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New Approach for the Design of High RAP HMA

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New Approach for the Design of High RAP HMA. Ramon Bonaquist, Ph.D., P.E. Chief Operating Officer Advanced Asphalt Technologies, LLC. Results From Recent Laboratory Efforts. Evaluate Plant Produced Mixtures RAP Contents of 25 % or More 5% Recycled Asphalt Shingles. Acknowledgements. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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Simple Performance TestNEAUPG MEETING OCTOBER 19, 2005
New Approach for the Design of High RAP HMA
Ramon Bonaquist, Ph.D., P.E.
NEAUPG MEETING OCTOBER 19, 2005
Results From Recent Laboratory Efforts
Evaluate Plant Produced Mixtures
5% Recycled Asphalt Shingles
Advanced Asphalt Technologies, LLC
NEAUPG MEETING OCTOBER 19, 2005
Acknowledgements
Agencies
NEAUPG MEETING OCTOBER 19, 2005
Trends
NEAUPG MEETING OCTOBER 19, 2005
AASHTO M323 Design Guidance
Gradation
Angularity
15 -25 % RAP, use one grade softer
> 25 % RAP, use blending chart
Advanced Asphalt Technologies, LLC
NEAUPG MEETING OCTOBER 19, 2005
Issues
AASHTO M323 Binder Recommendations Assume Complete Mixing of New and Recycled Binder
AASHTO M323 Does Not Address RAS Binders
Much Different Rheology than Paving Binders
Advanced Asphalt Technologies, LLC
NEAUPG MEETING OCTOBER 19, 2005
Our Approach
Degree of Mixing of New and Recycled Binder
Effective Grade of the Combined Binder
Tests
NEAUPG MEETING OCTOBER 19, 2005
Finding
Dynamic Modulus Data Can Be Used to Evaluate RAP and RAS Mixtures
Test Is Highly Sensitive to Binder Stiffness
Assess Degree of Mixing of New and Recycled Binders
Interpreted to Estimate the Effective Grade of the Combined Binder
Relatively Easy to Perform with the Simple Performance Test System
Advanced Asphalt Technologies, LLC
NEAUPG MEETING OCTOBER 19, 2005
Simple Performance Test System
Three Performance Related Tests
NEAUPG MEETING OCTOBER 19, 2005
Simple Performance Test System
Technician Friendly
NEAUPG MEETING OCTOBER 19, 2005
How?
Perform Dynamic Modulus Master Curve Testing on Plant Produced Mixture
Standard Test in Simple Performance Test System
Use Mixture Modulus Data to Estimate Effective Binder Modulus
Hirsch Model
Advanced Asphalt Technologies, LLC
NEAUPG MEETING OCTOBER 19, 2005
Examples
Compare Estimated Binder Modulus With Recovered Binder Modulus
Example 1. 9.5 mm Mixture With PG 64-22 Produced in a Batch Plant
Example 2. 9.5 mm Mixture with PG 64-22 & 5% RAS Produced in a Batch Plant
Example 3. 9.5 mm Mixture with PG 64-22 & 35 % Fractionated RAP Produced in a Double Barrel
Example 4. 19.0 mm Mixture with PG 64-22 & 45 % Fractionated RAP Produced in a Double Barrel
Advanced Asphalt Technologies, LLC
NEAUPG MEETING OCTOBER 19, 2005
9.5 mm With PG 64-22, Batch Plant
README
Sterling, VA 20166
23.0156207583
0.0434487521
2.2727783479
187.4037806127
10
1.59
1.2113664443
-1.4127635686
0.0386577374
25.8680426663
Master Curve Model:
log10 (E*) = Delta + (Max - Delta) / (1+EXP (Beta + Gamma* log10 (tr)))
Reference Temperature:
Master Curve Model:
log10 (E*) = Delta + (Max - Delta) / (1+EXP (Beta + Gamma* log10 (tr)))
Reference Temperature:
27.0685340241
37.9707353926
21.4808823569
19.1611181323
34.5230411823
31.3644655547
12.2102626263
26.0540429104
35.9345051527
8.6611490295
19.9824768219
35.3888944179
This workbook is used in conjunction with the Simple Performance Test System to develop dynamic
modulus master curves. It has the capability to solve a modified version of the 2002 Design Guide master
curve equation, Equation 1.
