neb  religion

• As Shiva destroys the Universe with fire, Hindus cremate their dead.

Page 64: Neb  religion


Landscapes of


Swedogon Pagodo in

Yangon, Myanmar

Eight hairs of the

Buddha are preserved

under the dome (chedi)

Page 65: Neb  religion

• Buddhism came to Tibet from India in the 8th century. Tibetan Buddhism is a mixture of Tantric and other Mahayana teachings developed further by spiritual leaders or monks called lamas.

• A prayer wheel contains a mantra, a prayer or chant that is repeated many times. Each turn of the wheel counts as a prayer said and merit gained.

Page 66: Neb  religion


Landscapes of


Catholic Churches

Are often located in the

center of European cities,

with spires reaching far

above the other buildings.

Page 67: Neb  religion

Spanish Catholic names are found in the South West

Page 68: Neb  religion



names are

common in


Page 69: Neb  religion


Landscapes of


Protestant Churches

This church in

Singapore is a Church

of England church in

city surrounded by

Buddhists, Hindus,

and Muslims

Page 70: Neb  religion

• Roman Catholicism is

the largest branch of the

Christian faith. The

Vatican in Rome is the

headquarters of the

Papacy and a powerful

symbol to Catholics

around the world.

• European cities were

dominated by the spires

of great cathedrals and

churches until the 20th


Page 71: Neb  religion
Page 72: Neb  religion
Page 73: Neb  religion

Day of the Dead

Altar in Notre Dame

de Chicago.

Page 74: Neb  religion

United Kingdom

Of Great Britain

England’s Cross of St. George Scotland’s cross of St. Andrew

Page 75: Neb  religion


The cross of St. George on

The flags of Denmark,

Norway and Finland.

Page 76: Neb  religion

Religious Landscapes in the United States

Page 77: Neb  religion
Page 78: Neb  religion

Protestant & Catholic Landscapes in the United

States Scandinavian Lutheran Church St. Mary’s Catholic Church

Page 79: Neb  religion

Store front church in

Toronto, Canada

A public bus in Port-au-Prince,


Page 80: Neb  religion

Sacred Landscapes of Islam Muslim Mosques-Dome of this mosque in Isfahan, Iran demonstrates

the importance of geometric art evident in Muslim architecture.

Page 81: Neb  religion

The Hajj-Pilgrims circle the holy Kaaba in the Grand

Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia during the Hajj.

Page 82: Neb  religion


The Dome of the Rock, with its gilded dome and octagonal

base, stands in Jerusalem.

After the Great Mosque at Mecca and the Prophet’s tomb at

Medina, it is Islam’s third holiest site.

According to Muslim tradition, the rock at its center was the

point from which the Prophet Muhammad visited heaven

one night in 619.

Page 83: Neb  religion

The Dome of the Rock

Page 84: Neb  religion

Review states of the Middle East & North Africa Before the Test

Page 85: Neb  religion

•The crescent, seen on

top of many mosques,

originally signified the

waxing of the moon.

It is associated with

special acts of

devotion to God.

•The star and crescent

appear on many flags

of countries that are

mainly Muslim.

Page 86: Neb  religion

Pakistan Turkey

Saudi Arabia

Page 87: Neb  religion
Page 88: Neb  religion

What Role does Religion play in Political Conflicts?

Page 89: Neb  religion

Conflicts along Religious Borders

• Interfaith Boundaries

– Boundaries between the world’s major faiths.

• Intrafaith Boundaries

– Boundaries within a single major faith.

Page 90: Neb  religion

Interfaith Boundary in Africa

Page 91: Neb  religion

Israel & Palestine

Page 92: Neb  religion

Landscapes of Settlements Israelis have had a policy of building settlements

for Jews in the Occupied Territories

Page 93: Neb  religion

Landscape of the Gaza Strip, 2005 In 2005, the Israeli government pulled out of the Gaza Strip, burning

down Jewish settlements and handing control over to Palestinians.

Page 94: Neb  religion

The West Bank with a the proposed security

wall, parts of which the

Israeli government has

already built.

Page 95: Neb  religion

The Horn of Africa

Amharic (Coptic)

Christianity is in

central Ethiopia

Islam diffused into

the Horn of Africa

Indigenous religions

remain in pockets

Page 96: Neb  religion

The Former Yugoslavia

Genocide & Ethnic Cleansing

Page 97: Neb  religion

Northern Ireland Identities are tied to

Religion, but are

deepened by:

Economic- colonial

experiences &

activity spaces


Boal’s studies in

Northern Ireland

demonstrate that

solving a religious

conflict is typically

not about theology; it

is about identity

Page 98: Neb  religion


Fundamentalism & Extremism

• Religious fundamentalism – a return to the basics of their faith.

found in Christianity, Judaism, and Islam

• Religious extremism –

fundamentalism carried to the point of violence.

found in Christianity, Judaism, and Islam

Page 99: Neb  religion

Islamic Extremists and Jihad an Islamic holy war against the West

Page 100: Neb  religion

Boal’s studies in Northern Ireland demonstrate that

solving a religious conflict is typically not about

theology; it is about identity. You are assigned the

potentially Nobel Prize-winning task of “solving” the

conflict either in Northern Ireland or in Israel and

Palestine. Using Boal’s example, determine how you

can alter activity spaces and change identities to create

the conditions for long-lasting peace in one of these

major conflict zones.

Page 101: Neb  religion

The End