Nelson MandelaBy. Harris Nazri9 .B
His Early Life before participating in Politics. ..He was born in Mvezo, a small village located in the district of Umtata. Father served as chief of Mvezo, and had 4 wives, Mandel was born to his fathers 3rd wife. Attended Clarkebury Boarding Institute at the age of sixteen when his father passed away from tuberculosis. Studied bachelor of arts after enrolling at the Fort Hare University. After leaving Fort Hare, upon arrival back to South Africa, he found a job at a mine as a guard. Then as an articled clerk at the Johannesburg law firm. Completed B.A degree at the university of South Africa, then he began studying law at the University of Witwatersrand where he befriended students and future anti-apartheid political activists.
Early Political ActivityMandela began actively participating in politics after the 1948 election victory of the Afrikaner-dominated national party. This group supported the Apartheid policy of racial segregation.He led the African National Congress in both the Defiance Campaign and the 1955 congress of the people (which adopted the Freedom Charter that provided the basic of the anti-apartheid cause).Him and Oliver Tambo (his lawyer) operated a law firm that provided free or low cost legal cost to many blacks that lacked attorney representation during his time in order to help the blacks.
3Armed Anti-Apartheid Activities Became the leader of the ANC armed wing in 1961. He carried out sabotage missions against the military and government, possible guerilla warfare if the anti-apartheid campaign failed.Raise funds for the MK and and arranged paramilitary training for them. Guerilla warfare soon took place later mostly in the 1980s against the apartheid government. Civilian casualties. Admitted that the ANC also violet some human rights in its campaign against apartheid. Described the situation in South Africa as increased repression, violence from the apartheid government in his response to the non-violent protest campaign, and couldnt achieve any progress. Couldnt enter the US form the South Africas apartheid government era designations as terrorist.Arrest, trial and ImprisonmentArrested in 5th August, 1962 after living on the run for 17 months thanks to the help of CIAHe was imprisoned In Johannesburg Port for 5 yearsANC leaders were too arrested in 11th July, 1963,Brought in the Rivonia Trial charged by chief prosecutor Dr. Percy Yutar with four charges of capital offense, crimes equivalent to treason, plotting foreign invasion of South Africa.For reasoning ANCs choice to use violence as tactics to resist against apartheid during its state of emergency. He then was imprisoned in Robben Island for the next 18-20 years.While being imrisoned, tudy with the University of London by correspondence through its External Programme and received the degree of Bachelor of Laws.
Release AND NegotiationsReleased from victor Verster Prison in Paarlon 11th february 1990. He made a speech declaring to peace, reconciliation to the white minority Returned to the ANC to between 1990-94 leading the party to multi-racial negotiations that led to the nations first multi racial electionsOliver Tambo became the National Chairperson.
Presidency of south AfricaSouth Africas first multi racial election as granted on 27th of April, 27th April. ANC won 62% of the votes Nelson Mandela was South Africas first black president
Thank youBibliographies:"Nelson Mandela." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 10 Apr. 2011. ."Nelson Mandela - Biography." Nobelprize.org. Web. 10 Apr. 2011. ."Nelson Mandela Foundation Memory - Biography." Nelson Mandela Foundation Home. Web. 10 Apr. 2011. ."BBC News - Mandela's Life and times." BBC - Homepage. Web. 10 Apr. 2011. .