Max
The maximum limiting modulus is estimated from mixture volumetric properties using the Hirsch model
and a limiting binder modulus of 1 GPa (145,000 psi), Equations 2 and 3.
ú
ú
ú
ú
û
ù
ê
ê
ê
ê
ë
é
= limiting maximum mixture dynamic modulus
VMA = Voids in mineral aggregates, %
VFA = Voids filled with asphalt, %
(
)
= fitting parameters
This workbook is used in conjunction with the Simple Performance Test System to develop dynamicmodulus master curves. It has the capability to solve a modified version of the 2002 Design Guide master
curve equation, Equation 1.
Max = limiting maximum modulus
, , and c fitting parameters
The maximum limiting modulus is estimated from mixture volumetric properties using the Hirsch model
and a limiting binder modulus of 1 GPa (145,000 psi), Equations 2 and 3.
)(000,435000,200,4
100
1
1
000,10
000,435
100
1000,200,4|*|
max
VFA
VMA
VMA
P
VMAxVFA
VMA
PE
c
c
(2)
where
58.0
58.0
)(000,435
650
)(000,435
20
VMA
VFA
VMA
VFA
P
c
(3)
E*
max
= limiting maximum mixture dynamic modulus
VMA = Voids in mineral aggregates, %
VFA = Voids filled with asphalt, %
If viscosity-temperature data are not available for the binder used in the mixture, the workbook can be used
to solve a master curve equation using shift factors from the Arrhenius equation, Equation 4.
25.295
11
14714.19
)log(
1
*)log(
T
E
t
a
e
Max
E
(4)
Where:
1.
3.
A spreadsheet to perform the 2002 Design Guide fit (VTSFIT)
4.
A summary report spreadsheet of the 2002 Design Guide fit
(VTSMASTERREPORT)
5.
6.
(ARRHENIUSMASTERREPORT)
DATA Spreadsheet
All data needed to develop a master curve is input in the highlighted cells in the
DATA spreadsheet. This includes VMA and VFA for computing the limiting maximum
modulus, A and VTS parameters for the binder for use in the 2002 Design Guide shift
factors, the reference temperature, and the measured dynamic modulus data. If only two
specimens were tested, leave the data cells for Specimen 3 blank. Note: A and VTS
parameters are only needed for the 2002 Design Guide master curve (VTSFIT)
VTSFIT Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet is set up for using the solver function to fit the measured data to the
2002 Design Guide master curve, Equation 1. Use the solver function tool on the yellow
highlighted cell (Cell J25) to minimize the sum of the squared errors between the
measured and predicted values. Initial estimates for the optimization should be input in
Cells B4 to B7. Suggested initial estimates are given. After solver optimizes Cell J25,
the final values of the master curve parameters are given in Cells B4 to B7.
VTSMASTERREPORT Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet provides an output of the optimized master curve from the VTSFIT
spreadsheet. It includes the measured data, the optimized master curve parameters, and
plots of the dynamic modulus master curve, the shift factors, and the phase angle master
curve.
ARRHENIUSFIT Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet is set up for using the solver function to fit the measured data to a
master curve using Arrhenius temperature shift factors, Equation 4. Use the solver
function tool on the yellow highlighted cell (Cell I25) to minimize the sum of the squared
errors between the measured and predicted values. Initial estimates for the optimization
should be input in Cells B4 to B7. Suggested initial estimates are given. After solver
optimizes Cell I25, the final values of the master curve parameters are given in Cells B4
to B7.
ARRHENIUSMASTERREPORT Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet provides an output of the optimized master curve from the
ARRHENIUSFIT spreadsheet. It includes the measured data, the optimized master curve
parameters, and plots of the dynamic modulus master curve, the shift factors, and the
phase angle master curve.
1.
3.
A spreadsheet to perform the 2002 Design Guide fit (VTSFIT)
4.
A summary report spreadsheet of the 2002 Design Guide fit
(VTSMASTERREPORT)
5.
6.
