Ng Tai-KeeSouth China Normal - Univ.Guangzhou, (p. R. China)
Static and Dynamic Structure of Consciousness in Psychology
From the fundamental concepts of existence, entity, subject, and object, the author, usingmathematics and wave mechanics, shows two figures of static and dynamic structure ofconsciousness, and further deduces from them, and explain some psycho/ogical concepts andphenomena.
o autor mostra, a partir dos conceitos fundamentais de existência, entidade, sujeito e objectoe com recurso à matemática e à mecânica ondulatória, duas figuras da estrutura estática edinâmica da consciência, deduzindo depois dessas figuras alguns conceitos e fenômenospsicológicos, que explana.
1. Static Structure of Consciousness
In my paper, Existence and Types of Consciousness, published in the abstracts of VIIIInternational Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, volume 5, part2, sections 7-11, pages 319-321, in Moscow, 1987, by Soviet Organizing Committee, Ihad shown a static structure of consciousness as a prism. I defined three dimensions ofintellect, emotion and volition and separately gave the definitions of sense, thinking,feelings, sentiment, motive and determination. i.e.:
sense - intellectual sensibility;thinking - intellectual rationality;feelings - emotional sensibility;sentiment - emotional rationality;motive - volitional sensibility;determination - volitional rationality.
Sensibility is supposed to be the abilities of a man sense-organs and rationality is lheability of the brain of a man - subject. It may be expressed as follow:
TI & Sociedade /IT & Society, Simpósio Internacional de Lisboa / Lisbon International Symposium, 1989,21412191992, APDC & SPF, Lisboa
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consciousness-----"'- '-----r- ~experience inner-experience-_ .•../ -........._-..... --------"- "'--..._--r \~ ,
OBJECT +----•, !
sensibility ~ rationality--------""-~/,'" ..•-- --S_; "
dcterminatiÕi! -- _ _ _ "
2. Memory and Intuition
From the above theory, we can define memory and intuition in psychology.When object relates to subject, and so relates to sensibiJity and rationality of a man, the
relation between object and sensibility constructs an experience, the relation betweensensibility and rationality constructs an inner-experience, and the experience and inner-experience construct the man's consciousness. With the construction of experience andinner-experience i.e. the man's consciousness, there must be traces left in his nervousorganization simultaneously, no matter how short-term or long-term, weak or strong,discontinuous or continuous, or generalizing gradually and vanishing at last they are. It isthe traces-saving that let our rationality code, retrieve and compare for recognition, orassociate and reconstruct chunking, clustering or reverberating circuit for recall. Recogni-tion and recall are what we name memory.
As consciousness has three dimensions of intellect, emotion and volition, and memoryis crossed consciousness, so memory must have three dimension of intellect, emotion andvolition as well, i.e.:
intellectuaJ memory;emotional memory;volitional memory.
As to intuition, I agree with Professor H.A.Simon's view. He defines intuition as thememory at a moment; but possibly, more exactJy as the occasional memory at a moment,because intuition is different from sensory memory aJthough this one is the memory at amoment too. The very weak, light or quickly vanishing traces are easily forgetten, evencan't be coded; but on some appropriate conditions they may be reinforced at a momentand so occasionaJly can be coded, retrieved or associated, reconstructed for occasionaJrecognition or recall at a moment, namely for an occasional memory at a moment. This iswhat we call intuition.
As consciousness has three dimensions, memory is crossed consciousness and ofcourse, intuition is crossed conscíousness also, so intuition must have three dimensions,i.e.:
intellectuaJ intuition - insight;emotionaJ intuition - inspiration;voJitional intuition - impulsiono
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3. Dynamic Structure of Consciousness
Using wave mechanics, we can get a dynamic structure of consciousness.Let 'I' v, 'I' e, 'I' i be the wave functions of three dimensions of volition, emotion and
intellect separately, then the sum of these three wave functions is just the whole man'sconsciousness. Supposing <I>vei is the whole consciousness, then
L 'I' k = Cl> vei ;
k=li.e. <I>vei = 'I' v A 'I' e A 'I' i.
