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Networking Basics Presentation

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  • Networking BasicsComm 272: Digital Technologies

  • Why bother networking?Networking any method of connecting your PC to another computer system or common device.LAN, WAN, peer-to-peerFile sharing (MP3, common data), applications, email, printingOnline/LAN gamingNetworking Basics

  • Basic hardware required for networkingComputer system or device with a network cardNetwork (Ethernet) cableWireless (later)Networking Basics

  • IP AddressesInternet Protocol AddressMade up of 4 groupings of numbers used to identify computers on a network or the internet.Only certain groups of IP addresses can talk together, based on how equipment is configured.IP Address is a unique identifier of a single device (computer, printer, etc) on a networkCan be static or dynamicNetworking Basics

  • Whats a Subnet?As mentioned, a network is a group of computers configured to communicate with each other.A subnet allows for multiple groups within a network to be further refined.A subnet allows for all Lab computers to be separated from Faculty computers, and all Student computers to be separated as well.So why separate? Security, speed, manageability Networking Basics

  • Whats a Gateway?The device that directs a devices inbound and outbound traffic.Represented by an IP address.Can be any of several types of devices, but it must be on the same network as the device in question.Networking Basics

  • Networking EquipmentNetwork CardNetwork CableHubSwitchRouterFirewallNetworking Basics

  • Connection and Transfer Speeds ExplainedData speeds measured in kilobits per second (kbps) and megabits per second (mbps)Modem speeds range from 14.4kbps to 28.8 to 33.6 to 56ISDN (older digital dialup method) consists of paired channels of 64kbps lines, allowing for up to 128k transmit and receive.Cable modem speeds, typically, range from 500k to 2.5mbDSL speeds vary, based on the type of service desired. However, typical is between 256kbps and 1.5mbps.

    Networking Basics

  • Connection and Transfer Speeds ExplainedLAN Local area network speeds are based on the types of equipment used. Wired networks support speeds at 10Mb, 100Mb, and 1000Mb (1gb).WAN Wide area networks support whatever speeds are supported by Internet Service Providers, anywhere from dialup at 56K to OC192 at 9.95Gb. Networking Basics

  • WAN Connection and Transfer SpeedsDialup 28.8 to 56kISDN 64 to 128kCable 500k to 2.5mbDSL 256k to 1.5mbT1 1.54mbT3 45mbOC1 52mbOC3 155mbOC48 2.4gbOC192 9.95gbNetworking Basics

  • WAN Connection and Transfer SpeedsDialup 28.8k to 56kISDN 64k to 128kCable 500k to 2.5mbDSL 256k to 1.5mbT1 1.54mbT3 45mbOC1 52mbOC3 155mbOC48 2.4gbOC192 9.95gbNetworking Basics

  • Network Equipment ExplainedNetwork Card the component that is attached to the computer, and allows a cable to be connected. Without a network card (or NIC, network interface card), a computer cannot be configured for networking, which includes an IP address, subnet, and gateway.Network Cable any type of cable (most commonly Ethernet), that connects to a devices network port on one end, and to a networking device such as a hub or switch on the other end.

    Networking Basics

  • Network Equipment ExplainedHub a hub is a dumb device that allows computers to connect to each other based on IP address. A hub is a network device, but typically does not have an IP address.A hub doesnt think about what it receives. It simply forwards data on to all connected devices.Slower, older technology.Not good for high-traffic environmentsSupport speeds of 10mbps or 10/100mbps Networking Basics

  • Network Equipment ExplainedSwitch a switch is a smarter device that allows computers to connect to each other based on IP addresses.A switch is a network device, and oftentimes will have an IP address for management and configuration.A switch processes everything it receives, and keeps a record of all devices connected to any of its ports.A switch analyzes incoming traffic (known as packets), and sends that traffic to only the intended recipient device.Switches are much faster, efficient, secure, and expensiveSupport speeds of 10/100/1000mbps Networking Basics

  • Network Equipment ExplainedRouter a router is a device that connects networks to other networks, and allows these different network to talk to each other.Built on route tables of where other networks are connectedInternet is connected by routersEssentially, connects a LAN to another network Networking Basics

  • Network Equipment ExplainedFirewall a firewall is a device used for security purposes, to control what types of traffic are allowed into and out of a network.Identifies services available on the inside of a protected network, and directs that traffic to the appropriate destination.Directs web traffic to a web server, email traffic to an email server, etc.Prevents any other access to other devices or servicesWindows XP includes a basic personal firewall as part of the NIC configuration Networking Basics