(ARRHENIUSMASTERREPORT)
DATA Spreadsheet
All data needed to develop a master curve is input in the highlighted cells in the
DATA spreadsheet. This includes VMA and VFA for computing the limiting maximum
modulus, A and VTS parameters for the binder for use in the 2002 Design Guide shift
factors, the reference temperature, and the measured dynamic modulus data. If only two
specimens were tested, leave the data cells for Specimen 3 blank. Note: A and VTS
parameters are only needed for the 2002 Design Guide master curve (VTSFIT)
VTSFIT Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet is set up for using the solver function to fit the measured data to the
2002 Design Guide master curve, Equation 1. Use the solver function tool on the yellow
highlighted cell (Cell J25) to minimize the sum of the squared errors between the
measured and predicted values. Initial estimates for the optimization should be input in
Cells B4 to B7. Suggested initial estimates are given. After solver optimizes Cell J25,
the final values of the master curve parameters are given in Cells B4 to B7.
VTSMASTERREPORT Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet provides an output of the optimized master curve from the VTSFIT
spreadsheet. It includes the measured data, the optimized master curve parameters, and
plots of the dynamic modulus master curve, the shift factors, and the phase angle master
curve.
ARRHENIUSFIT Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet is set up for using the solver function to fit the measured data to a
master curve using Arrhenius temperature shift factors, Equation 4. Use the solver
function tool on the yellow highlighted cell (Cell I25) to minimize the sum of the squared
errors between the measured and predicted values. Initial estimates for the optimization
should be input in Cells B4 to B7. Suggested initial estimates are given. After solver
optimizes Cell I25, the final values of the master curve parameters are given in Cells B4
to B7.
ARRHENIUSMASTERREPORT Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet provides an output of the optimized master curve from the
ARRHENIUSFIT spreadsheet. It includes the measured data, the optimized master curve
parameters, and plots of the dynamic modulus master curve, the shift factors, and the
phase angle master curve.
2. A data entry spreadsheet (DATA)
3. A spreadsheet to perform the 2002 Design Guide fit (VTSFIT)
4. A summary report spreadsheet of the 2002 Design Guide fit (VTSMASTERREPORT)
5. A spreadsheet to perform the Arrhenius fit (ARRHENIUSFIT)
6. A summary report spreadsheet for the Arrhenius fit (ARRHENIUSMASTERREPORT)
DATA Spreadsheet
All data needed to develop a master curve is input in the highlighted cells in the DATA spreadsheet. This includes VMA and VFA for computing the limiting maximum modulus, A and VTS parameters for the binder for use in the 2002 Design Guide shift factors, the reference temperature, and the measured dynamic modulus data. If only two specimens were tested, leave the data cells for Specimen 3 blank. Note: A and VTS parameters are only needed for the 2002 Design Guide master curve (VTSFIT)
VTSFIT Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet is set up for using the solver function to fit the measured data to the 2002 Design Guide master curve, Equation 1. Use the solver function tool on the yellow highlighted cell (Cell J25) to minimize the sum of the squared errors between the measured and predicted values. Initial estimates for the optimization should be input in Cells B4 to B7. Suggested initial estimates are given. After solver optimizes Cell J25, the final values of the master curve parameters are given in Cells B4 to B7.
VTSMASTERREPORT Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet provides an output of the optimized master curve from the VTSFIT spreadsheet. It includes the measured data, the optimized master curve parameters, and plots of the dynamic modulus master curve, the shift factors, and the phase angle master curve.
ARRHENIUSFIT Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet is set up for using the solver function to fit the measured data to a master curve using Arrhenius temperature shift factors, Equation 4. Use the solver function tool on the yellow highlighted cell (Cell I25) to minimize the sum of the squared errors between the measured and predicted values. Initial estimates for the optimization should be input in Cells B4 to B7. Suggested initial estimates are given. After solver optimizes Cell I25, the final values of the master curve parameters are given in Cells B4 to B7.
ARRHENIUSMASTERREPORT Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet provides an output of the optimized master curve from the ARRHENIUSFIT spreadsheet. It includes the measured data, the optimized master curve parameters, and plots of the dynamic modulus master curve, the shift factors, and the phase angle master curve.
MBD015A195B.doc
(
)
[
]
{
}
)
Max = limiting maximum modulus
(, (, ( and c fitting parameters
The maximum limiting modulus is estimated from mixture volumetric properties using the Hirsch model and a limiting binder modulus of 1 GPa (145,000 psi), Equations 2 and 3.