Obviously, <I>vei is a wave function too. But we have to know:First, the set of defining wave function <I>vei values is a finite set, because the distance
between sensibility and rationality can't be O and 00 too. If it is zero, sensibility andrationality are in one and the man is not different from an animal, and if it is infinity,rationality is apart from sensibility and the man has become quite a God, which are bothimpossible.
Secondly, in the wave function <I>vei there maybe or not a phase difference of itscomponent wave functions of'l' v, 'I' e and 'I' i. It is said, when the relation between objectand sensibility constructs experience and the relation between sensibility and rationalityconstructs inner-experience, stimulation makes oscillators of sensibility vibrate and travelto rationality along three dimensions possibly in same step or not in same step. ln same stepare the three component wave functions of 'I' v, 'I' e and 'I' i started on same time and notin same step are not started on same time and is having a phase difference.
Thirdly, not only there may be a phase difference of'l' v, 'I' e and 'I' i in the resultantwave function <I>vei but the amplitude, frequency, period and phase-velocity of these threecomponent functions may be, or even we may say, must be different also because heredity,physiological factor especially, trace and traces-saving will give them a different influenceseparately.
Fourthly, trace has one, two or three dimensions of volition, emotion and intellect also.So, it can interrup all coming waves with its correspondent dimension separately to increaseor decrease, reflect or refract them not only of amplitude, frequency, period, but of phase-velocity. In our nervous system there is a lot of trace and traces-saving, and of course, thewave function 'I' v of volition, the wave function 'I' e of emotion and the wave function'I' i of intellect are more complexo They may be harmonic or non-harmonic, periodic oraperiodic, forced or damped, divergent or convergent.
Fifthly, wave has peak and valley. Putting wave in an Euclidean space of threedimensions x, y and z, sensibility in the original point O and the distance between sensibilityand rationality in x axis extensive to rationality, then amplitude of wave has two values ofopposite sign, positive to peak and negative to valley. However, in the discrimination andappreciation of rationality there is a different meaning about these two values. Incomponent wave function 'I' v of volition, positive appears goodness and negative appearsevil; in 'I' e of emotion, positive, beauty and negative, ugliness; in 'I' i of intellect, positive,truth and negative, falseness. Man is always towards truth, beauty and goodness.
These may be expressed as follow:
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inner-expcrience------_...--'- '-,-------r ""
4. Attention and Imagination
From the above dynamic structure of consciousness we can define attention andimagination in psychology.
In wave mechanics, as we have seen, when waves overlap, two cases will appear, oneof that is superposition, the other is interference. Superposition has a resultant wave and itsamplitude is a vector sum of all component amplitude vectors. In consciousness, whenobject relates to subject, stimulation makes oscillators of sensibility vibrate and traveI alongthree dimensions to rationality and travelling waves have met traces in the way. If thewaves of one, two or three component wave functions 'I' v, 'I' e and 'I' i have overlappedin some positions, there must appear superpositions or resultant waves of superpositions.And if one of resultant waves has a largest positive amplitude vector of all other resultantvectors, this resultant wave will be an irrational or unconscious attention, in which the peakof wave is the center of unconscious attention, the domain of wave is the region ofunconscious attention and the boundary of domain is the edge of unconscious attention.When the resultant wave with a largest positive amplitude vector is transferred to otherposition, the center, region and edge of unconscious attention are transferred to otherobject.
Obviously, unconscious or irrational attention is based on the process of sensibility torationality or, as the psychologists name, "bottom-up" processo However, on the otherhand, I agree with a view of modern philosophers of science, there is another process ofrationality to sensibility, namely, "top-down" process as psychologists call it.