  • Networking Basics

    Ethernet

    IBM Compatible

    Laser printer

    Cloud

    Corporate Networks

    Users

    Printers

    Public Internet

    WAN Frame Relay

    Servers

    Office Networks

    Users

    Printers

    Servers

    Internet AccessInternet EmailRemote Access

    Corporate Office/Host Site

    Technology Center/Remote Site

    Router

    Firewall

    Router

    Switches

    Router

    Switch

  • Networking Basics

    IBM Compatible

    Ethernet

    Laser printer

    Firewall

    Router

    Cloud

    Router

    SW7/2980G Switch- 192.10.1.3/24

    SW8/2980G Switch 192.10.1.6/24

    SW1/Cisco 2948G Switch192.50.1.8/24

    User Desktops

    User SegmentVLAN 40 192.10.104.x/24

    Printers

    Development Workstations/Servers

    Printers

    Development SegmentVLAN 20 192.50.x.x/24

    Corp Backbone SegmentBridge-Group 10 192.10.1.x/24

    Corp Production Servers

    Printers

    DMZ Web SegmentVLAN 70 172.16.100.x/24

    www.intpart.comNATTED address209.48.159.199 -> 172.16.100.199

    SW3/Cisco 2924-XL Switch192.10.1.254/24

    IT SegmentVLAN 30 192.10.103.x/24

    IT Workstations

    Printer

    SW4/Cisco 2924-XL Switch192.10.103.5/24

    Watchguard Firewall209.48.159.193/27

    SW6/Cisco 2948G-L3 Switch192.10.1.4/24Bridge-Group 10,20,40,70

    SW2/Cisco 2948G-L3 Switch192.10.1.9/24

    Cisco 2524Intermedia Uplink

    Internet

    Corporate 3640e0192.10.1.1s0 10.100.1.1BRI0 172.16.1.1

    ISDN DDR

    Digex T1

    WAN Frame Relay

    Full Corporate Network1/2001

    100MB Trunk

    Fiber Gig Trunk

  • VPN Virtual Private NetworkVPNs allow devices to connect to networks over secure tunnelsAllows a computer or network of computers to connect to a remote network as if it were physically connected.VPNs operate over Internet connectionsNetworking Basics

  • Home NetworkingHome networking is based on the same principlesA computer has an IP address and connects to a hub or switchThe hub or switch connects to a routerThe router is connected to the Internet connectionAllows multiple computers to access each other, as well as share the same internet connectionSome home-networking routers have switch and firewall technology built in, for ease of setup, configuration, and use.Very easy to configure, and most ISPs now support use of home networking.Networking Basics

  • Wireless NetworkingBuilt on the same principles of wired networks, but the equipment used is different.Wireless Routers, Access Points, and Wireless Network CardsProtocol used is 802.11a/b/g each has different properties Networking Basics

  • Wireless Networking802.11b details Most popular, cheapestUp to 11Mbps transfer speedRange of between 100 and 150 feet, assuming no obstaclesPublic Hotspots (ie, Starbucks, etc) operate on 802.11b Networking Basics

  • Wireless Networking802.11a details Relatively new technologyUp to 54Mbps transfer speedMore costlyShorter range, between 25-75 feetNo public hotspots at this timeNot compatible with other wireless protocols Networking Basics

  • Wireless Networking802.11g details Growing popularity, fairly inexpensiveNewest home wireless networking technologyUp to 54Mbps transfer speedRange of between 100 and 150 feetCompatible with 802.11b access points at 11Mbps speedNetworking Basics

  • Wireless NetworkingDifferent configuration requirements include Network name (SSID), Network Key, and WEP (if used) for security and access control.http://www.linksys.com for more info on wireless and home networking devices and options.Networking Basics

  • Other ThoughtsThe Internet is really the interconnection of many individual networksWhen you connect to a website, youre connecting to a network in a different location.Networking Basics

  • Other Thoughts DNSDNS Domain Name Service associates an Internet domain name with an IP address.You can connect to a website by a name (ie. www.vanguard.edu) or by an IP address (ie. http://66.161.76.168)Email works the same way. Send an email to [email protected] rather than [email protected] if I change networks?Networking Basics

  • Other Thoughts DNSWait! Why are those numbers different when theyre both vanguard.edu?Because theyre set up to be different servers: www and mail. If they were the same server, theyd both be the same IP address.www.vanguard.edu = 66.161.76.168mail.vanguard.edu = 66.161.76.159Domain name is a friendly, easy way to access a website.

    Networking Basics

  • Other Thoughts Network AuthenticationNetwork Access and AuthenticationNetworks are groups of computers with access to shared, common resources.These networks can operate in a peer-to-peer capacity using workgroups, or a Domain model for enhanced resource security and access control.Networking Basics

  • Other Thoughts Network AuthenticationWorkgroup connections are based on local PC security configurations. If you want access to my music, I need to give you a password to get into the folder where I keep them.Networking Basics

  • Other Thoughts Network AuthenticationA Domain is a group of computers and users with access to common shared resources, also a part of the domain, where access security is managed from a common location, a Domain Controller.To get access to a domain resource, first you need a domain account. Then an administrator will assign your account access to specific resources. Networking Basics

  • Questions?Networking Basics

  • Networking Basics

    Firewall

    Hub

    Tower box

    Firewall 1

    Firewall 2

    SJ-SI-IN-1MNG 10.1.1.33RS1 10.1.1.28RS3 10.1.1.30RS7 10.1.1.40

    SJ-SI-IN-2MNG 10.1.1.34RS2 10.1.1.29RS4 10.1.1.31RS6 10.1.1.39

    SJ-SI-OUT-1PRIMARYMNG 64.244.242.151VIP1 64.244.242.150VIP2 64.244.242.153RS1 64.244.242.154RS3 64.244.242.156RS7 64.244.242.147

    SJ-SI-OUT-2STAND BYMNG 64.244.242.152VIP1 64.244.242.150VIP2 64.244.242.153RS2 64.244.242.155RS4 64.244.242.157RS6 64.244.242.146

    L2 Switch

    L2 Switch

    AA GIG

    AA GIG

    SYNC PORT

    SYNC PORT

    GIG

    GIG

    GIG

    PORT 9

    PORT 9

    PORT 1&2

    PORT 1&2

    PORT 8

    PORT 8

    PORT 9

    PORT 9

    PORT 10

    PORT 10

    PORT 1&2

    PORT 1&2

    X

    64.244.242.145

    64.244.242.148MAC

    10.1.1.3MAC

    64.244.242.149MAC

    10.1.1.4MAC

    SVDIG-WWW-P0110.1.1.28

    SVDIG-WWW-P0310.1.1.30

    SVDIG-WWW-P0210.1.1.29

    SVDIG-WWW-P0410.1.1.31

    ROUTER192.10.100.1

    Directfit Website Load Balancing Configuration

    UPD BRussell03/2002

    STP

    SVDIG-STR-P0110.1.1.39

    SVDIG-STR-P0210.1.1.40

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