ú
ú
ú
ú
û
ù
ê
ê
ê
ê
ë
é
VMA = Voids in mineral aggregates, %
VFA = Voids filled with asphalt, %
(
)
NEAUPG MEETING OCTOBER 19, 2005
9.5 mm With PG 64-22 + 5% RAS, Batch Plant
README
Sterling, VA 20166
26.4606785844
0.0377919257
2.265000259
184.0773099451
10
1.59
1.258303614
-1.4597007383
0.0346975861
28.8204487219
Master Curve Model:
log10 (E*) = Delta + (Max - Delta) / (1+EXP (Beta + Gamma* log10 (tr)))
Reference Temperature:
Master Curve Model:
log10 (E*) = Delta + (Max - Delta) / (1+EXP (Beta + Gamma* log10 (tr)))
Reference Temperature:
454041.671350786
31670
296680.878734479
6630
165365.812229873
1114
78146.3557597868
175.7
31410.7922892483
34.14
10679.3499977627
6.607
3013.85083403
693.0731695212
127.8060835939
13.3998449109
This workbook is used in conjunction with the Simple Performance Test System to develop dynamic
modulus master curves. It has the capability to solve a modified version of the 2002 Design Guide master
curve equation, Equation 1.
Max
The maximum limiting modulus is estimated from mixture volumetric properties using the Hirsch model
and a limiting binder modulus of 1 GPa (145,000 psi), Equations 2 and 3.
ú
ú
ú
ú
û
ù
ê
ê
ê
ê
ë
é
= limiting maximum mixture dynamic modulus
VMA = Voids in mineral aggregates, %
VFA = Voids filled with asphalt, %
(
)
= fitting parameters
This workbook is used in conjunction with the Simple Performance Test System to develop dynamicmodulus master curves. It has the capability to solve a modified version of the 2002 Design Guide master
curve equation, Equation 1.
Max = limiting maximum modulus
, , and c fitting parameters
The maximum limiting modulus is estimated from mixture volumetric properties using the Hirsch model
and a limiting binder modulus of 1 GPa (145,000 psi), Equations 2 and 3.
)(000,435000,200,4
100
1
1
000,10
000,435
100
1000,200,4|*|
max
VFA
VMA
VMA
P
VMAxVFA
VMA
PE
c
c
(2)
where
58.0
58.0
)(000,435
650
)(000,435
20
VMA
VFA
VMA
VFA
P
c
(3)
E*
max
= limiting maximum mixture dynamic modulus
VMA = Voids in mineral aggregates, %
VFA = Voids filled with asphalt, %
If viscosity-temperature data are not available for the binder used in the mixture, the workbook can be used
to solve a master curve equation using shift factors from the Arrhenius equation, Equation 4.
25.295
11
14714.19
)log(
1
*)log(
T
E
t
a
e
Max
E
(4)
Where:
1.
3.
A spreadsheet to perform the 2002 Design Guide fit (VTSFIT)
4.
A summary report spreadsheet of the 2002 Design Guide fit
(VTSMASTERREPORT)
5.
6.
(ARRHENIUSMASTERREPORT)
DATA Spreadsheet
All data needed to develop a master curve is input in the highlighted cells in the
DATA spreadsheet. This includes VMA and VFA for computing the limiting maximum
modulus, A and VTS parameters for the binder for use in the 2002 Design Guide shift
factors, the reference temperature, and the measured dynamic modulus data. If only two
specimens were tested, leave the data cells for Specimen 3 blank. Note: A and VTS
parameters are only needed for the 2002 Design Guide master curve (VTSFIT)
VTSFIT Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet is set up for using the solver function to fit the measured data to the
2002 Design Guide master curve, Equation 1. Use the solver function tool on the yellow
highlighted cell (Cell J25) to minimize the sum of the squared errors between the
measured and predicted values. Initial estimates for the optimization should be input in
Cells B4 to B7. Suggested initial estimates are given. After solver optimizes Cell J25,
the final values of the master curve parameters are given in Cells B4 to B7.