As we know, the set of defining wave function cI> vei values is a finite set, so it is aclosed set. As a closed set there is stored energy in its system and under boundaryconditions energy is released and makes oscillators of rationality vibrate and travel alongthree dimensions to sensibility. They also meet many traces in the way. This is the processof rationality to sensibility. Similarly, when the waves of 'I' v, 'I' e, 'I' i overlap, thereappears a resultant wave with a largest positive amplitude vector. This is a rational orconscious attention, in which the peak, the domain and the boundary of domain of waveseparately are the center, the region and the edge of conscious attention. And if the resultantwave with a largest positive amplitude vector consciously or rationally transfers to otherposition, the center, region and the edge of conscious attention transfers to others also.
Conscious or rational attention and unconscious or irrational attention are bothattention.
As the resultant wave with a largest positive amplitude vector may appear in one, two
and three dimensions, so we can roughly divide attention into:intellectual attention;emotional attention;volitional attention.
As to imagination, as it is lesser related to process of sensibility to rationality, it mustmainly come from process of rationality to sensibility, or more correctly, mainly come fromconscious attention and be different from conscious attention. The difference between themis whether the weak, light or quickly vanishing traces have been reinforced.
When boundary conditions of the resultant wave function <l> vei have been satisfied,stored energy is released and not only makes oscillators of rationality vibrate and traveI tosensibility along three dimensions but also reinforces the very weak, light and quicklyvanishing traces and enlarges traces-saving so much as to be able to be more coded, moreretrieved for reappearance, or more associated, more reconstructed into new chunking, newclustering or new reverberating circuit for creativeness including illusion although thetravelling waves of three dimensions will meet more traces in the way too. This isimagination, and reappearance and creativeness are ali made of imagination. If waves of 'l'v, 'l' e, 'l' i overlap, a resultant wave with a largest positive amplitude vector appears, thepeak, domain and boundary of domain of that are separately the center, region and edgeof imagination as well. Imagination is different from intuition although both of themreinforce the very weak, light or quickly vanishing traces all but imagination is based onthe process of rationality to sensibility and intuition is based on the process of sensibilityto rationality. Moreover, imagination is related with dynamic analysis and intuition is at amoment.
Similarly, we can roughly divide imagination into:intellectual imagination;emotional imagination;volitional imagination.
About dream, a word I want to say is that the quickly vanishing traces and the vanishedones are not really dead for all. A great deal of them is only sub-trace, not sub-consciousness which I don't like, because Freud put it in a ground of consciousnessopposite to our view of consciousness as a whole. It is sub-trace when certain surroundingsand boundary conditions are satisfied that may be awaked and be coded, retrieved,associated, and reconstructed as well. I think that this is fundamental on dream. Clearly,dream is based on the process of rationality to sensibility.
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5. Ability, Temperament and Character
Person has three parts: ability, temperament and character and we can put them in thedynamic structure of consciousness also.
As we have seen, trace has three dimensions and they can separately influence thewaves of three component wave functions of 'l' v, 'l' e and 'l' i. But through repetition fora long time the traces would be deep and fixed, or even connected with each other as a linkto coming waves often giving influence in one mode. It is just what we call habit inpsychology.
From this we can theoretically say:when the waves of two component functions of'l' i and 'l' v meet traces with two fixed
dimensions or fixed links of intellect and volition they often give waves the sameinfluences as one mode so that consciousness has a habit in two dimensions of intellect and
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volition. It is calJed person's abiJity.Similarly, when the waves of two component wave functions of 't' v and 't' e meet
traces with two fixed dimensions or fixes links of volition and emotion they often givewaves the same influences as one mode so that consciousness has a habit in two dimensionsof volition and emotion. It is calJed person's temperament.
And when the waves of two component wave functions of 't' e and 't' i meet traceswith two fixed dimensions or fixed links of emotion and intelJect they often give waves thesame influences as one mode so that consciousness has a habit in two dimensions ofemotion and intelJect. It is caIled person's character.
And a man's person just consists of ability, temperament and character.
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