VTSMASTERREPORT Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet provides an output of the optimized master curve from the VTSFIT
spreadsheet. It includes the measured data, the optimized master curve parameters, and
plots of the dynamic modulus master curve, the shift factors, and the phase angle master
curve.
ARRHENIUSFIT Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet is set up for using the solver function to fit the measured data to a
master curve using Arrhenius temperature shift factors, Equation 4. Use the solver
function tool on the yellow highlighted cell (Cell I25) to minimize the sum of the squared
errors between the measured and predicted values. Initial estimates for the optimization
should be input in Cells B4 to B7. Suggested initial estimates are given. After solver
optimizes Cell I25, the final values of the master curve parameters are given in Cells B4
to B7.
ARRHENIUSMASTERREPORT Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet provides an output of the optimized master curve from the
ARRHENIUSFIT spreadsheet. It includes the measured data, the optimized master curve
parameters, and plots of the dynamic modulus master curve, the shift factors, and the
phase angle master curve.
1.
3.
A spreadsheet to perform the 2002 Design Guide fit (VTSFIT)
4.
A summary report spreadsheet of the 2002 Design Guide fit
(VTSMASTERREPORT)
5.
6.
(ARRHENIUSMASTERREPORT)
DATA Spreadsheet
All data needed to develop a master curve is input in the highlighted cells in the
DATA spreadsheet. This includes VMA and VFA for computing the limiting maximum
modulus, A and VTS parameters for the binder for use in the 2002 Design Guide shift
factors, the reference temperature, and the measured dynamic modulus data. If only two
specimens were tested, leave the data cells for Specimen 3 blank. Note: A and VTS
parameters are only needed for the 2002 Design Guide master curve (VTSFIT)
VTSFIT Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet is set up for using the solver function to fit the measured data to the
2002 Design Guide master curve, Equation 1. Use the solver function tool on the yellow
highlighted cell (Cell J25) to minimize the sum of the squared errors between the
measured and predicted values. Initial estimates for the optimization should be input in
Cells B4 to B7. Suggested initial estimates are given. After solver optimizes Cell J25,
the final values of the master curve parameters are given in Cells B4 to B7.
VTSMASTERREPORT Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet provides an output of the optimized master curve from the VTSFIT
spreadsheet. It includes the measured data, the optimized master curve parameters, and
plots of the dynamic modulus master curve, the shift factors, and the phase angle master
curve.
ARRHENIUSFIT Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet is set up for using the solver function to fit the measured data to a
master curve using Arrhenius temperature shift factors, Equation 4. Use the solver
function tool on the yellow highlighted cell (Cell I25) to minimize the sum of the squared
errors between the measured and predicted values. Initial estimates for the optimization
should be input in Cells B4 to B7. Suggested initial estimates are given. After solver
optimizes Cell I25, the final values of the master curve parameters are given in Cells B4
to B7.
ARRHENIUSMASTERREPORT Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet provides an output of the optimized master curve from the
ARRHENIUSFIT spreadsheet. It includes the measured data, the optimized master curve
parameters, and plots of the dynamic modulus master curve, the shift factors, and the
phase angle master curve.
2. A data entry spreadsheet (DATA)
3. A spreadsheet to perform the 2002 Design Guide fit (VTSFIT)
4. A summary report spreadsheet of the 2002 Design Guide fit (VTSMASTERREPORT)
5. A spreadsheet to perform the Arrhenius fit (ARRHENIUSFIT)
6. A summary report spreadsheet for the Arrhenius fit (ARRHENIUSMASTERREPORT)
DATA Spreadsheet
All data needed to develop a master curve is input in the highlighted cells in the DATA spreadsheet. This includes VMA and VFA for computing the limiting maximum modulus, A and VTS parameters for the binder for use in the 2002 Design Guide shift factors, the reference temperature, and the measured dynamic modulus data. If only two specimens were tested, leave the data cells for Specimen 3 blank. Note: A and VTS parameters are only needed for the 2002 Design Guide master curve (VTSFIT)
VTSFIT Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet is set up for using the solver function to fit the measured data to the 2002 Design Guide master curve, Equation 1. Use the solver function tool on the yellow highlighted cell (Cell J25) to minimize the sum of the squared errors between the measured and predicted values. Initial estimates for the optimization should be input in Cells B4 to B7. Suggested initial estimates are given.…

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